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interval between the old reading and the new. Attractively made lists of good books, and the books themselves, well illustrated ones especially, displayed in an attractive manner, will do much to aid the good cause. "Believe all things, hope all things, endure all things—your reward will seldom fail," said Miss Coe, and certainly nothing could be more encouraging than that such hopefulness should be the result of her great and varied experience.

Miss Mary S. Cutler presented a practical paper on "Principles of the selection of books," under the three heads, Who shall select? What shall be chosen? How shall it be done? Our limits forbid further notice of this excellent paper, and of the interesting informal discussions which occupied much of the time of the session. Notice was given that the next meeting of the association would be held in Buffalo in March, when a large gathering from the western part of the state is hoped for.

[It was decided later that the Buffalo meeting should be postponed till May.]

VERMONT LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.

A MEETING to form a Vermont Library Association was held at the Fletcher Free Library, Burlington, Oct. 17. At this meeting a constitution was adopted, and the following officers chosen for the present year: President, Miss S. C. Hagar, Burlington; vice-president, Miss Louise L. Bartlett, St. Johnsbury; secretary, Miss Mary L. Titcomb, Rutland; treasurer, Mr. E. F. Holbrook, Proctor. The association starts with about 40 members.

MARY L. TITCOMB, Secretary.

MASSACHUSETTS LIBRARY CLUB.

A MEETING of the Massachusetts Library Club was held in Wesleyan Hall, at Boston, on Dec. 14, 1894.

Upon calling the meeting to order at 10:10 a.m., President Foster spoke of the loss which the Club had sustained by the death of Miss Hayward, for 20 years librarian of the Public Library in Cambridge, on Oct. 11, from a fall in the library building, and introduced Col. T: W. Higginson, who, in behalf of the trustees, paid an appreciative and discriminating tribute to Miss Hayward. He remembered seeing upon the gravestone of an unknown man in a country graveyard the inscription, "Died in the actual discharge of his duty," without any hint as to what that duty was. Of all the occupations in which a person is likely to die in the actual discharge of duty, we think of the librarian as one of the last. Yet no soldier ever died in that way more truly than Miss Hayward. She died still at work. Her pressed wish that she might die in harness had come literally to pass. It was a growing perception of this, that, after the first shock, tended more than anything else to reconcile the community to her loss. In many respects she was a remarkable woman, belonging, not to the newer type of librarians, but to an older race, which had, nevertheless, a character and a

value of their own. It is not always true that one who has been faithful over a few things is fitted to have charge of greater things. Promotion has been the ruin of many. It was not so with Miss Hayward. The experience gained in what was little more than a small local library in Cambridgeport proved adequate to the management of the great collection at the head of which she died. Nothing about her was more admirable than the manner in which she adapted herself to new situations. Measures which she did not originate, which she might have opposed, when adopted, she accepted as if they had been her own, and executed with the utmost loyalty. Her attitude toward Sunday opening was most characteristic. She had never favored it; yet, when the trustees decided unanimously to open the library on Sundays, between 2 and 6, she did not murmur. She declined an offer to provide a substitute. "I wish always to be there myself," she said. If it must be done, she wished to see that it was done in the best way. "I don't know but that I might as well do Sunday-school work in that way as another," she added. Her life conveys two lessons that may be emphasized. She came to Cambridge a stranger, yet it was said that no woman could have died in Cambridge who would have been so much missed. That was a verdict upon her profession. It shows what a position a librarian and a woman can hold in a town. The second lesson is the great value to a librarian of strong intellectual tastes outside the profession. Whenever we bought a book on natural history, it was in the hope that some one would use it. When we bought a book on art, it was certain that it would be used, because Miss Hayward was a lover of art, and impressed her taste upon the community. That is a lesson for all librarians. It shows what they can do for the branches of learning in which they are interested.

A committee on resolutions was then appointed, and the following resolutions were subsequently adopted:

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It was voted to authorize the executive comex-mittee to purchase for distribution such of the proposed A. L. A. leaflets as they shall deem suitable for the purpose.

The report of the committee on the preparation of lists of books suitable for public libraries being called for, Mr. Jones, chairman, after premising that Mr. W: C. Lane had been chosen a member of the committee in place of Mr. S. S. Green, resigned, and giving a résumé

of the history of the proposition, read this report:

"Your committee has reconsidered the subject assigned to it, and recommends the preparation of lists of books suitable for public libraries in accordance with the plan reported at the October, 1892, meeting of the club [L. J. 19: 384]; but that the work be limited to adult fiction."

The report was accepted, and as the morning was well advanced, it was moved and voted that the subject be referred to a special meeting to be called in the future.

Col. Higginson then said that he had for many years collected books upon the development of woman and her pursuits in the community. He had now over 1000 vols., of which 500 might be described as rare and curious. He hoped that means would be found to keep the collection together and continue it; meanwhile, in order that the books might be used, he would like to be put in communication with any persons who were making a serious study of the subject, and would be glad to lend the books for their use.

An inquiry about the details of library work in connection with the public schools had been handed in and referred to Mr. Jones, but proved so suggestive that it was voted to refer the subject to another meeting; and after a brief recess pleasantly spent in conversation, the topic of the day was taken up : "Technical collections in public libraries."

Mr. S. S. Green, the first speaker, after remarking upon the appropriateness of selecting a hall controlled by the Methodist Book Concern as a meeting-place for a club, whose members were all connected with book concerns, and all so methodical that they might be called methodists by profession, dwelt upon the great importance of technical books to people who worked in shops and factories, in enabling them to get at the experience of others in the same occupations, and stimulating them to better work and the invention of improvements. He showed, by examples drawn from his own observation, how this interest in work could be excited even among the young. He thought it was particularly important to bring the fine arts to influence industrial art, and pointed out how the public library could work to this end by judicious selection of books, by | exhibiting plates, photographs, etc., as had been done in Worcester by the combined action of the library and the Art Society.

Mr. Andrews, librarian of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then read the paper which is printed elsewhere in this issue. (See p. 6-9.)

The meeting adjourned at I p.m.

WM. H. TILLINGHAST, Secretary.

PENNSYLVANIA LIBRARY CLUB.

THE 12th regular meeting of the Pennsylvania Library Club was held on Monday evening, November 12, 1894, at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, the president, Mr. T: L. Montgomery, in the chair.

Mr. Samuel H. Ranck, of the Enoch Pratt Library, Baltimore, read an interesting paper on "State library law." He called attention to

the fact that Pennsylvania had no general library law. The present law permits a city or town to receive a bequest for a public library, and to appropriate public funds for its support. In reviewing the present state library laws the speaker was of the opinion that the one passed by Texas in the year 1871 was the simplest and most comprehensive. It read as follows:

"Any incorporated city may establish a free public library, and may make such regulations and grant such part of its revenue for the management and increase thereof as the municipal government may determine."

Pennsylvania would obtain good results from a law of this kind with a few additions. Towns should be allowed to join their forces by having a main library located in the most accessible town, and a system of delivery stations scattered through the surrounding country.

A library law should provide for the appointment of a library commission to aid in forming new libraries and creating and guiding public opinion. The speaker did not approve of limiting the tax rate. New Hampshire passed the first library law in 1849 without a tax. Massachusetts has no limit. If a limit is needed it should be graded. The speaker thought it would be better to fix a limit below which library expenses must not fall than to say "further you dare not go." Stability of income is the greatest thing to be desired. The weak point of the Illinois law is that the city councils can cripple the library most seriously by cutting appropriations, or even refusing to make any. By having the law provide that the income of the library shall always be within a certain per cent. of the income of the previous year such difficulties will be prevented. He spoke of the method of appointing the directors or trustees and length of service. What is most needed in a state library law is stability, an income, and a board of trustees that will not change with every election. For the villages, Mr. Ranck was in favor of the travelling libraries, such as are in use in New York state.

A general discussion followed the paper. Short addresses were made by Dr. MacAlister, Mr. J. G. Rosengarten, Mr. H. J. Carr, Mr. Thomson, the president, and others.

A letter was read from Dr. H. Carrington Bolton, in which he suggested to the club the desirability of compiling a list of the periodicals in the libraries in and around Philadelphia. On motion, a committee of three was appointed by the president, for the purpose of editing the list. Adjourned.

ALFRED RIGLING, Secretary.

INDIANA LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.

THE third annual meeting of the Library Association of Indiana was held in the Assembly Room of the Public Library, in Indianapolis, Dec. 26-27, 1894. The attendance was larger than at any previous meeting, 31 libraries being represented, as against 15 at the last year, and was made up as much from the ranks of library trustees, advisory boards, and others interested in library progress as from those of librarians. Much practical good is expected, and will undoubtedly come from this meeting. The presi

dent, Miss E. G. Browning, in her opening address reviewed the library situation in general, and in Indiana in particular. She spoke of the necessity of organization and discussion among librarians, and urged personal work on the part of 11.

important libraries of the state-Lafayette,
New Harmony, Terre Haute, Richmond, and
Huntington. The New Harmony library is a
particularly interesting one, for while it is fully
up with the needs of the day, it still has a decid-
ed flavor of the old socialistic spirit of the days
of Owen and McClure. Miss Ahern gave an ac-
count of the work and inspiration of the annual
meeting of the A. L. A. of 1894. The result
will be a probable larger attendance, at the Den-
ver meeting, of Indianians. In the afternoon
Miss Belie S. Hanna gave one of the best practi-
cal talks of the meeting, on "Difficulties in li-
brary administration." She urged better prepar-
ation for library work on the part of those taking
it up, and a more devoted spirit in those engaged
in the work. The better the librarian the
more efficient the influence of the library. A set
of resolutions looking to the enactment of better
library laws was cordially endorsed. A reception
to the visiting librarians and their friends was
given on Wednesday evening, Dec. 26, by Miss
Browning, Miss Ahern, and the Bowen-Merrill
Co. It was one of the pleasantest gatherings of
the week. The officers elected for 1895 are as
follows: President, Mary Eileen Ahern; vice-
president, Elizabeth Day Swan; secretary and
treasurer, Nancy Baker. Library interests are
on the increase decidedly in Indiana, and no
small part of the work has been done by the Li-
brary Association.
MARY EILEEN AHERN, Secretary.

Library Clubs.

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Mr. W. P. Burris, of Bluffton, read the first paper, on "What books to have in a public library." He said, in substance: "The selection of books for a public library should be a question of quality, and not of quantity. When more books are made and read than ever before, some fitting entrance examination is an urgent necessity on the part of those whose responsibility it is to admit them. The greatest difficulty in the matter of selection is in fiction and story. In point of numbers, books of this class hold the first place, according to the list prepared by the A. L. A. These preachers of righteousness no longer have the ban placed upon them. When the intellectual horizon is scanned, watching as critics as well as heralds, it will be found that this is the age of altruism. Barbarism does most for self and most against others. Egoism does most for self and the least against others. Altruism does the least for self and the most for others; and to hasten the altruistic spirit, the public library, as well as all other agencies, should labor. Those books of fiction, therefore, whose 'heroes' are those of self-sacrifice, whose 'villains' are those of selfishness, whose 'scenes' are those of this ofttimes commonplace life of ours, and whose 'conflicts' result in the overthrow of self, should occupy the seat of honor in the library. Our present state of culture is a result of growth, and if one is to appreciate society as it now is, he must travel the same stages it has traced, but with accelerated speed. A public library, adapted to the needs of the masses for whom it is established, should be made up very largely of books on the following subjects, whose rank in point of number of volumes we venture to indicate: Fiction and story, I; Literature, 2; History, 3; Biography, 4; Travel, 5; Natural science, 6; Sociology, 7; Art, 8; Philosophy, 9; Religion, 10. Finally, books on various subjects are to be selected to meet the needs, not the demands of the community."

CHICAGO LIBRARY CLUB.

THE November meeting of the Chicago Library Club was held at the Armour Institute, in response to a very kind invitation. In spite of unfavorable weather fully 75 were in attendance.

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved, 10 new members were received, and notice was given for an amendment to the constitution, to be voted on at the next meeting, making the election of officers in March rather than December.

"Hindrances to library progress in Indiana" was the subject very clearly set forth by Prof. Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus, president of the Armour Amos W. Butler, of Indiana Academy of Science. Institute, then addressed the club most delightA lack of appreciation of the influence of li- fully on "Old books." He spoke in a chatty braries was, he said, at the root of indifference way, without notes, making the audience feel to them. While glorying in our public school at home with the worthy monuments of early system we overlook its important adjunct-the book-making. The old books, in which the public library. Every one should consider him- Armour Institute is very rich, were passed from self a missionary in the matter of arousing pub-hand to hand, and the doctor dwelt especially lic sentiment towards better library facilities on the artistic make-up of the early books, and for the entire state. grew enthusiastic in describing the art of the Aldines, the Boldonis, and the Elzevirs.

A motion for a vote of thanks to Dr. Gunsaulus, Miss Sharp, and the class in library science, by Mr. Merrill, was heartily seconded.

The second day's session was opened by a very interesting address by Rev. G. A. Carstensen, of St. Paul's Church, Indianapolis. It was an advocacy of the separation of library interests from the duties of township trustees, and the centralization of libraries rather than their division among widely separated and sparsely populated districts. A very interesting feature of the morning was the histories of five of the

The club adjourned to the dining-room for refreshments, and after an hour of social intercourse dispersed, feeling that the evening had been both profitable and pleasant.

CARRIE L. ELLIOTT, Secretary.

page, is a close classification subject-entry in dictionary order, of all publications in the four years of his period. The right-hand column contains the name of the author (in some cases a department or bureau), or of the chairman of the committee reporting the document; the lefthand column contains the hieroglyphic figures, easily analyzed from the convenient table at the sec-front, giving the place of the document amidst the complications of Senate and House series. This tabular form strikes the user at first sight as more complicated and less agreeable to the eye than the ordinary method of library entry, but it must be confessed that it proceeds on a very ingenious, and on the whole clear system, giving, as it does, not only a clean title but an easy reference to the several forms of publication. It is probable that the method adopted or invented by Mr. Ames is, on the whole, the best to serve the several purposes of an index o government publications, supplemented, as it is, by a careful "personal index," which succeeds, within 16 pages, in referring to each author in the preceding 464 pages.

A great part of the catalog is taken up by of very little interest to any one except the references to absolutely private bills, which are particular person interested. The Smiths we have always with us in catalogs, and in the present one a couple of pages are given to increases in the pension of Smith, relief of Smith, removal of charge of desertion against Smith, payment for Smith's mule taken by the army, and other events of importance to the individual bad idea, after printing the catalog in this Smith, but not to the nation. It might not be a "comprehensive" form, to lift out the central column, or subject-index, eliminating from it the Smiths and other private persons, and print the remainder as a subject-index, which can be issued uniform with the sets of government documents for each Congress, or preferably for each year.

For a first step forward in official cataloging, since the Poore index was chiefly a step backward, Mr. Ames has accomplished a great deal; we are glad to note that he has cordially invited the criticism and suggestion of all whom his catalog reaches, so that by their co-operation he may shape a system for the future. We trust that his next venture will be either an annual catalog or a catalog for the 54th Congress. With this before us, the profession individually or as represented in conference, or through one of its committees, should be able to afford its long since offered co-operation with the government authorities, in evolving a method of indexing the government publications, which would bring order out of chaos and make these valuable publications fully accessible to the people.

In connection with this catalog, we commend to the attention of librarians the special report relative to public documents, addressed by Mr. Ames to the Secretary of the Interior, under date of Nov. 20, 1894, and issued as a separate document from the Government Printing Office. This gives a comprehensive view of the present

WASHINGTON LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.

AT the meeting of the Washington Library Association, held Wednesday, December 19, 1894, the following officers, elected at the time of organization in June, were unanimously reelected for the year 1895: President, A. R. Spofford, Librarian of Congress; vice-presidents, Dr. Cyrus Adler, librarian Smithsonian Institution, and Col. W. H. Lowdermilk; retary and treasurer, Oliver L. Fassig, librarian U. S. Weather Bureau; members of the executive board, in addition to the officers above named, W. P. Cutter, librarian U. S. Department of Agriculture, C. C. Darwin, librarian U. S. Geological Survey, and Mrs. H. L. McL. Kimball, librarian of the U. S. Treasury Department.

OLIVER L. FASSIG, Secretary.

Reviews.

UNITED STATES, Dept. of Interior. Comprehensive index of the publications of the United States Government, 1889-1893; by J G. Ames, Superintendent of Documents, Department of the Interior. Washington, Gov. Printing Office, 1894. 6+480 p. 1. Q.

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Special report relative to public documents; by J: G. Ames, Superintendent of Documents, Department of the Interior. Washington, Gov. Printing Office, 1894. 19 P. O. pap.

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Dr. Ames presents in the first volume an index of the documents issued during the period covered by the 51st and 52d Congresses, the preparation of which was authorized by the concurrent resolution of March 3, 1893. The heterogeneous mass of titles known as Mr. Poore's "Descriptive catalogue" of government publications, covered the field through the period of the 46th Congress. There is thus a gap of the periods covered by the 47th to the 50th Congresses, namely, March, 1881, to March, 1889, which is covered only by the appendix on government publications in the American Catalogues, 18761884, and 1884-1890. These make no pretence to being either a descriptive or a comprehensive catalog, although the simple method of classification by departments and bureaus makes them, perhaps, a useful semi-subject finding-list-in some respects a more effective guide than an alphabetic list.

Mr. Poore's catalog, it will be remembered, consisted of 1241 quarto pages in fine print, giving all sorts of government documents, including committee reports, letters, resolutions, etc., in simple chronological order, from 1774 to 1881, supplemented by p. 1245-1392 of an alphabetic index of the most skeleton kind. For practical uses this catalog was chaos. Ames' volume presents a happy contrast. The quarto page is divided into three columns; the central column, about the width of an octavo

Mr.

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"Fifth. The preparation of a general comprehensive index of all public documents.

"Sixth. The utilization of documents more largely in the interest of public libraries, and through them of the public at large.

"Seventh. The restriction of the gratuitous distribution of documents, and more satisfactory provision for their sale.

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Eighth. The establishment of a bureau of documents by which the whole business of distributing documents shall be conducted.”

After commenting at length as to the effect of the reforms suggested, Dr. Ames says: "It is not believed that any possible arguments can be urged against the proposition here submitted which can justify continuing the cumbersome and extravagant system now in vogue, or the force of which would not be quickly dissipated by the practical operations of the bureau of documents, which, under the strictly impartial, upright, and responsible administration of its affairs that alone should be tolerated, would soon vindicate the wisdom of its establishment by introducing convenience, order, unity, and economy into this by no means unimportant partment of the public service."

The annual report of the Secretary of the Interior for the last fiscal year epitomizes and approves Dr. Ames' report.

Attention may also be called to the fact, often overlooked by librarians, that the annual report of the public printer contains an approximate list of government publications which have been issued from his office during the year. MANCHESTER (Mass.) CITY LIBRARY. Catalogue of English prose fiction. Manchester, N. H., 1894. III p. 1. O.

numbers without a prefixed class mark, books for children being distinguished by a dagger (†). This results in stenographic brevity, without sacrificing anything, and yet the symbols are easily written and remembered. Miss Sanborn's notation is recommended to those librarians who think that Johnny Page must disentangle such a formula as J839.83 An2F before he can find Andersen's Fairy tales, or return the book to its place on the shelf.

one.

From start to finish this is a good and conscientious piece of work, rapidly executed, yet free from any evidence of haste. It is wisely economical, but full enough for practical purposes. The critic who would find fault with such a catalog should be set to make a better H. K. TOPEKA (Kan.) F. P. L. Catalogue, no. 7, covering volumes to no. 12,654 [!] inclusive; with supplement cont. classified index only, of volumes added to the library during the preparation of the catalogue. 1893. 256 p. O.

This catalog can hardly be called primitive, yet it is decidedly involved and confusing, and a poor medium by which to find a book with "neatness and despatch." It consists of a classified index and an author catalog, the former preceded by an outline of the system of classification. Appended is a classed supplement, containing "titles from accessions no. 12,655 to no. 14,048," bringing the list up to June, 1894, and a one-page list of "books in foreign languages." The class-list is divided into four main divisions-science, art, history, and appendix. These are subdivided into closer classes, but the subdivisions are rather general and inchoate. Authors are given de-alphabetically in heavy gothic type on the righthand side of the column, which is confusing. Under the subdivision Theology" "Bible has a single entry among the b's; 44 Reference Bible" is entered separately in the r's; and commentaries on various books of the Bible are entered under the commentators. Collins' "Ancient classics for English readers" appear in "Collective literary works" (class 18a of the division "Art"), under “Ancient," and the various volumes of the series — Aristophanes, Homer, "Levy" [sic], etc. are entered in the author-list under Collins only. No call-numbers are used. It is necessary for the reader to give author, title, and class number. The class-numbering is simple. Philosophy is 1, theology 2, and so on, subdivisions being indicated by letters. Thus 17 is juvenile literature, under which travels are classed as 17a, histories as 17b, etc. The "appendix” division of the classified index covers "cyclopædias and collections," bound v. of periodicals, public documents a simple reference to the card catalog — and "catalogs and library reports." The volume is clearly printed in good type on white paper. It seems a pity that the labor devoted to it which was certainly considerable - should not have produced a more scientific and "modern" catalog.

This catalog bears a close resemblance to Miss Sanborn's previous work, the catalog of English prose fiction of the St. Louis Mercantile Library, published in 1892. It is smal'er, and omits the classified lists of historical novels, etc., to be found in the earlier work; but these latter are expensive to print, and having once appeared, may be used by other libraries with slight changes. The body of the Manchester catalog is printed in a clear-faced minion, leaded, which makes an attractive page and is more economical of space than the brevier commonly used. The Cutter author and title marks, with Miss Sanborn's improvements, are used as call

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