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that they do. The fee ranges from $1 to $6 per year. Six charge $1; three, $6; and eight, $3. In many colleges a certain part of the tuition is set aside for the use of the library; and in some the library is wholly maintained by endowment; whilst others must depend on such funds as can be collected and on donations.

4. 46 colleges have a separate library building, or have begun work on one; 68 are without a separate building; and one failed to answer. Of the 26 colleges that charge the students a library fee, 12 have separate library buildings and 14 occupy buildings that are also used for other purposes.

5. Only seven institutions restrict the use of their libraries to officers and students, and of these, one sometimes permits the use to alumni, "by courtesy, not by rule."

5. a. On the use of the library by alumni 103 reported. In nearly all cases alumni are subject to the same rules as students, though fees are rarely required of them. However, one college charges alumni $5 a year, and another $1.50; 10 restrict their use of the library to the building, and one requires a deposit.

5. b. The question relating to the use of the library by special students or professional men was answered by 105 institutions; 6 refuse such use, which they grant to alumni; though one or two permit clergymen to come in. 98 grant it, 10 for reference use exclusively, and 8 require that permission be obtained of the librarian.

5. c. There were 106 replies to this question. 37 libraries are closed to the general public, and of the 69 that allow public use many employ various restrictions. 20 permit reference or reading-room use only; 4 require a special permit of the librarian, and 4 charge a fee, usually the regular student's fee. One institution that permits reference use only during term time, opens the library twice a week during vacation for the circulation of books to the people of the town. A number of colleges report that the general public get books through officers and students, who become responsible for them. Such use, however, is limited, because people are less likely to ask a favor of an individual than of an institution.

6. 60 reported on the length of time they have had public access. Of these, three restrict it to classes a and b, and one to c. With 25 the privilege has been granted during the whole history of the library, which, in one or two instances, dates from the last century. 15 col

leges have offered the use of their library to the public for 10 years or more-one for at least 50 years; 8 for periods ranging between 5 and 10 years; and II have thrown their libraries open within the last 5 years.

7. The rules relating to the public differ from those relating to the students in 41 institutions; 32 report no such difference. The nature of the rules has been indicated, to some extent, in (5.) a, b, c. Officers or instructors almost invariably have special rights and privileges, both as to number of books and time of retaining them. In some cases the head of a department controls the circulation of all books relating to his department, and such books are given out only on his order. There is the greatest variety in the rules, so far as those governing the public differ from those governing the students. In a few exceptional instances the public have more freedom and more privileges than students; they pay no fees and are charged no fines; while students must pay for the use of the library and are fined for retaining a book beyond the permitted time. Some colleges leave everything relating to public use to the discretion of the librarian. The following are examples of fees charged the public and students for the use of the same library:

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period not exceeding three months, without fee; and any person by vote of the corporation."

Colby University: "This library has always extended privileges to its alumni in the vicinity, and to professional men. The number of books drawn by them is not large. The drawbacks are the impossibility of getting books returned promptly, increased danger of loss (1000 times ordinary risk!), and no return for the use of books and the expense of drumming them up — for you cannot charge anything.

8. To this question 42 institutions sent a definite answer. 20 advise special rules for the public; 22 advise the same rules for all. The advice is usually in line with the practice of the library reporting. Of those advising special rules, three advise a fee, two advise reference use only, and one recommends that books be given to the public only on condition that they "I tried the experiment of inviting the teachcan be recalled at any time for use in the col-ers to use the library. A very few came to conlege. sult books of information, but nearly all wanted novels and nothing else. As our funds do not admit of many additions in fiction, they soon had every recent novel out of the library, and our own paying patrons, the students, were indignant. I was obliged to restrict the privilege. ...'

9. 14 colleges report that they encourage the public use of the library, 44 that they do not — the remainder not answering. Most of the encouragement is simple politeness and courteous treatment in satisfying the wants of those who come. One librarian encourages people by private invitation, and another sometimes buys books that they want.

10. Very few libraries 'keep statistics of the public use. The majority report it to be "very small” or “small”— varying, as a rule, from less than one per cent. to 10 per cent. of the total use. The highest public use reported is 25 per cent.; in Columbia College it is from 12 to 15 per cent.

11. 78 colleges replied to the question of desirability—47 that, in their experience, it is desirable to have a college library accessible to the general public; 31 that it is not. Those that find it desirable repeatedly emphasize the fact that the public use must not in any way interfere with the college use, and, for that reason, most colleges favor only reference or reading-room use for the general public. Separate library buildings are most desirable, because there is less interference with the regular college work; and of the 47 favoring public access, 27 have a separate building for their library. In short, public access, where it is found desirable, is desirable as a privilege; it stimulates interest in the college, and in that way helps the col lege; but it is not desirable to open the college library as a "public library," taking the place of the town library supported by taxation and managed by the town.

12. The general remarks brought forth a great variety of opinion and experience, but space permits the presentation of only a few of them.

Brown University: "The college library ought to make itself the literary centre of the town, and it will bring more to the library than it takes."

Columbia: "The library is open for use and drawing books to officers, students, and alumni, and for consultation to any person introduced or recommended, and, in general, to any person having occasion to use it. Libraries which are exempt from taxation, and the result of benefactions from private individuals, should be administered as liberally as possible for the benefit of all who can profitably use them." Columbia has been open to the public 12 years.

Cornell: "A university library is primarily for the use of members of the university in their studies, and while any one who wishes to use the library for scholarly research is heartily welcome here, I do not believe it is the function of the university library to provide reading for the general public or to take the place of the public library; nor do I think it would be just to the students of the university who depend upon the library for aid in their university work, to encourage the use of the library by the general public to such an extent as to interfere in the slightest degree with the convenient and comfortable use of the library by the students.

"In the case of this library, it is situated at some distance from the city proper; our readingrooms are large and never overcrowded. Those who use the library, outside of the members of the university, are almost without exception persons who wish to investigate some historical, literary, scientific, or technical question, and these we gladly welcome. In our regulations we reserve the right of refusing admission, as a precaution.

"A university library is a literary and historical laboratory, and I should as soon think of throwing open the scientific and technical labo

ratories to the general public as of inviting the general public to come to the university library for their supply of light or amusing reading."

Illinois: "The college has received many donations from having the library open to the public." This library has been open to the public for 24 years.

Princeton: "The college library should be available for free reference use to all; but it is a false notion of liberality to weaken the direct value of a library for a collateral one, and this the opening of a college library does, as far as it stands in the way of the real interests of the community by preventing the proper development of a free public library."

University of the City of New York: "In a word, my experience has taught me -1, to have a college library free to the public; 2, a minimum amount of rules, more of less elastic, and both students and public to be treated alike.

"It is advisable to open a college library to the public. It is not only an advertisement, keeping the college in the minds of the public, but it is an educational work. As in many other things, the work of a college is direct and indirect. Not infrequently is the indirect work of untold value to both old and young people, who cannot attend upon the lectures. A library open to the public is an indirect way of increasing its usefulness. I believe in it."

In a large city, throwing open the college library to the public might interfere very much with the rights of the students, if they pay for the use of the library. However, if others are charged the same fees, students could not properly complain. A college and its library exist for the promotion of general intelligence and moral culture, and in any village or city where there is no good library, except the college library, I would think it very proper and desirable to throw it open to the public on the same terms as to the students.

"In this little city, where we have no public library, there are three ladies' clubs engaged in literary work. They make increasing use of the college library, and without it they could scarcely exist. As we have not been applying to them and others the same strict rules we apply to students in regard to length of time, etc., I find that they are disposed to take advantage of our good nature and to keep the books too long a time."

Yale: "If known to the librarian, any one may borrow books, besides using them in the building, without fee. Books are also loaned out of town for special research. The 'Society' library, formerly owned by the students, is not open to the public."

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University of Rochester: This library has been open to the public for the use of books in the reading-room since 1871, through the gift of a library building, costing over $100,000, from Mr. Hiram Sibley, on condition that the library be open to the public as a free reference library. The public use is less than one-sixth of the total use. Our location is not central in the city, and our library is selected as a working college library. If we were more accessible, or more popular in character, the public use might possibly interfere with the college use. As things are, it does not."

Mr. Harris, of Cornell, has stated the function of a university library clearly and accurately. The function of a college library is practically the same. The experience of Prof. Hall, of Colby, and of Mr. Davis, of the University of Wooster, are to be noted. They point out some of the difficulties that must be overcome or avoided; but there should be no difficulty in enforcing rules to the entire satisfaction of all. On the whole, the experience of college librarians is decidedly favorable to the extension of the library privileges to the public. Let there be a general movement towards greater freedom all along the line for the opening of the college library is real "university extension."

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College libraries are usually well equipped in special lines; and they owe it to the community and the state, which exempts them from taxation, that they be open to the public as freely as possible for the general welfare. Only a limited class will be able to use them people who come for instruction and information, and not for amusement. The time is coming when every town that has a public school must have a public library. The public school of the town and the college usually deal with people whose library wants are different; and

University of Wooster, Ohio: "I have had charge of the University library for nearly 20 years, and have always encouraged the use of the library by resident graduates, professional men of the city, members of literary clubs, etc. Their use of the library in a small city like this is not very extensive - the entries being only a few hundred in a year, to five or six thousand entries of books drawn by students. I have not noticed that the use of the library by others than students interferes perceptibly with the prior and acknowledged rights of the students.

it is seldom that either towns or colleges have as much money as they need for their library work. It will be sound economy on the part of the college, as well as liberality, to extend the privileges of the library to all who can use it with profit; and the smaller cities and towns will usually be only too glad to apply their

THE TRAINING OF LIBRARY EMPLOYES.- II.
BY ADELAIDE R. HASSE.

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS. THE standard of admission to these classes ought to be high enough to exclude at once all persons who have influence but no qualifications. Such a standard may vary in different communities. In the smaller cities, and particularly those of the less thickly settled states, a completed high school course or its equivalent will answer, while in the larger cities of the more populous states a college education may be required.

The Library School, to-day the oldest and best equipped school for the training of librarians, emphasizes the importance of college education, though "it is not yet required in all cases." Though desirable, it would be utterly useless for public library trustees to determine to employ none but college graduates; and while it is necessary that the public librarian should be primarily a person with a good general education, with executive force and a specific knowledge of library economy, in the assistant only the former need be insisted upon. The executive force may be developed, and the specific knowledge of library economy should be acquired in training before employment is given.

funds to the purchase of the more popular works, looking to the college for those that are less used by the great majority. Such an arrangement will, I believe, be of great advantage to the college, to the community, and to the state. It is for the college to lead the way.

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Plainly, it would therefore be unfair to frame a set of questions for these persons of unequal circumstances to answer. A better plan is to

provide the examining body, which may consist of the entire board of trustees or its committee on employes, with copies of all applications under consideration. Call the roll so that all trustees who may not have had a personal meeting with the applicants before, may now have the opportunity to identify each one. Let a number of oral questions be put to each applicant bringing out such personal characteristics as may bias the value of his or her qualifications for library work, for instance an appreciation and knowledge of current events, individual choice and criticism of books and writers, good handwriting, familiarity with ways of using books, etc.

Merely as a suggestion to an examining board the following groups of subjects are given with a view to briefly outlining the possibilities of such an examination:

Having accepted a standard of admission to the entrance examination of the training classes, let the chief function of this event be the discovery of the applicant's native qualifications. In some cases it may be years since the applicant left school, and stagnation may have set in, or progress may have been along only a particular line; on the other hand, the applicant may be fresh from school, and still full of improperly digested text-book facts, which can be rehearsed Group II. - Simple mathematical problems with great facility, but often with an equal dis- (written); same, composition (may be dictated); regard for their proper relations. The point some questions in geography (oral). If languages here rests between rusty schooling and practical | are required let applicants read, translate and experience, or a finished education with the write from dictation. shellac still on, and no experience.

Group I.- Personal reading. Newspapers: Give digest of morning's news; state political bias of local papers; name a given number of the largest papers of the United States; what is your explanation of the mode of the national and international mode of distributing news? etc. Periodicals: Write down some characteristic features of certain (well-known and to be named) periodicals; what periodicals do you regularly read? etc. Books: What have you read in the last six months? Name a prominent figure in the modern literature of each of the larger European states. Distinguish some features of current literature. What subjects are preëminently engrossing men of science at the present time? What does a catalog mean to you?

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Group III. — In the standards, i. e., literature, history, the arts and sciences, the examining body will find an excellent guide in Handbook No. 1 of the Library School.

ent shall have procured the reports and bulletins, and a full set of the blanks of such libraries as are representative of certain features of administration, as the Worcester and Milwaukee are of school distribution — the latter of a double entry charging system, and Minneapolis of access to the shelves, etc.

REQUIREMENTS OF TRAINING.

In an active library it is important that attendants shall be thoroughly posted on current topics, for there are dozens of inquiries for information about the occurrences of last week and last month, which have not yet found their way into permanent literature, where there is one request for verification of an historical fact, that can be met by simple reference to the historical literature of the library. The point to be emphasized is that a capable librarian who undertakes to train for library work an average native intelligence is apt to obtain better results than he who attempts to utilize highly educated material for practical purposes.

REGULATING CLASSES.

Some librarians may find great difficulty in satisfactorily combining a training class with the regular staff. A successful experiment has been to hold pupils equally responsible with regular employes, and to apply to them the same rules which govern the conduct of the staff. The greatest difficulty, however, will arise in so assigning the work of the class that all pupils Second week..

First week.

Third week....
Fourth week...

shall have equal opportunity, and so that the
routine of the library shall not be seriously inter-
fered with. To avoid such a calamity a detailed
schedule of work should be prepared as soon as
the number of pupils is known. A very satis-
factory schedule has been in use by myself which
necessitated a division of the class into groups,
each group being assigned to duty in a different
department of the library, as accession, registry,
loan, etc.

Better results are obtained if as little dictation

is given as possible, except perhaps references to authorities. These cannot be too profuse. This particular class exercise is one of importance, not only from the fact that it gives pupils a broader point of view of their immediate work, but also that by personal research among reports, bulletins and records at this early stage a pupil's interest and enthusiasm are at once aroused. For this reason I have always made it the first of the exercises given, and for a working schedule of this exercise I will give the following illustration for a class of six; time, three hours daily for four weeks:

Group I.

Accession
Registry
Loan
Class assembles.

Group II.

Registry
Loan
Accession

Group III.

Loan
Accession
Registry

During this fourth week the first day may be devoted to inspection of work done, for the four days following the class again does individual work based upon the practical experience just gained, and on the sixth day the class assembles, and each pupil reports to the class the result of the four days' work. This is a day of questions, suggestions and criticisms, and as a rule the session outlasts the limited three hours.

The attendant having charge of any one of these departments, during that time has the sole supervision of the work of the group assigned her; she oversees and instructs in the details of her department, requires neatness, good hand-lic writing, and sees that the pupil has a complete set of blanks filled out when she leaves her department, etc.

At the end of this time let the superintendent hold a conference with the various groups, inspect their work, etc., and if it is satisfactory they may be reassigned, so that at a given time each group will have been on duty in all departments of the library.

Group II. College and University Libraries. When each group has served in the accession, loan, and registry departments, for instance, Report on five representative college libraries; daily sessions of the entire class may be held number of volumes; special collections; descripfor a week to study methods of other libraries as tion of seminar method; librarian; special feaapplied to these departments. To do this it tures; catalog, etc. References: U. S. Report, will have been necessary that the superintend-1876; L. J.; rpts. of colleges; Poole; Flint, Statis

Group 1.- Public Libraries.

Report on first law establishing American publibraries; growth of in next 20 years; status at present; on 10 largest libraries, a by income; by number of books; c by circulation; give name of librarian and specialty if any (as Green. Schools); number of trustees; various means of support of library, characteristic features, etc. References: U. S. Report, 1876; Fletcher, Public Libraries in U. S.; LIBRAry journal; Flint, Statistics, etc.; library reports; Poole.

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