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gular the rights, privileges, franchises and interests of any kind belonging to and enjoyed by the said several corporations so [consolidated] consolidating, and every species of property, real, personal and mixed, and things in action thereunto belonging, [mentioned in said agreement of consolidation] shall be [deemed to be] transferred to and vested in and may be held and enjoyed by such new corporation, without any [other] deed or transfer; and such new corporation shall hold and enjoy the same, and all rights of property, privileges, franchises and interests of either of the said several corporations in the same manner and to the same extent [as if the said several companies so consolidated had continued to retain the title and transact the business of such corporations] as the same were or might have been held and enjoyed by the several corporations so consolidating. Said new corporation shall have power to acquire, dis-hold, possess, enjoy and dispose of all the property, real or personal, of said several corporations so consolidating, and all such additional donations, grants, devises or bequests, subject to all the provisions of law relating to devises or bequests by last will and testament, as may be made in further support of its library, collections and objects, or any of the same; and may make such investments as any of the corporations so consolidating might lawfully make, or as may be authorized by the terms of any such donation, grant, devise or bequest; and any devise or bequest contained in any last will and testament made before or after such consolidation to or for the benefit of any of the corporations so consolidating shall not fail by reason of such consolidation, but the same shall enure to the benefit of the said new corporation; and the title to all real and personal estate, and all rights and privileges acquired and enjoyed by either of the said corporations so consolidating shall not be deemed to revert or to be impaired by such act of consolidation or anything relating thereto.

consolidation take effect at any time thereafter may apply at any time within sixty days after such meeting of the stockholders or members, to the supreme court at any special term thereof, held in the city and county of New York, upon at least eight days' notice to the new [company] corporation, for the appointment of three persons to appraise the value of his said stock or interest, and said court shall appoint three such appraisers and shall designate the time and place of the first meeting of such appraisers, and give such directions in regard to their proceedings on said appraisement as shall be deemed proper, and shall also direct the manner in which payment for such stock shall be made to such stockholder or member. The court may fill any vacancies in the board of appraisers occurring by refusal or neglect to serve or otherwise. The appraisers shall meet at the time and place designated, and they or any two of them, after being duly sworn honestly and faithfully to charge their duties, shall estimate and certify the value of such stock or interest at the time of such dissent as aforesaid, and deliver one copy of their appraisal to the said new [company] corporation, and another to the said stockholder or member if demanded; the charges and expenses of the appraisers shall be paid by the new [company] corporation. When the new corporation shall have paid the amount of the appraisal as directed by the court, such stockholder or member shall cease to have any interest in the said stock and in the corporate property of the said corporation, and the said stock or interest may be held or disposed of by the said new corpora


§3. Section three of said act is hereby amend ed so as to read as follows:

§3. Upon the making [sanctioning and approving] of the said agreement [in the preceding sections mentioned in the manner therein required], as hereinbefore provided, and the filing of duplicates or counterparts thereof, [and of a verified copy of the proceedings at the meetings of the stockholders mentioned in the preceding sections] in the office of the clerk of the city and county of New York, and in the office of the secretary of state, and in the case of any corporations having members or stockholders other than their directors or trustees, upon the ratification of said agreement in the manner above provided, and the filing with said agreement of a verified copy of the proceedings of the meetings of the members or stockholders required by the preceding section, then, and immediately thereafter, the said corporations [agreed to be consolidated] whose boards of directors or trustees shall have united in said agreement shall be merged and consolidated into [a] the new corporation provided for in the said agreement, to be known by the corporate name therein mentioned, and the details of such agreement shall be carried into effect as provided therein.

4. Section four of said act is hereby amended so as to read as follows:

4. Upon the consolidation of the said corporations [and the organization of such new company as herein before prescribed] all and sin

5. Section six of said act is hereby amended so as to read as follows:

§ 6. The new corporation organized under this act shall be permitted to maintain and carry on any form of library and to promote any of the objects authorized by the charter of either or any of the [companies] corporations which have been consolidated.

6. This act shall take effect immediately. On March 13 the formal assent of the Astor trustees to the consolidation was obtained. The details of consolidation and administration still remain to be determined, as does the selection of a site. Besides the Lenox site, Bryant Park and Morningside Heights, the present site of Columbia College, on Madison avenue and Fiftieth street, has been suggested, but it is probable that the Lenox site will be utilized, at least as a temporary home. The various desirable and available sites were discussed at the March meeting of the New York Library Club, reported elsewhere. (See p. 129.) The absorption of the Free Circulating Library and its branches into the proposed great public library system is also suggested.

State Library Associations.



MASSACHUsetts liBRARY CLUB. A MEETING of the Massachusetts Library Club was held on March 1, 1895, at Wesleyan Hall, Boston. The morning session opened with an interesting and valuable paper by Mr. Robert T. Swan, Mass. Commissioner of Public Records, upon Paper and ink." The best paper is made of linen and new cotton rags in about equal proportions. Wood papers are of two kinds, the ground wood, which is brittle and quickly discolors, and the chemically prepared, where the wood is disintegrated, without, at least by the soda process, immediately destroying the fibre. Until time has tested these products it is safe to use rag paper for all purposes of record. A free-flowing, yet black, non-thickening and permanent ink has not yet been discovered. Nutgall and iron inks are the safest; the writing is at first pale, but blackens by oxidization; it should not be blotted, but the ink should sink into the paper. Even if the color finally disappears, it can be restored. If permanency is not essential, a pleasanter ink can be used.

Mr. Lane said that different inks should be used for different purposes. When a new ink is tried in the accessions book, the name of the ink and the date should be recorded on the margin. He thought for use on cards an ink should erase well. Mr. Swan said that the nutgall inks were the hardest to erase, being dyes. Aniline inks were stains; carbon inks coated the surface and were most easily erased.

In reply to a question, Mr. Swan said that he had tested some typewriter inks and could not remove them except by removing the surface of the paper. He thought a permanent ink for typewriter ribbon could be got, but would urge care in selection, and time alone could make a conclusive test. Some courts now permit the use of the typewriter in records. Blue and red typewriter inks are probably not permanent.

In reply to Mr. Jones, Mr. Swan said that a test of inks by weather was preferable to any chemical test, and was the next best test to time. Mr. Swan showed a number of samples of paper and ink, and the results of weather tests on various inks, also faded writings restored by application of acid, and some interesting samples of paper entirely disintegrated by age or damp, and preserved by mounting between sheets of thin paper or silk treated with paraffine.

Mr. Foster then spoke of the deterioration of paper used in books and periodicals, and asked Mr. Lane to speak to this point.

Mr. Lane said that all books worth preserving were likely to be reprinted from time to time, and the durability of the paper was of less importance in their case than in periodicals and newspapers. Process-work requires the use of a paper coated with a finish of clay and glue; this will last fairly well because a good paper is needed to carry the coating. Newspapers are printed on a paper containing 90% of woodpulp. They are nothing but thin boards, and certain to go to pieces in a short time. The practical difficulties in the way of printing spe- I

cial editions of newspapers for libraries are probably insuperable. It must be done by putting on a roll of special paper at the end of an edition. But for use in modern presses paper must be freshly unwrapped and not allowed to dry. It cannot stand about from one day to the next, as the roll gets out of shape and will not print well.

Wood-pulp papers came in about 1865. In a file of the Boston Journal at the Athenæum, 1866 was in good condition; 1872 pretty bad; 1880, was still good. The only thing to do with newspapers is to bind fresh copies, keep in a place not too dry, lying, not standing, and label them" Handle with care.'


In some wood papers a little cotton waste is introduced for strength.

The report of the committee on the publication of lists of books suitable for public libraries, as presented at the last meeting, was then taken up, and, after a discussion of some length, in which it appeared to be the common opinion that the smaller libraries would derive considerable benefit from these lists, a ballot was taken and it was voted that the club undertake the publication of such lists on the plan suggested in the report of the committee in 1892. This is, in brief, the publication of monthly lists by a committee of 17-chairman, secretary, and 15 readers in five groups of three. The books are to be supplied by the courtesy of the Library Bureau, each submitted to three readers, and only books approved by all admitted. Titles will be annotated when necessary. The lists, which will include only adult fiction, will be distributed without charge to members of the club, and sold to others who wish them.

The afternoon session was devoted to a consideration of matters of detail connected with the supplying of books to public schools, such as: Are cards issued? Is the charge made to teachers, or to the school? Who is responsible for the books? How many books are issued? For what time? etc. The discussion was conversational in character, and included the twobook system and the ethics of fines, besides the relation of the schools and libraries in general.

Mr. Jones described his methods, but said that he, personally, did not believe that loaning books to teachers for use in school was properly a part of the work of a public library. The school board should provide these books for teachers' use. A library can do more good with its books by loaning them directly to the children, or placing them at their disposal in the building.

Mr. Houghton said that he asked teachers to give him a list of subjects in advance, and then had the useful books got together on a table and delegated his best assistant to help the children. Every book in his library was a reference book, and when the children want them no one else can have them.

Miss Lamprey said that the same plan was in use at the Ames Free Library in North Easton. Children could not use the catalog.

Mrs. Sanders said the younger children formed a large part of her constituency. She had 50 at work on China and Japan. She was

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Mr. Whitney, of Watertown, thought a library was doing good work in loaning to clubs. He allowed each member of a young men's club to take out two books, and the selection was made by a committee and the books kept at the club-rooms.

state, that the name of the association be changed. It is therefore proposed to amend Article I. of the constitution to read: "The Association shall be called the Library Association of the State of New York.'”

W. H. TILLINGHAST, Secretary. NEW YORK LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. THE executive board of the New York Library Association has issued a circular letter to librarians of the state, urging enrollment in the association and briefly stating the various means by which it is planned to extend the influence and usefulness of the organization. The large attendance at and the interest awakened by the joint meeting of the state association with the New York Library Club, in January, "indicated most clearly the possibilities of the association as a power, not only in shaping library legislation, but in awakening in the minds of the people a keener perception and clearer understanding of the value of the library to the home, the school, and the workshop.

"Thus far the only cost of membership has been the payment of one dollar on joining, without annual dues. Since the organization in 1890 no assessment has been made. But it is evident that a wider field of work is open. The association has voted to hold two additional meetings each year. The plans of the executive board include the publication of a select list of the books of 1894 to be submitted to the | votes of librarians. An occasional library canvass of a section of the state may also be made. In carrying out these plans, and many more that might be suggested, money will be needed for printing and postage, and it is clear that without a larger membership the association will exist in name only."

The board has therefore decided to call for a new enrollment, and has fixed the assessment for the current year at $1. It has also been thought advisable, to avoid confusion between city and


vania Library Club was held in the rooms of the THE 15th regular meeting of the PennsylFree Library of Philadelphia on Monday evening,

March 11, at 8 o'clock, with the president, Mr. John Thomson, in the chair.

After the reading and approval of the minutes of the previous meeting, Dr. Bernard C. Steiner, of the Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore, Thomas Bray and early public libraries in read the paper of the evening, entitled "Rev.

America." A vote of thanks was tendered to

Dr. Steiner and his paper was ordered to be printed.

A discussion ensued on "Newspapers in libraries."

mittee and the committees on legislation and Reports were heard from the executive comoccasional papers.

Mr. W. F. Wickersham exhibited the archi

Mr. Bolton said that the trustees of the Brook-tect's plans of the memorial library to be erected at Kennett Square, and described the proposed line library had just authorized the loan of a interior arrangements. Seven new members number of books to a working-people's club, and were elected. A special meeting was announced had assumed the responsibility for loss. to be held at Wilmington, Delaware, some time in April. ALFRED RIGLING, Secretary.



THERE was an informal meeting of the librarians of San Francisco and vicinity on February 22 at the Free Public Library, to take the preliminary steps towards forming an association of librarians and those in sympathy with library work, for occasional meetings for the interchange of ideas on the means of increasing the usefulness of the library, and bringing it into closer relations with the public. Eight libraries were represented, and it was decided to form a permanent organization under the name of the Library Association of Central California, and to include in its membership all interested in library and educational work.

At a meeting on March 8 a constitution was adopted and the following officers were elected for the first year: President, J. C. Rowell, University of California; vice-president, G: T. Clark, Free Public Library, San Francisco; secretary, A. M. Jellison, Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco; treasurer, Andrew Cleary, Odd Fellows' Library, San Francisco. There is also an executive committee of five to be appointed by the president to act in an advisory capacity.

The trustees of the Free Public Library have generously offered a room for meeting purposes.

There will be meetings on the second Friday of each month, except June, July and August. The topic for discussion at the April meeting is, "Should the public have free access to the shelves of a library?"

A. M. JELLISON, Secretary.

Library Clubs.


THE March meeting of the New York Library Club was held at the Library_of_the_Young Men's Christian Association, N. Y. City, on Thursday, March 14.

After a short preliminary business session, Mr. Cole read a paper on "Libraries of the twentieth century," in which he described a visit to the State Library at Albany in 1995, telling of various changes there and elsewhere in the management of libraries, resulting in an almost ideal arrangement. All public libraries will then be under the control of the state, and the arrangement and cataloging will be reduced almost to a science. Mr. Berry proposed that the paper be placed on file in order that the club of 100 years hence might have the benefit of these ideas, but Mr. Cole replied it was already published in the "Occasional papers" of the Pennsylvania Library Club.

The regular subject for discussion-"The proposed combination of the Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations" was then taken up, and President Nelson, in introducing it, remarked that the report that the Lenox Library had voted favorably on the question was premature, as the trustees had not yet taken action in the matter. He said that the present discussion would deal mainly with the question of location, and in view of that fact he would read extracts from the Astor charter, and from the will of Miss Lenox relating to the land given by her. After he had finished the reading, Mr. Weeks, of ark, who seemed to fear that the discussion would drift into technicalities of law, said he thought the question should be considered only in its relation to the members as librarians. Where can such a library be established to be most useful to people within 25 miles of New York? It must be convenient to well-known lines of travel, not at Columbia Heights, as has been suggested, where it would be accessible only to students, but near 42d street, perhaps on the present site of the Lenox Library. Part of the buildings are already there; it is quiet, and yet accessible to most people.

Mr. Poole said that while we have nothing to do with the legal question, still we are bound to respect wills, otherwise people will cease to give their money to public institutions. There should be a circulating library within at least a mile of every inhabitant, but Bryant Park seemed to him the most desirable site for the central library.

The objection that had been raised, that we must not spoil the parks, Mr. Wing thought no objection, since the new building would be on the site of the reservoir, and would leave as much room as before for the people, while the surroundings would be much more beautiful. The city should certainly give the ground for the library, and if Bryant Park could be secured it would be the most desirable place.

been considered for a college; but he thought that Morningside Heights would be a very desirable site, since Columbia College is to be there, and the libraries would be a great help to each other.

Mr. Leipziger thought there would be no difficulty in getting the ground if the trustees should decide on that site, for it has already

Mr. Baker said: "The consolidation scheme is a realization that no one would have dared hope for six months ago. The names of Astor and Lenox are completely lost in the grand scheme, and it is a surprise to every one that these institutions would allow it.

Judge Peck favored the idea that the new library should be near Columbia. He said that 25 years hence there would not be a corner of New York inaccessible to outsiders, but the grave question was, whether these three funds could

ever be united. It looked to him as if the Astor New-Library could never be moved, and likewise the Lenox, so it seemed entirely improbable that the combination could ever take place, and the present discussion had therefore been on a subject too much of a speculation as yet to be seriously considered.

"If it is possible to make this great reservoir of books, it would seem foolish for Columbia to try to rival it, even though a great distance behind, and so the two should co-operate, and for that reason should be near each other. We must decide where the centre of New York will be in the future. People from New Jersey will then come in to New York on the bridge near 70th street, and we have no reason to think that the Grand Central will be so far downtown 25 years from now. Educational institutions are all going North, and it is to the people who frequent them, and not to business men, that this great reference library will be of most service. There should be circulating libraries with reference departments all over the city, but this great central library is to be for scholars and should be near them."

President Nelson then closed the discussion

by saying that he believed if the givers of those funds were alive, they would gladly accede to this proposed consolidation.



THE fifth regular meeting of the Washington Library Association was held at Columbian University, Feb. 27, President A. R. Spofford presiding.

Mr. J. E. Watkins, formerly associated with the Pennsylvania R. R. Company, now of the National Museum, read a paper of unusual interest on the development of the railroad library. The railroad library had its inception in the stage-coach era, when innkeepers placed newspapers and periodicals, with a few books of general interest, at the service of the employes of the coach companies and the passengers who stopped at the hostelries over night. When the canal packet and the steamboat became a commercial success, the sale of newspapers and the rental and sale of novels became a perquisite of the bartender or the steward.

During the first decade of the railroad era, between 1830 and 1840, the ubiquitous newsboy

became a recognized element in the railway service, and from this time the railway employe has looked to him for his regular supply of literature.

Mr. Watkins confined the later development of the railroad library to the libraries located on the lines of the Pennsylvania R. R. Company.

Probably the first important railroad library in America was organized at Altoona, Pa., August 7, 1858-the Mechanics' Library. It had at times a flourishing and at times a rather struggling existence. At present the library corporation is in a prosperous condition, and is doing excellent service among the employes of the Pennsylvania R. R. Company in the direction of lecture and study courses, in addition to the usual library work. At the close of 1894 the library numbered over 20,000 volumes; 1529 books were added during the year; while the receipts were nearly $4000. At the beginning of the present year there were 35 railroad libraries and reading-rooms on the Pennsylvania lines, 21 of these being east of Pittsburg.

The most recent of these libraries is that or

ganized about a year ago in connection with the Pennsylvania R. R. Department of the Y. M. C. A., in West Philadelphia. It was founded in 1887, the Pennsylvania R. R. leasing a lot for 99 years at a nominal rental. To January 1, $70,600 had been expended for a handsome granite building. The library was formally opened on January 24, 1894.

These libraries, with few exceptions, are placed at points where access can be had to books in local libraries. No attempt has been made to provide a system whereby books may be furnished to the agents, track men, and other employes who live at the small stations, where there is little opportunity for recreation, save in reading books and papers.

Of the 104,000 employes on the 8000 miles of road controlled by the Pennsylvania R. R. Company, it is estimated that about 20,000 or 25,000 depend almost entirely upon the Sunday newspaper for their miscellaneous reading. It is this latter class which needs to be provided with books from the central libraries. Mr. Watkins has in mind a system which he proposes to bring

to the attention of the railroad authorities, which provides that printed catalogs and supplementary lists of new books shall be sent to, and posted in, the smaller stations by ticket agents, who shall transmit applications for the withdrawal of books from the central libraries and forward and return the books by railroad trainservice free of charge.

Mr. Watkins was followed by Mr. W. P. Cutter, librarian of the Agricultural Department library, who gave an account of the "travelling libraries" of New York State, of the "home libraries" of the Boston Children's Aid Society, and of the Pullman car collections of books.

Mr. H. Presnell, as chairman of a committee on the loaning of books among the librarians of Washington, presented a report outlining a very liberal policy.

THE sixth regular meeting of the association was held March 27.

Mr. B. Pickman Mann spoke upon "Comprehensive indexes," referring especially to the indexing of scientific literature and the proposed plan of the Royal Society of London regarding international co-operation in indexing.

Mr. F. H. Parsons, formerly librarian of the U. S. Coast Survey, read a careful paper on "The care of maps.' "Having had in his charge one of the largest collections of maps in this country, Mr. Parsons had unusual facilities for making a thorough study of this vexed problem. His paper is, in consequence, of unusual interest to all librarians who have to deal with maps. OLIVER L. FASSIG, Secretary.


THE March meeting of the Chicago Library Club was held at the Newberry Library, March 8, 1895, at 8 p.m., the president, Miss Dexter, in the chair. In the absence of the secretary, Mr. Merrill was appointed secretary pro tem.

The following names were proposed by the executive committee for membership: Misses Maud R. Henderson, Gertrude Forstall, Sarah

Dickinson, Cornelia Marvin, and Miss Sloat; and Messrs. Norman Williams, A. J. Rudolph, and J. Dieserud; and were accepted by the club.

Mr. H. M. Stanley, librarian of Lake Forest University, read a short paper explaining his system of making an extensive finding-list for a small library. The plan consists in printing a column of entries, which are pasted into a blank book in one column, leaving five other columns for other insertions; when all six columns are full, the whole is to be reprinted and pasted as at first.

Mr. Wickersham then read an excellent paper entitled "A brief history of some libraries of Chicago." The establishment and development brary of the University of Chicago, the Chicago of the Public Library, the Newberry, the LiHistorical Society, and the Law Institute were described, largely from Mr. Wickersham's perSonal knowledge of these institutions. His paper embodied many items of interest that could not be gleaned from official records. On motion of Mr. Merrill, the thanks of the club

were tendered to Mr. Wickersham.

The election of officers for the year ending March, 1896, was next taken up. On motion of ballot for each officer, the three persons reMr. Roden, it was voted to take a preliminary ceiving the highest number of votes to become candidates for election. Mr. Burchard and Dr. Wire were appointed tellers by the chair.

The preliminary ballot for the office of presivotes, Mr. Hild 7, Mr. Gauss 4, Dr. Wire 3, dent resulted in giving Mr. Wickersham II Miss Dexter, Miss Sharp, and Mr. Merrill 1 withdrawn their names, a ballot was taken and each. All but Mr. Gauss and Dr. Wire having gave Mr. Gauss 22 out of 31 votes cast. Mr. Gauss was thereby declared elected.

The preliminary ballot for office of first vicepresident gave Miss Sharp 18 out of 26 votes,

and on motion of Mr. Hild her election was made unanimous.

The first ballot for second vice-president giv

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