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THE Iowa Library Society is in the field with a novel and interesting experiment. This is the adoption of a course of home study, to be carried on by the members of the association during the year, under a definite program, and to be the chief subject of discussion and consideration at the annual conferences of the society. The plan is the natural result of the recent library development in Iowa. Within the past year that state has secured legislation authorizing and simplifying the organization of libraries. A knowledge of how best to take advantage of the opportunities offered is the next necessary step, and it is to disseminate this knowledge that the "course of study suited to the needs of Iowa librarians" has been inaugurated. With a membership of barely 25, scattered over a territory of 50,000 square miles, with no common printed organ for the expression or interchange of ideas, with no school or model library nearer than Chicago, and with no opportunity for mutual intercourse save a twodays' session once a year, the society has evolved this method for banding its members more closely together and giving them practical help in the routine of their work. The practicality and simplicity of the course reflect high credit upon the earnest workers who have given time and thought to its development, and there is no reason why it should not be of the greatest practical value to the librarians of the state.

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No. 5

Library Society and the New York State Library School are among the most interesting of recent developments in the modern library movement.

COLUMBIA College has become the recipient of a benefaction that is fairly colossal in its proportions. President Low's magnificent gift of one million dollars for the construction of the new library building not only marks an epoch in the development of Columbia, but has few parallels in the annals of library generosity. Gifts of a million dollars for any purpose are few and far between-least of all are they usual during the lifetime of the giver. It is to President Low's wise and energetic direction that the rapid and sweeping advances which Columbia has made within recent years are largely due, and this crowning evidence of his devotion and generosity will cause his name to be held in grateful remembrance for generations to come. Nor will the influences of his generosity be confined to Columbia alone. His gift is not only to the college, but to the city as well. The library of Columbia College has always been conducted on liberal and helpful lines; in its new building, with full opportunities for development, expansion and systematization, there is every reason for it to become one of the most important factors in the educational life of New York.

LOS ANGELES, which for some half dozen years has ranked among the model library cities, has SOMEWHAT akin to the Iowa project is the within the past month furnished us with a lamcorrespondence course" planned by the New entable instance of retrogression. The news of York State Library School for the coming year. the retirement of Miss Kelso and Miss Hasse The summer course in library economy, which from the administration of the library that they the school also proposes to establish, is another have so long directed with skill and energy is move in the same direction—that of bringing | not, perhaps, a surprise to those who have kept at least the essentials of library training within thoroughly abreast of library affairs. It is an the reach of those who are unable to take the open secret that for the past year or more there long and more or less expensive courses at the has been a strong political influence adverse to library school or at the various training classes. Miss Kelso's continuance in office. The retireTo the librarians of the smaller town libraries ment of the former board of directors and the and to many library assistants these courses will incoming of a new body was the occasion for a be of great value, and it is probable that the reduction of salaries, solely affecting the liapplications for admission to the correspondence brarian and the assistant librarian, which has course at least will largely exceed the expecta- resulted, as it was undoubtedly intended that it tions of its projectors. There is a sufficient should result, in the retirement of Miss Kelso field for just such work, and the system of "li- and Miss Hasse. Such a piece of jobbery merits brary extension," if it may be so termed, that is the strongest condemnation. Miss Kelso and presaged in the "home courses" of the Iowa | Miss Hasse have certainly earned claim to the

approval and support of their fellow-citizens. They were among the ablest library workers of the Pacific coast, and together they developed the Los Angeles Public Library from a condition of comparative insignificance into its present position as a medium of broad usefulness and educational force. Even setting aside such personal considerations, the fact that the library should be crippled and its development retarded, even temporarily, for the gratification of political or personal ends, is not only discouraging from a library standpoint, but reveals a lack of public spirit that is distinctly discreditable to Los Angeles.

A NOVEL principle in library censorship is involved in the recent action of the Newark and St. Louis public libraries in removing certain books from their shelves for the avowed reason that the moral character of their author rendered

them unfit for circulation. The point at issue is whether a writer's personal morality or immorality should be taken into consideration in the critical judgment of his books. Certainly, the objectionable private character of an author does not of itself make his works obnoxious, save when it shows itself in his writings. If the line of exclusion is to be drawn to bar books written by persons of unsavory reputation, there would be frequent gaps in the ranks of established classics. Yet, if this rule is applied to one writer, why not to others? It is not claimed that the books in question were immoral. They were rather uninteresting productions, which had never attained to any degree of popularity. Even though their authorship might awaken a temporary artificial demand, arising from morbid curiosity, their ostentatious removal from library shelves seems a measure well calculated to heighten such curiosity and to lead to sales of the books among people who would otherwise have been unaware of or indifferent to

their existence.

gratefully the obligations under which I rest to
Mr. Dewey and Mr. Eastman, for the unlimited
without which it would have been impossible for
and generous help which they have given me,
us to have established the system in Michigan.
MARY C. SPENCER, State Librarian.
LANSING, MICH.

OTTINO'S "BIBLIOGRAFIA
"BIBLIOGRAPHY."

I HAVE just happened to place side by side
the two works: Ottino's "Bibliografia," 2d ed.,
1891, with the following results:
Milan, 1892; and Rogers' " Bibliography," N. Y.,

Contents: I. Invenzione e progressi della tipo-
grafia. p. 3. Chap. I.
The invention and prog-
ress of printing. p. 1.
II. Il libro. p. 31.
Chap. 2. The book. p. 32.

III. Gli ornamenti del libro. p. 65.
Chap. 3. The ornamentation of a book. p. 67.
IV. La biblioteca e il catalogo. p. 87.
Chap. 4. The library and the catalogue. p. 98.
V. Note. (About 110 titles bibliography.) p.

Communications.

AND ROGERS'

157.

Books of reference. (About 140 titles.) p. 149.
Ottino's work is 16°, pp. viii. +166; Rogers'
is 8°, pp. viii. + 172. The latter, however, has
an index, without which the pagination in each
is identical; the difference in size results from
larger type and wider margin. As to figs.,
they differ throughout.
the Italian work has 17, the English 37, and
But this difference
does not extend to the text, by any means.
From p. 1-38 the English book is a good
translation of the Italian, with the occasion-
al omission or amplification of a sentence.
Then there is an addition introduced as follows:
"The abbreviations given are by no means half
of those used, but have been selected from book-
sellers' catalogues which have passed through the
compiler's hands within the last six months."
The abbreviations are the four lists (Ital.,
French, Ger., Eng.) given by Ottino arranged as
one alphabet! After this the translation pro-
ceeds as before, right on to the end of the book.

The translator omits considerable material

from chap. IV. - which, I think, is due to the edition with which the comparison is made — and even goes so far as to substitute Wheatley's rules for cataloging anonymous works.

The "preface," however, is original!— "The following work, compiled from various sources, English and foreign, is offered as an introductory guide to the knowledge of books. It does not pretend to be a complete summary of that vast subject, but merely a key to open other works. Should it awaken in the reader a desire to know more of those friends of man, the aim of the compiler will have been accomplished."

TRAVELLING LIBRARIES FOR MICHIGAN.

THE L. J. is so closely in touch with general library work that it is no doubt aware of the If this is humility, to my way of thinking it is fact that the legislature of Michigan, now in scarcely honesty, since the work is from beginsession, has adopted the New York system of ning to end a translation, the original of which Mr. Rogers has not only failed to acknowledge travelling libraries, the books for which are now being prepared in the state library. Through in his preface, or anywhere else, but has wittingthe kindness of the New York State Library Ily excluded from his amplified bibliography. have been allowed to profit in the largest way FREDERICK J. Teggart. by their experience, and I wish to express most

STANFORD University,
California.

PAPER AND INK.*

BY ROBERT T. SWAN, Commissioner of Public Records of the State of Massachusetts.

AN investigation into the subject of paper and | is no paper made wholly of linen except as it is ink used in the records of the Commonwealth, made for special purposes, such as for bonds, and a report made in their interest, led the presi- etc. Paper made of all linen would be stiff, and dent and secretary of the Massachusetts Library as one manufacturer expressed it, "it would Club to ask me to speak to that club upon paper crackle like onion-skin." In fact, a very thin and ink. I do not attempt any scientific presen- | paper is made called onion-skin. tation, but simply give the result of inquiries and experiments, reinforced by the testimony of paper and ink manufacturers, and in the matter of ink by well-known chemists.

It is rather an amusing fact, and one showing how laws become obsolete, that for years until 1891, when the law was repealed, the statutes of this Commonwealth required that all matter of public record in any office should be entered on paper made wholly of linen, when no such paper was made.

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Not until we consider the important place paper and ink take in the world, and have taken since the earliest days, do we fully appreciate their value. Which is the more valuable, or was in one or another form first used, it is difficult to decide, and there seems to be no reason for precedence in considering them. I will, therefore, follow the order on the announcement of the meeting and first take paper.

My investigation in paper was, of course, directed towards writing paper, and for that reason I feel some hesitancy in speaking to those whose chief interest is naturally in book paper; but as the two are somewhat related, though less so than formerly, I will take the general subject, and that is too large to more than outline. In considering the subject of paper it is not necessary to review the history of paper-making, which, unlike the manufacture of permanent ink, has been towards improvement.

To cleanse the rags and bleach the pulp chemicals are used, and it follows as a matter of course that the cleaner the rags the less necessity for chemicals; therefore, with new rags, such as clippings of new cloth from factories of certain kinds, the quantity of chemicals needed is

Paper has been made of substances too numer-insignificant, and these rags, having neither abous to mention, which were susceptible of being sorbed much of them nor suffered from their converted into pulp. Bark, leaves, hay, jute, action, make, of course, the best paper, for the moss, nettles, stalks of all kinds, sea-weed, tan, failure to remove or "kill" the bleach would incanvas, carpets, and leather are among the sub- jure the paper and have a deleterious effect upon stances which have been used. A book printed ink. The further, then, we get from new clean in Germany as early as 1772 contains 81 kinds of rags, the further from the best writing paper. paper. To-day rags, wood, rope, and paper itself are the chief substances used in this country. In England large quantities of esparto, a Spanish grass, are used, filling the place which wood takes with us.

In making book paper the newness of the cotton rags is not so important; in fact, the manipulation which the cloth undergoes in wear, together with the washing, makes it better in some particulars for book paper.

The rope paper can be dismissed with a few words. The genuine manila paper is made of old manila rope and is the strongest paper, but the amount of paper masquerading under the name is vastly greater than the genuine.

Linen has become the name by which the best paper is known, but it is a misnomer, for there * Read at a meeting of the Mass. Library Club, March

1, 1895.

The best paper is made of linen and new cotton rags in about equal proportions, sized with animal sizing or glue, and dried in the air. New linen rags are not desirable, being too harsh.

The process of manufacture of rag paper, stated in a general way, consists in sorting the rags, cutting, dusting, boiling in lye, washing out the lye, reducing to pulp, bleaching," beating" the pulp to make the fibres interlock, loading with certain substances, sizing, coloring, and rolling into sheets.

In the attempt to cheapen rag paper foreign substances, chiefly clay and gypsum, are added, and as there is no fibre to these, the sizing must be depended upon to hold them together. Very few papers are not somewhat loaded. Some of the loading substances help the finish.

That rag paper, well made, is best for both writing and printing is not denied; but the immense increase in the use of paper within 39

An unprofessional test of paper is difficult, but a simple test of repeated folding and attempt to tear in the fold will prove its strength, and by inference the presence or absence of good fibre.

We make to-day as good, if not better, paper than the English, and the hand-made papers, unlike many hand-made articles, are inferior to the machine-made.

To sum up, it may be said that there is as good, It should be distinctly borne in mind that the if not better, paper made to-day than ever bewood papers are of two kinds, the ground wood fore, and also as poor, if not poorer. The introand the chemically prepared; and of the chemi-duction of wood into the manufacture has revoally prepared there are two classes, those pre-lutionized the business, but as time is needed for pared by what is known as the soda process and thorough tests, no one can positively assert the other by the sulphite. In the nature of whether the chemical wood, or esparto, papers things, the grinding of the wood destroys the are safe for records or valuable books, and it is fibre, consequently the strength is gone and the certainly safer at present to adhere to the use of paper must depend upon the sizing for its chief the best rag papers. In purchasing such the strength. The soda process is the older, and manufacturer must be relied upon, and a fair from the time it has been in use it is thought it price paid for the best. will produce lasting paper, but no strong claim is made for the sulphites, as they are called. The ground wood paper is brittle and discolors quickly, while the chemical wood paper has greater strength and holds its color. In the chemically prepared wood, the wood is disintegrated without destroying the fibre. I say without destroying the fibre, that is, immediately; but whether the chemicals will injure the fibre so that in time the paper will prove not to be as lasting as hoped for, is a question which | time only can settle.

Taking the second subject, ink, it is surprising that we know so little about it, and that more attention has not been given to it by chemists. Until about 1765 little had been done towards scientific study of the question, but at that time Dr. William Lewis, F.R.S., experimented with inks and came to certain conclusions which were found by later chemists to be erroneous. These later conclusions were in turn discredited, and in 1855 Dr. James Stark, who had experimented for 13 years, making 229 inks and many thousand experiments, concluded that nutgall and iron inks were the only permanent ones, and today it is conceded that no ink has as yet been discovered that can compare for permanency with them. Experimenters are still at work and are putting the results of their experiments upon the market for the community to find the worthlessness of by sad experience.

Much paper is made of a mixture of the chemical wood and rags, and it is difficult to determine the presence of the wood. The daily papers and cheapest books in the market are made wholly of the ground wood.

Many of these papers are marked linen, or all linen; but when every manufacturer and dealer knows that all linen does not mean all linen, the marking of paper all linen is meaningless, and a purchaser must make his inquiries independent of the mark if he desires the best paper.

The coloring of paper is done in two ways, either by coloring the pulp-in which case the color is in the paper- or by coloring the sizing when it is only on the surface, to be removed by an erasure. This is an important fact to be borne in mind.

Let us first consider the kinds of ink, or rather the classes, for of the many kinds they all belong to classes, which are few. First, as being the oldest, is the India or Chinese ink, which may be termed a paint, as it was applied with a brush. Whether the Chinese invented this ink, as claimed, or whether it was introduced into China, is a disputed point; but their process is a secret, and imitations of the ink do not, as a rule, have the blackness of theirs, the tendency Papers are being coated for various purposes, being towards brown. The writings of the notably for magazines when half-tone prints are ancients were probably made with ink similar to be used; and it is a matter of speculation how to India ink, lamp black and gum being the inlasting this coating will be. It is greatly dis-gredients; in fact, some ancient writers have liked by printers and is easily rubbed off. mentioned the proportions of each used in their

years was making such a demand upon the supply of rags that a substitute had to be looked for or the price of paper would have been greatly increased even if the supply of rags did not fail. Rags are brought to-day from all parts of the world, thousands of tons coming from Japan alone, and use is found for them all, notwithstanding the immense use of their substitute, wood.

Logwood inks

manufacture. As India ink is no longer used
for ordinary writing, it need not be further con-
sidered.

nutgall ink to help the color.
are never permanent.

Next comes the aniline class, dangerous in Next in order to the India ink probably came the extreme, and unfortunately becoming a large the iron and tannin inks, commonly called nutone. In speaking of aniline inks I cannot do gall and iron, as the tannin is usually procured better than to quote from the report of Prof. from nutgalls. These inks may be said in gen- Markoe upon this subject: "Since the introduceral terms to be made of sulphate of iron and tion of aniline dyes they have been largely emgalls, and the oxidization of the iron in the paper ployed for the manufacture of ink, either wholly is what gives the black color and permanency. to replace the galls and iron, or as addition to These, as before stated, are permanent, if prop- them, to allow the use of only a little galls and erly made, and for years they were so made; iron. They are also mixed with other colors. but the extended use of ink, its varied uses con- Under the name of nigrosine (an aniline black) sequent upon the changed conditions of society, there are found a variety of very strong dyes, the hurry of these latter years, the preferences which are perfectly soluble in water, and which of writers, and competition, have all tended to- in the proportion of from 1 to 3 per cent., perwards degeneracy in the manufacture of perma-haps without further addition, represent fairly nent ink. closely the commercial inks of this variety. Such inks are cheap, give an immediate black, have very little body, and are popular for use as stylographic inks.

The early inks were pale in color, and heavy, and attempts to make them of a more decided color and thinner led to experimenting. For coloring, indigo was first used, and later, other substances, but since the introduction of aniline dyes they are the most popular, as being thinner and cheaper. If the ink contains the proper proportion of nutgall and iron, the added color is not injurious, as, if that fades, the iron has taken its hold, and will grow black with age. The danger, as will be shown later, in the introduction of color to the exclusion of the other ingredients.

To overcome the heaviness of the permanent inks, and meet the demand for free-flowing ink for commercial purposes, the manufacture of fluids was commenced, which, although nutgall and iron, might have their permanency injured by the addition of an excess of iron. The excess of iron causes the oxidization to take place too quickly, and the ink turns black before it permeates the paper. The recording officer who, by simple tests, would find many inks fugitive, is likely to be deceived in these fluids because they show the presence of the iron, but the fact of the excess of the iron is not known.

A great advantage in the use of nutgall and iron inks is that, if faded, they can be restored by the application of chemicals, which upon contact with the iron will bring out the original color to a certain extent.

The next class is logwood. The use of logwood was probably commenced because it has a color of its own which has a tendency to darken the ink, and as it contains tannin and can be used as a poor substitute for nutgalls, it cheap ens the ink. It is sometimes added to a poor

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The carbon class is the last, and, strangely, it was the first, although in another form. As stated, the very earliest writings were made with carbon, and the later India ink was carbon, and liquid carbon inks are now being made. These have nigrosine for a base and carbon in suspension, but not in solution, for carbon has not yet been rendered soluble. The fact that it has not prevents the carbon from permeating the paper, and it is deposited on the surface from which it can be washed off with water. This prevents the use of the carbon inks where permanency is required.

Of all the classes mentioned there are several variations. Substances are necessarily added to prevent mould, and combinations are made to produce effects which shall make an ink popular for general use. Persons having no knowledge of chemistry put ingredients together, and put them upon the market under names which mean nothing. They can be sold at a low price and have a short run, having more than likely been put upon pages which in a comparatively short time will show no trace of them.

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