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New York State Library School.


HANDBOOK No. 7 (April, 1895), issued by the University of the State of New York, may be called a manual of the Library School. It sets forth the relations of the school to the library system of New York State and to the A. L. A., | describes its origin, object, and development, and outlines with some detail the course and expenses, preliminary examinations required, methods of study, credentials, and degrees. Announcement is made of summer and correspondence courses, to be established, it is hoped, in 1896, and intended to bring the facilities of the school to librarians and assistants unable to take the regular course. The summer sessions of the school will probably begin about July 15 each year and last four weeks. Fees will be only enough to cover actual extra expenses caused by the class. The correspondence course will comprise a definite outline of study and reading, to be pursued at home under systematic guidance, advice and criticism. In both these departments nothing more than certificates of time spent and work undertaken will be issued to students.

State Library Associations.


A SPECIAL meeting of the Pennsylvania Library Club was held at Wilmington, Delaware, on the afternoon of Thursday, April 18, 1895. The president, Mr. Thomson, presided.

Mr. A. W. Tyler, of the Institute Free Library, Wilmington, addressed the club on the subject of scrap-books. Mr. Carr, of Scranton, Pa., then showed various methods for filing clippings and scraps. A discussion on "The relation of libraries to schools" followed. A pleasant feature of the meeting was the presence of a large number of teachers.

The club regrets that the pressure of other duties compelled Mr. Rigling to ask to be relieved of the office of secretary-treasurer. The resignation was reluctantly accepted, and "the thanks of the club were extended to Mr. Alfred Rigling for the very efficient manner in which he

has performed the duties of the office at a time when the faithful performance of such duties has materially advanced the influence of the club." Mrs. Mary A. Resag, of the Institute Free Library, was elected treasurer, and Clarence S. Kates, librarian of Branch 5, Philadelphia Public Library, secretary.



AT the last session of the Iowa Library Society, in December, 1894, a paper was presented by Miss Esther Crawford, librarian of the Sioux City Public Library, urging the need of a definite system of library work, and outlining “ "A course of study suited to the needs of Iowa librarians." It was voted, at the same meeting, that the course planned by Miss Crawford be adopted by the society, subject to a few changes, and that the system, as prepared, be put in operation for 1895, and, if successful, continued through succeeding years. The annual meeting of 1895 will then be chiefly devoted to the consideration of the year's course, and to the discussion of individual difficulties.

A printed circular has been issued by the society and distributed to all Iowa librarians interested, which sets forth, as follows, the need of the proposed course and what it is hoped may be accomplished: "The importance of the detail work of a library can be justly estimated only by those who are familiar with it; those who have tested its possibilities, and are prepared to appreciate its demands. This work is quite as important to a library as is the mass of details appertaining to the conduct of a commercial establishment to the business man, and the necessity of applying to it the same systematic principles which obtain in the business world is self-evident. The various schools of library economy which have been established within the past few years in different parts of the country give systematic training in details, the full courses covering a period of two years. These schools are, however, for the most part, located in the Eastern states, at a distance from Iowa librarians which practically precludes their attendance on account of the expense involved, even if the necessary time could be spared from their duties. The need, therefore, of some plan by which the librarians of Iowa may secure for themselves the necessary training within their own state seems unquestionable. The only question is as to the best method of reaching the desired result. "The library work of the state is growing in importance year by year. The standard of qualification is being raised, and the need of technical training for the work is constantly increasing. The demands of the profession, the world over, are growing more stringent, and the librarians of Iowa cannot afford to be found unprepared to respond to these demands. In the future, more than in the past, their tenure of office will depend upon the degree of their qualification. This is as it should be, and is something in which every true member of the profession will find cause for rejoicing. The point now to be considered is, How

shall we best meet the increasing requirements?' The need of closer relations among the different libraries of the state is manifest, as well as the necessity for specific training, and a course of study in which all the librarians are interested will furnish a common cause, a community of interest, which will do much to promote the fraternal feeling that is so desirable, and which will contribute largely to the development of the library sentiment of the state.

The program of work for the next meeting of the library association is to be so arranged that one-half the time of the session will be given to a review of the year's study, in such form that the proceedings will partake of the nature of a normal institute session. The review will be accompanied by exhibits from different libraries illustrating the application of the various methods outlined in the course of study, and this will unquestionably prove a valuable feature of the session. There can be no doubt that such a systematic course of study as is proposed will prove of inestimable value to every librarian who will take it up and follow it persistently." Accompanying the circular is an outline of the year's work. It covers Accession and acquisition" and "Classification," these subjects being subdivided into selection and purchase, order department, mechanical preparation of books, and systems and applications of classification. Under each subdivision the routine of study is briefly set forth. Carefully prepared lists of the "General references absolutely necessary throughout entire course of study," and the special references and supplies for the course of 1895" are given, with information as to where they may be obtained and their cost. Supplies that are "absolutely essential" are designated by an asterisk, but care has been taken to comprise only the most necessary aids, and to prune the list of all superfluities.




Library, who read a paper giving a summary of the question. He quoted from reports to show that free access to shelves had proved satisfactory in some instances, while in other cases it had been found detrimental. He showed that nearly all of the libraries of this country grant access to a few, and many to all, referencebooks. In the libraries of the East, especially in New England, the conservative spirit which places a barrier between the public and the books is still found, but in the younger cities of the West the experiment of entire freedom of access is being successfully operated.

Mr. Harbourne, of the Alameda Public Library, followed. He said that the principal arguments against open shelves are loss of books, displacement on the shelves, and added wear and tear of the bindings, but all these objections are easily answered, and the advantages of open shelves are many and important. The stimulus given to young and old by the free handling of books is a great factor in educational progress. The circulation of the Alameda library has more than doubled since the shelves were opened to the public.

Mr. Peterson, of the Oakland Public Library, favored limited access, and described the method in use at that library, where the books are shelved behind doors formed of wire netting, through which the books may be readily seen, and gave an interesting account of the adoption and success of this method.

Prof. Woodruff, of Stanford University, said that the whole question seemed to depend upon the point of view. We have inherited the idea that free access is not possible. He thought that the line of progress should be towards free access until absolute freedom to the books, for all readers, was obtained.

Mr. F. P. Allen said that the value of books was in the use of them, and "he liked to see them wear out."

He considered every library a school, with each reader his own teacher.

A general discussion followed, in which the majority seemed to be decidedly in favor of free A. M. JELLISON, Secretary.


Library Clubs.


THE April meeting of the Library Association of Central California was held in the Court Room of Department 5, New City Hall, April 12, 1895, the topic being "Should the public have access to the shelves of the library?”

Before opening the discussion, President Rowell introduced Dr. E. R. Taylor, who made a short address, in which the advantages of organization for library workers were outlined. He spoke of the good to be derived from meetings where a general interchange of ideas on the subject of library work could be indulged in. He dwelt upon the duties and influence of such associations, and advocated frequent meet-association. ings and a wider discussion of matters relating to library interests.

WASHINGTON LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. THE seventh regular meeting of the Washington Library Association was held at Columbian University, Wednesday evening, April 24, President A. R. Spofford presiding. Mr. F. A. Crandall, the recently appointed Superintendent of Public Documents, was elected a member of the

Mr. Spofford then read a communication of more than local interest upon "Periodicals of the past in the District of Columbia." The paper was printed in full in the Washington Evening Star in its issue of April 25.

President Rowell replied, thanking the trustees of the San Francisco Free Public Library for their courtesy in extending the hospitality of their rooms to the association. He compared the theoretical and the practical librarian, and made an earnest plea for co-operation and fraternity among those interested in the work.

Last fall a committee of the association was appointed to consider the preparation of a union list of periodicals in Washington libraries. This committee, consisting of Dr. Cyrus Adler, Mr. W. P. Cutter and Mr. Oliver L. Fassig, submit

The discussion of the evening was then opened by Mr. Clark, of the San Francisco Free Publicted a report at the present meeting, favoring the

preparation of such a list, to include magazines, journals, newspapers and all serial publications of learned societies and institutions, and those of governments.

The first step towards the preparation of this list would be the transfer to cards of all entries which have already appeared in print in the various published catalogs of Washington libraries.

The committee recommended that the list be prepared on the postal size card of the Library Bureau, combined into one catalog, edited and prepared for printing. No definite system of title entry was recommended in this preliminary report. It was suggested, however, that each entry should comprise the title under the first significant word of the latest form, the place of publication, and the dates of publication of the first and latest volumes in the respective libraries. The association heard with pleasure from Prof. H. Carrington Bolton, who was present, that plans for a union list of periodicals were being discussed by the New York and the Philadelphia Library Clubs. Later it was announced that a similar plan is proposed for the periodicals and serials in the Boston libraries. As the preparation of such a list for any of the above-mentioned cities would involve considerable expense, and as much duplication of work would result in separate lists for each of the cities, some plan of co-operation naturally suggests itself. The scope recommended by the committee would include fully 8000 serial publications in Washington alone. To print such a list would involve an expense much too large to be undertaken by the association unaided.

Prof. Bolton gave an interesting account of his success in co-operative indexing of chemical literature.


A circular letter from General A. W. Greely, chairman of the committee on the establishment of a free public library was read, in which all subscribers were invited to meet at the home of the general on April 26, to discuss further plans for the proposed library. The letter stated that $10,000 have thus far been subscribed, to be paid in annual instalments of $2000 a year for five years. As this amount has been secured almost entirely through the personal efforts of General Greely himself, the establishment of a library to continue at least during five years is assured; a general canvass of the city will soon be made by a special committee.

At the above-mentioned meeting it was unanimously decided that steps should be taken to effect a legal organization, and that every effort consistent with the speedy opening of a library should be made to harmonize all interests looking to the founding of a library in Washington, and to utilize such other literary collections as may subserve this interest. For these purposes a committee was appointed, to consist of Gen. Greely, Judge Hagner, Mr. Pellew, Dr. Reyburn, and Col. Colton, who are to report at a subsequent meeting, which all subscribers will be urged to attend.

Mr. W. A. De Caindry was designated as temporary trustee to take charge of all cash subscriptions. OLIVER L. FASSIG, Secretary.

Library Economy and History.


THE Bookman (N. Y., Dodd, Mead & Co.) inaugurates in its April issue a department entitled "Among the libraries," conducted by Melvil Dewey. It is devoted to brief notes on library matters, the first instalment chronicling the several new libraries established within the past few months. The development of the Crerar Library, and the plan for library consolidation in New York City are also noted.

"PUBLIC LIBRARY Systems of lending out and recording books" is the title of a four-page pamphlet issued by the office of London, 125 Fleet street, London. It is a tabulated record of the methods in use in 140 English libraries, arranged by name of place, and giving the librarian's answers to the following questions: Do you approve of all the borrowers having free access to the shelves? What system of issue and record do you use? What system do you consider best? Space is also given for "remarks." The figures were compiled as the result of the library controversy on "free access," waged during the year in the columns of London, and in order to obtain a "general consensus of opinion," circulars were issued to librarians, directing their attention to the controversy, and asking their opinion on the subject. But 15 of those responding express themselves in favor of free access, and of these 10 modify or qualify their approval; 73 use an indicator, and find that method satisfactory. The objections to free access are many and varied, though some seem based on insufficient premises.


Belfast (Me.) F. L. (Rpt.) Added 456; total 6560. Issued, home use 22,526 (fict. 56 %); reading-room use 1537. New registration 193. The circulation shows an increase of 1552 over the previous year. Work on the catalog has been completed, the copy is ready for the printer, and it is hoped that the catalog may be issued within a few months.

The librarian recommends that the public be given more time in which to use the library, and that cases for encyclopædias and reference books be placed in the reading-room.

Boston P. L. Among the new methods which have been adopted in the library is the extension of the hours of opening. Heretofore the library has closed at 9 p.m., but Mr. Putnam has decided to keep it open henceforth until 10 p.m., although no books will be issued after 9 o'clock. The library will also be open all day Sunday, and there will be no difference, as to circulation of books, evening hours, etc., between Sundays and week-days. The beginnings of a juvenile department have also been established in a collection of books and children's magazines gathered in a room at the further end of Bates Hall, where "without slips or like formality the children can amuse themselves as they please." The routine work of the library

is by this time in good order, though the new delivery system of carriers and mechanical devices has caused frequent delays and some difficulties in service.

One department of the library that has been greatly improved since the removal is the Bates Hall reference collection. In the old building this comprised about 500 v.; in the new Bates Hail 7000 v. are already on the shelves, and 5000 more are to be added. These will be arranged in classed divisions, and the collection when completed will be 25 times as large as the old


Edwin A. Abbey's great frieze for the deliveryroom of the library is already in place, so far as finished, covering exactly one-half of the space assigned for the completed work. "It already absolutely transforms the architectural character of the magnificent room, and offers another of the several convincing proofs offered in the progress of the library's construction as to how erroneous and misleading any judgment of the

artistic nature of a work must be before it stands in completed guise."

Brookline (Mass.) P. L. (38th rpt.) Added 1655; total 41,955. Home use 83.222 (fict. 45,713); lib. use 4203. New cards issued 788; total registration 6552. Receipts $13,597.57; expenses $11,686.45.

The librarian's report is an interesting summary of the work done and the new methods inaugurated during the year. The children's reading-room has proved useful and attractive. It was used by 9993 boys and girls, to whom 16,671 v. were issued; "a record which proves how ready children are to find amusement in books and pictures, and to substitute for the questionable influence of the streets the helpful surroundings of our public library. The number of books allowed each child is limited to two

on any one day, to insure more than a wholly

careless examination of the books."

The "two-book" system was adopted early in the year, and its results have been entirely gratifying. The increase in home circulation15,318 more than in 1893-is traced to this change

During the year the fiction department has been rearranged alphabetically by authors, and copy for a printed fiction-list has been prepared. "The shelf-numbers of over 30,000 cards have been

changed and the cards put under the pseudonyms, where they are better known than the real names." A list of "100 good novels-A-M" was issued in October; a list of "100 good books for boys and girls" appeared in December. On the "picture board". -a companion to the bulletin board-28 portraits with biographies, 107 other portraits, 22 criticisms, and 7 drawings, by Beardsley, Gibson, and others, were posted during the year. The collection of 15,000 pamphlets has also been classified and arranged, and will be cataloged by subject.

Reference-books may be taken out over night, Sundays and holidays, by those whose work gives them little time for using the library, and a "special privilege slip" permits the use, for sufficient reasons, of more than the usual num

ber of books upon a particular subject, for a stated time, provided the books are returned to the library if desired by others. Teachers may reserve, for school work, not more than 25 books a month; these books are placed on special shelves in the reading-room for the children's use. New books for children, excepting fiction, are kept on a special shelf for examination and selection.

Brooklyn Board of Education on March 5. Brooklyn (N. Y.) L. At a meeting of the it was decided that the committee of studies of the board should confer with the officers of the Brooklyn Library, to arrange means by extended to the principals, teachers, and puwhich the privileges of the library might be pils of the local, high, and training schools. Such a conference was accordingly held, with the result that a favorable report was presented to the committee on studies, and unanimously adopted by the board. It recommended that an appropriation of $3000 be made by the board of estimate to provide the privileges of the library to the teachers and advanced pupils. For this amount several hundred subscriptions could be secured, at, of course, a reduction from the regular subscription rates. It is expected that only the upper classes in the two high schools and those in the training school will have the use of the library. The plan will not be put in practice this year, as there is no money available; but it is hoped that next year the board of estimate will allow the small appropriation asked for the purpose.

Butte (Mont.) F. P. L. (Rpt.) Added 1849; total 17,312. Issued, home use 64,217 (fict. New cardholders 74.48 %); lib. use 36,069. 1934; total registration 3061. Receipts $19,031.60; expenses $10,344.73.

the issuing of a complete catalog," this was se"The greatest single work of the year has been cured at a remarkably small cost, by the insertion of advertisements, the catalog costing but $500 for 3000 cloth-bound copies.

"Besides the catalog, reference lists on various subjects have been printed in the local papers, which have been highly appreciated and extensively used. These lists have covered subjects of popular interest, such as finance, the railroad question, Thanksgiving stories, Christmas stories, Washington and Stevenson bibliographies, etc., while the Anaconda Standard has printed all the additions to the library since the completion of the catalog.


received, the indications strongly show that the Despite the great patronage the library has continued growth in the future. Our last month success of the past year is only the promise of was our most successful month. And not only that, but the issue of March, 1895, was over 70 per cent. greater for home use, and nearly 20 per cent. greater for library use than the issue for March, 1894."

Chicago. Field Columbian Museum L. "The library of the museum is confined to the literature of the various sciences and arts illustrated in the museum, The aim, therefore, is to equip

it along these special lines. It contains also standard sets of reference works, encyclopædias, and bibliographic apparatus, as well as the reports, transactions, and proceedings of leading philosophical and scientific societies." The library at present contains about 8300 v. Besides the main library, working libraries have been formed in several of the departments. reading-room contains the principal scientific and technical reviews, journals and magazines. Books are issued to the public for reading-room use, and students are given access to the shelves, though the books "are intended primarily for the use of curators of the museum."


Chicago. Armour Institute L. The establishment of "home libraries" in different parts of the city, on the plans originated by Mr. Birtwell, of the Children's Aid Society, in Boston, and successfully developed in Albany, Philadelphia, | and other cities, was taken up by the library class of Armour Institute, at the opening of the term in October, 1894. The class had the hearty co-operation and assistance of the Children's Aid Society of Chicago, which had attempted to organize such libraries in the city, but had been unable to carry out its plans owing

to a lack of earnest workers. The method of

establishing these home libraries is generally
familiar in its main details. The first library
sent out by the Armour Institute library training
class was made up from over 20 lists sent in by

total 19,554. Issued, home use 54,187 (fict. 52 %;
Dover (N. H.) P. L. (12th rpt.) Added 1148;
juv. 21 %); lost 2. Reading-room attendance
18.330; Sunday attendance 853. New cardhold-
ers 500; total registration 7505. Receipts
$3764.16; expenses $3647.02.


circulation but the largest increase that the li-
The circulation of 1894 is "not only the largest
brary has ever known in one year," being an
average issue of five books to every inhabitant.
The increase over the preceding year is 9440,
and it is traced to several causes-chief among
them, probably, the growing use of the students


people especially interested in children's lit-
erature. It included "Little men," "Little
women," ""Little Lord Fauntleroy,"" Robinson
Crusoe," Fairy tales" of Grimm and Ander-
Brooks' "Historic boys," Eggleston's
"Household history of the United States," The
water babies," Hawthorne's "Wonder book,"
Andrew Lang's "Blue poetry book," the "Cent-card among the pupils of our public schools."
"Students' cards" have been issued by the li-
ury World's Fair book," Miller's "Little folks
in feathers and furs," and St. Nicholas. The aim brary for the past two years, the system being
was to give at least one book each of history, essentially the same as the two-book plan, de-
fiction, biography, nature study, and poetry, and veloped later in other libraries. These cards,
plenty of mythology and fairy tales. Eight li-
braries have already been started by the class,
and more are promised. Three of these were

on which books other than fiction could be drawn

bought with money given by interested people, and the rest were formed from books gathered by members of the class and staff. Two are in the stock yards district, one on Harrison street, others on Milwaukee avenue, State street, and

in Harlem. When the children of one club have
finished the books sent them, the case is sent to
another part of the city and one of the other li-
braries is brought to them. There is a great
demand for the libraries, and the work is only
limited by the supply of books which can be

in addition to the books issued on the regular
card, were at first confined to persons pursuing
special courses of study; but were later issued to
all desiring them. It is to the general use of stu-
dents' cards among the school-children that the
large increase in circulation is chiefly attributa-
ble. The class showing most use by the chil-
dren is that of U. S. history, in which 1743_v.
were issued in 1894, as against 953 in 1893. "In-
deed, one of the most gratifying facts in regard
that it has occurred along the line of the best
to this large total gain in circulation, is the fact
reading in the library, and that the per cent. of
fiction, which the year before was 56, declined
last year to 52, and juvenile literature from 22
to 21 per cent."

Cleveland, O. Home Lending L. Assoc. This association has been established in connection


with the local Associated Charities for the purpose of developing a system of "home libraries similar to that conducted by the Children's Aid Society of Boston. Seven libraries are now started and the work is already producing most gratifying results.

Jan. 7, 1895, a total of 1542 v. were reported in
the library. About 50 medical periodicals are
received. The Boston Medical Library has
given to the association a collection of some
5000 v. of medical journals. The secretary of
the association, after briefly reviewing its history
from its incorporation in June, 1893, says: "An
arrangement was made with Mr. J. C. Dana, of
the Denver Public Library, whereby he not only
provided shelf-room and the usual clerical care
for the property of the association, but agreed to
expend upon medical literature at least as much
money as might be subscribed by the members
of the association. It is to the wise and more

than cordial support of Librarian Dana that the
astonishing growth of the medical library is


Colorado Medical L. Assoc., Denver. At the second annual meeting of the association, held


Concord (Mass.) F. P. L. (22d rpt.) Added 1229; total 26,824. Issued, home use 25,295. The two-book" plan is recommended by the librarian and formally authorized by the trustees; the issue of more than one book at a time is, however, restricted to adults, save "at the discretion of the librarian."

The issue of current magazines has also proved popular and has increased the general circula


"One more plan which met with success was
the Boys' Club, which was organized last sum-
mer for the purpose of interesting boys in the
study of natural history. This club was com-
posed of boys ranging from 10 to 16 years of
age. They met at the library once
a week

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