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as well as those of private classes, to bring their pupils to the library, where all the best books illustrating their particular theme are laid out before them, and they can spend an hour or so in uninterrupted study with their instructor.

The management of the public library has been such that very few books have been lost through circulation or theft. Besides the theft of a Webster's Dictionary or two and a few volumes of Appleton's Cyclopedia, which were dropped to the street from a window of the reference-room while the library was located at Madison street and Wabash avenue, the only theft of any moment occurred about ten years ago, when one of the employes of the library, who on trial proved to be a veritable bibliomaniac, carried off and secreted in a barn more than 2000 volumes, many of them valuable works of reference. His shrewdness only served him in getting the books out of the library without detection, for he made no attempt apparently to dispose of them, and when asked why he took them said that he intended to return them as soon as he had read them. All but a few were recovered.

THE NEWBERRY LIBRARY.

The library next in importance to the general public of Chicago is the Newberry, located in the North Division of the city. This library was founded on July 1, 1887, under a provision of the will of Walter L. Newberry, deceased, which set aside one-half of his estate therefor, after the death of his wife and two daughters. This half, on the date above mentioned, amounted to $2,149,201, most of which was in real estate, much of it at that time unproductive. On the 13th of the same month Dr. W: F: Poole was elected librarian and entered upon his duties August 1.

This library contains at the present time 124,500 volumes and 30,600 pamphlets. It is for reference only and makes a specialty of music, medicine, and religion; being also strong in American history, bibliography and incunabula. There are no juvenile books on the shelves and no fiction as a rule. About $25,000 are expended annually for books. The number of readers for the year ended March 1, 1895, was about 100,000. The number of volumes used during the same time was 110,177. The present use of the books, however, is about 1000 volumes per day. The number of employes in the library proper is about 35. The Rudolph indexer has been recently introduced and the entire subject of bibliography is now indexed. It is the intention to catalog the entire collection of books by the indexer for public use.

The Newberry Library has a new home of granite on Walton place, facing Washington Square, of which it may justly be proud. The death of Dr. Poole in the spring of 1894 left a vacancy which was but recently filled by the election of Mr. John Vance Cheney, late of the public library of San Francisco.

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY.

The University of Chicago Library, presided over by Mrs. Zella A. Dixson, was founded

with the university in 1891. The number of volumes on the shelves is reported at 295,000, which no doubt includes pamphlets. They consist for the most part, according to a recent compilation, of works on biblical literature, church history, homiletic and systematic theology, political economy, sociology, history, science, and ancient classics.

This library is maintained by a special appropriation by the trustees of the university, and by a fee of $10 per year required of each student attending the school; to which is added rent fees on travelling libraries. The fund for the maintenance of this library must be very generous, as the number of volumes added each year is reported at 25,000.

A special feature is department libraries, which are located in the class-rooms and are for reference only. They consist of choice reference books bearing upon the particular branch of science taught in that room.

THE ARMOUR INSTITUTE library.

The Armour Institute Library, of which Miss Katherine L. Sharp is librarian, was founded in January, 1893, and consists of 11,000 volumes. It is maintained, like the other departments of the institute, from the generous pocket-book of Mr. P. D. Armour, its founder. As the accounts of no complete year of its existence are accessible, the annual expenditures are not definitely known. The library is chiefly for reference, with access to the shelves, so that no statistics of the use of the books are kept. The books are mostly scientific, free to all, some books being circulated among teachers and students and a few to outsiders.

An interesting feature of this library is its library or training class, which is limited to 18 in number, the course of study extending over two years, though there is such a demand for trained help in libraries that no one has remained to complete the full course.

Another feature is its system of home libraries. By this system a few choice books are placed in some private house under the care of one of its inmates, and the books are allowed to be read by the members of the family and by a certain number of the near neighbors, the only requirement being that the books shall be kept as clean as possible and be otherwise properly cared for, and returned when read. Once a week a member of the library class visits the house where the library is stationed and talks or reads to the children who are collected for that purpose. Sometimes she exhibits pictures or other works of art and explains them to the boys and girls, who are eager listeners. After the books have all been read, which requires from two to three months, the library travels on to another section of the city. Only books suitable for children are placed in these libraries, and if any book is found to be unpopular, it is at once replaced by another.

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY LIBRARY.

The Chicago Historical Society was organized on June 9. 1856, though it did not receive its charter until the following year. The general

object of the society is to encourage historical inquiry and spread historical information, especially within the state of Illinois. One of the first provisions of the constitution is for the establishment of a library of books and publications appropriate to such an institution.

In 1868 the society completed a building supposed to be fireproof on the corner of Ontario street and Dearborn avenue, and moved in, but had hardly got settled when the fire of 1871 swept the building, which cost $60,000, and its contents, which had cost vastly more, out of existence. As no report had been made after the removal to its new home, the exact number of volumes in the library at the time of the fire is unknown, but in 1868 it had 15,412 bound volumes, 72,104 pamphlets, 1738 files of newspapers, 4689 manuscripts, 1200 maps and charts, 380 cabinet specimens, and 4682 miscelJaneous prints, etc. Its collection of public documents both of the United States Government and of the territorial and state governments of Illinois were exceptionally complete.

After the fire liberal contributions were made to the society by similar societies and by other learned societies, as well as by individuals. These were stored temporarily in rooms on Michigan avenue owned by Mr. J. Y. Scammon, a member of the society, and in the second great fire which occurred July 14, 1874, this valuable nucleus was totally destroyed. At the present time there are in the library about 20,000 volumes and 40,000 pamphlets. This collection is soon to be housed in a new fireproof building on the old site, to cost $150,000. With a book fund of $4500 per year the library should make vigorous strides forward.

for all expenses. This amount is estimated to be about $100,000.

No location has been chosen for a building. Indeed it will be some years yet before any steps can be taken in that direction, as there must be a saving of the cost of the building from the annual income. Temporary quarters are to be selected, however, and we may soon have the satisfaction of seeing the long-talked-of library actually on its feet.

THE CHICAGO LAW INSTITUTE.

The Chicago Law Institute was organized in 1857 under a charter granted by the General Assembly of the state of Illinois. Its main object was the collection of a comprehensive law library in this city. On the 8th of October,

1871, it had on its shelves 7000 volumes valued at $30,000. It had complete sets of all American law reports; all reports of the English courts; many of the Scotch and Irish reports; the law journals of the United States and EngIland, besides text-books and treatises of law, ancient and modern, English, federal, and state statutes, etc. All these were lost in the great fire of 1871, and of the $20,000 insurance, only about $2500 could be collected on account of the insolvency of most of the companies. This amount, with something over $1300 in the treasury at the time, formed the nucleus for a new library. On November 6, 1871, the annual meeting was held amid the still smoking ruins of the old court-house, the institute's former home, and a resolution was passed to relay the foundations of the library. To that end an assessment for the current year amounting to one-fourth of the par value of the stock of the shareholders was levied. Provision was made for the admission of new members and a board of managers was selected from among the most eminent members of the profession. A room was set aside for the use of the institute in the old Rookery building, where it remained until its removal to the new court-house. It now con

JOHN CRERAR LIBRARY.

The John Crerar Library can really be said to be prospective only, inasmuch as nothing has been done beyond planning. John Crerar died in Chicago, October 19, 1889. His commercial ventures had been successful, and after devising liberal bequests to his relatives, friends, and pub-tains 29,000 volumes, and the annual accessions lic charities, he left the remainder of his estate are 1250. The daily use of the books is 2500. in trust for the establishment of a public library. The total cost of maintaining the library is The amount so left is estimated at two and one- about $10,000, which is derived from memberhalf million dollars. Messrs. Norman Williams ship fees, assessments, interest, etc. and Huntington W. Jackson were appointed by the will executors of the estate, with power to add to their number for the management of the library. The only stipulations in the will restricting the executors in the formation of the library were that it should be in the south division of the city and that trashy novels particularly French novels — should not be admitted to the shelves. Only a few steps have been taken up to the present time. Having obtained the passage of an act by the General Assembly authorizing the incorporation of boards of trustees for the management of libraries provided for by will, I well-known gentlemen were chosen, who, with the executors, organized under the new law. They have decided that the library shall be for reference only; that it shall be a purely scientific library, and that only the income from the main bequest shall be used

CHICAGO ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.

The Chicago Academy of Natural Sciences was organized in 1857 by 12 public-spirited gentlemen who subscribed $1500 with which to make a beginning. A room was taken on the corner of Lake and Clark streets and a few cases for specimens were made, but before the museum was fairly on its feet the financial panic of that year so paralyzed business that for two years very little was done.

In 1859, to place the institution on a firmer basis, it was incorporated under the general law of the state as "The Chicago Academy of Sciences," its object being "the increase and diffusion of scientific knowledge by a museum, a

library, by the reading and publication of original papers, and by such other suitable methods as shall from time to time be adopted."

In 1862, Mr. Robert Kennicott, the first director of the museum, returned from an extensive trip throughout British North America, bringing many specimens of natural history. Although this expedition was made in the interest of the Smithsonian Institution, the academy was furnished with duplicates of nearly everything collected, and rooms for the enlarged museum were taken at the corner of Randolph and La Salle streets. After a partial destruction by fire in 1866, a lot was purchased on Wabash avenue near Van Buren street. A building supposed to be fireproof was erected upon part of this lot, and it was occupied in January, 1868.

The books in the library were essentially scientific many of them being transactions of learned societies. The supposed safety of this building induced several persons to deposit in it their collections of scientific books, as well as many special collections of specimens. The growth of the library as well as of the museum seemed assured. On the 9th of October, 1871, this building and its entire contents library, manuscripts, and specimens were swept away by the great fire, but within 12 days thereafter steps were taken towards the restoration of the academy. It was determined to rebuild on the same site and nearly on the same plan. The new building was completed in the fall of 1873. The library was upon the first floor and contained in 1877 about 1500 volumes, with some hundreds of pamphlets.

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But this valuable collection was destined to be disturbed in its peaceful occupation of its home. Money had been borrowed for the erection of the building and it was impossible to meet payments. The result was a foreclosure and a surrender of the property. For some years many of the specimens were exhibited in the Exposition building on the lake front, the remainder, with the library, being stored. Two or three years ago the question of another attempt at a home for the academy cam to the front. The Lincoln Park commissioners, under authority granted by a recent statute, provided the location and part of the funds, but to the munificence of Matthew Laflin and his sons the public is mainly indebted for the beautiful and imposing building now adorning the park. The academy has but recently taken possession of its new quarters, and begins its new career with 4000 volumes of scientific works upon its shelves, besides a vast number of valuable specimens, which are rapidly being put in position under the direction of the well-known scientist, Dr. S. H. Peabody.

THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO.

This institution was incorporated May 24, 1879, and was the first movement towards a revival of the art interests after the great fire. It offers courses of instruction in drawing and painting, sculpture, designing and architecture, the last being in connection with Armour Institute, whose scientific equipment, including its library of 11,000 volumes, is at the disposal and use of all pupils in this department.

west corner of Michigan avenue and Van Buren street was bought for $45,000 and a structure erected. In 1885, additional ground was purchased and a brown stone building was erected the succeeding year. By 1892, the building was outgrown, the property was sold for $425,000, and the money was put into the new building on Michigan avenue at the head of Adams street. The institute in all its departments, under the experienced hand of the director, Mr. W. M. R. French, is in a flourishing condition and is being rapidly made more valuable and attractive by the addition of works of art.

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The library of the institute, of which Miss J. L. Forrester is librarian, consists of about 1500 volumes, most of which are strictly reference books and cannot be taken from the building. The most valuable acquisition of the library is the gift by Dr. D. K. Pearsons of the publications of Braun & Co., of Paris, comprising about 18,600 large carbon photographs or autotypes, being reproductions of paintings, drawings and sculpture of the best-known galleries of Europe. They are much used by pupils and are highly prized. The expenses of the library are met by the matriculation fees of students. This amount is about $600 per annum. Books are loaned to members of the institute and to pupils, and the reference books are much used by the latter. 1716 books were loaned to pupils during the two years ended June 1, 1894.

THE FIELD COLUMBIAN museum.

In March, 1894, the Field Columbian Museum was formally established. The museum grew out of the Columbian Exposition, becoming, as it were, the residuary legatee of many of the exhibitors. In addition to donations received, the directors of the museum made large purchases of valuable exhibits from individuals and governments that could not part with their treasures without remuneration. This they were enabled to do through the munificence of Marshall Field, of Chicago, for whom the museum was named and whose gift of $1,000,000 placed the new institution on a substantial foundation at once.

Mr. Edward L. Burchard, the librarian, reports at the present time about 9000 titles, of which about 2000 are valuable pamphlets. These books consist in large measure of special libraries, and some were received direct from the departments where they were exhibited during the Columbian Exposition. Thus the museum contains the special libraries from the Departments of Ethnology and Mines and Mining, and the collection of books on transportation and railroads from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's exhibit. The museum has acquired by purchase the special library on gems and precious stones of Mr. George F. Kunz, with Tiffany & Co., of New York. A special library on ornithology is also to be found on the shelves, with a promise of the valuable collection of E. E. Ayer, of Chicago, on the same subject.

After a sojourn in temporary quarters for three years, in 1882 the property at the south- |

As far as possible the books will be placed in the rooms to which they relate, making information on special lines easy of access to both curators and students. Probably no museum in the world has started on its career of usefulness

with a better collection of books and specimens, or with brighter prospects for the future than the Field Columbian Museum.

54. Insurance.

55. Docks and shipping.
56. Coal trade.

57. Taxes and duties.
58. Various industries.

ations.

60. Literature, Science, and
Art.

Through the facilities offered by the various
libraries and schools Chicago is becoming quite 59. Companies and associ-
a literary centre. Students and writers come
long distances for the purpose of obtaining ac-
cess to books not to be found elsewhere in the
West. Books are also sent long distances under
proper restriction, to persons whose time or busi-
ness will not permit of a visit to the city. Thus
Chicago is acquiring a reputation for something
besides beef and pork-something, too, which
is quite as necessary- the facilities for the cul-
ture of the mind.

A CLASSIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL

LITERATURE.

THE following scheme for the classification of London literature, devised for the collection in the Guildhall Library in London, by the librarian of that institution, Mr. Charles Wells, is here reprinted from the "Transactions" of the Bibliographical Society, vol. 2. pt. 1. It is, as Mr. Wells declares, "a development of Professor Dewey's decimal system of classification, which has been employed in the library for many years." Under the present "municipal renaissance," such a scheme will perhaps have its special interest to American librarians, although it is probable that the system here offered cannot be entirely followed, if allowance is made for the difference in conditions in American cities from those in London. As to this scheme being "a development" of the decimal classification, it seems to me that the only likeness is the arbitrary division into classes of ten divisions, and this arbitrary division has here been carried to a point unexcelled in the D. C. But as a rough list of subject headings that may be useful in making up a system of classification for municipal literature, the scheme may perhaps interest the readers of the LIBRARY JOURA. G. S. JOSEPHSON. 27. Amusements, theatres,

NAL.

music.

LONDON general. 1. Guides.

2. Dictionaries.

3. Essays.

4. Periodicals.

5. Societies.

6. Tours and Travels.

7. Directories.

8.

9. Bibliography and libraries.

10. Theology (Religion). 11. Controversies.

12. Government.

13. Visitations and pastoral

letters.

14. Church history.

15. Sects.

16. Institutions.

17. Missions.

18. Sermons.

25. Fairs.

26. Street life.

28. Miscellaneous.

29. Education.

30. Constitution.

31. Charters and customs.
32. Courts, administrative.

33. Courts, judicial.

34. Elections.

35. Offices.

36. Mayoralty.

37. Livery companies.

38. Freemen and appren-
tices.

39. Public bodies.

40. Administration.

41. Poor.

42. Police.

43. Prisons.

44. Light and water.

45. Markets and food.

19. Non-Christian religions 46. Sanitary.

20. Social life.

21. Ceremonials.

22. Pageants and entertain

ments. 23. Clubs and taverns."

24. Spies.

47. Roads and conveyance.
48. Associations.

49. Other.

61. Poetry and drama.
62. Prose.

50. Commerce.

51. Finance.

52. Bank of England, and
banking.
53. Old trading companies.

63. Statistics.
64. Geology.
65. Botany.

66. Natural history.
67. Climate and health.

68. Art.

69. Societies and institu

tions.

70. History.

71. Political history.
72. Military history.
73. Trials.

74. Plots and insurrections.
75. Plagues.

76. Great fire.

77. Notable events.
78. Biography.

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From the Kolnische Zeitung.

THE Prussian government has appropriated the sum of 300,000 marks for the printing of a catalog of the scientific libraries of Prussia contained in the Royal Library and in the ten University libraries of the Prussian dominions. This amount is to be regularly drawn in sums of 15,000 marks per year. Two years ago a loan system was instituted by which all the universities had free access to the works in the Royal Library. Since this departure, the need of a sub-catalog of the royal treasures that can be placed in every university has been more and more felt. The Royal Library is obliged to acquire the scientific literature of every branch of learning, even works in demand only by a very small number of specialists, and the catalog, as planned, will enable all scholars to know which of the books required in their researches are at Berlin, and, according to the new rules, at their disposal in any part of the country. The British Museum began to print its catalog in 1881, and the Bibliothèque Nationale is now preparing its material for the printer; it is therefore expected that in the course of some years the three most important scientific libraries of the world will be put at the service of scholars throughout the world. Berlin claims that its catalog will be the best for the needs of scholars, because it will be a subject catalog. The British Museum catalog can only be of use to those who know what they want. But the Royal Library of Berlin will bring out a classified catalog by which a scholar may at once see all the books existing on a special subject and make sure at once that the ground he is endeavoring to cover has not already been preempted. The catalog of the Royal Library, the fruit of ten years' labor of scholars of profound scientific attainments (for the law admits no others to the position of cataloger in the Royal Library), now fills 600 massive folio volumes and

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THE CATALOGUE OF THE ROYAL
LIBRARY AT BERLIN.

represents about 850,000 publications. The chief value of such a subject catalog will be that it will make it possible for other libraries or institutions to procure the division of the catalog which meets their special needs. To buy the immense catalog of the British Museum is almost impossible, it is too costly, there would be no room for it except in a very few libraries, and its vast accumulation of information would be wholly unnecessary in the separate universities of Germany, which are identified the world over with special branches of learning and sought only by scholars devoted to the researches they represent. In such universities the institute of mineralogy will be enabled to buy the volume of the Royal Library on mineralogy, the institute of natural history that on natural history, etc. Each institute can then mark up the works it possesses, insert any work it may possess not included in the catalog, and know what works can be found in the Royal Library. The catalog will be a monument to German industry and learning. It is an interesting fact that in the report of the political convention authorizing the necessary outlay for this great undertaking, the scholars and learned men in the house of representatives were severely arraigned for not displaying more enthusiasm over a decision of which the full benefit can be appreciated by them only.

BINDERY NOTES.
From the Nation.

THE Boston Public Library, in its new and ample quarters, has a roomy and well-lighted bindery, wherein all the books of the library are clothed, at their need. Some little leather work is done therein, as it becomes necessary to bind volumes to match other volumes of a set, but by far the greater part of the binding is in cotton or in linen. Large folios, their valuable plates strongly and neatly mounted on onglets, or "guards," in the most approved manner, and small duodecimos for free circulation alike, are covered with grayish brown cotton duck or with grayish white linen. One result of modern industrial triumphs is that good leather cannot, as a general thing, be got for binding — none that will be tolerably sure to last for twenty years, although there are plenty of bindings 300 years old still at hand whose joints are yet solid and whose corners are yet sharp. We used to be told that Russia ought not to be used, because it would turn to dust and split all along the hinge of each cover, and that was true; but it is true also of calf, and now it is beginning to be said that even the once trustworthy red morocco must be given up. Hogskin there is yet, but it is heavy and hard and makes an expensive binding; parchment and vellum, too, but they crinkle and blister and refuse to cling to the boards, unless, indeed, the work is done at a very considerable cost. This, at least, is what the Boston Library people urge. It is in view of these very serious drawbacks to the old custom of binding in leather that the famous Boston institution has taken up textile fabrics as its covering material. On the other

hand, the bookbinders by trade tell us that the leathers of 50 years ago are made now as well as then. If you want the Turkey morocco or Levant morocco binding of old times, you can have it, and at the same or equivalent prices as then. It may be a little dearer or a little cheaper, as duties or wages vary, but the leather is the same and costs the same. This, however, has happened: the market is deluged with cheap imitations, and librarians have remade their own standard of cost to correspond with these. A sham morocco can be furnished at half the price of the real article, and the volume that would cost $2 to bind in the latter can be bound in the imitatation for $1.60. The librarians say then that $1.60 is all they will pay; and binding done at this price will drop to pieces - there is no doubt about that. Forget the new commercial shams, go back to the old honest leather and the old prices, and you need not hanker after linen or cotton covering for your books.

Binding in cloth has been somewhat used already by amateurs of small means. Such an one, having his long rows of French novels which he loved - Cherbuliez and George Sand, Dumas and Gautier, Daudet and About - and wishing to save his money and yet to have pretty books, thought of the bright printed calicoes which were in fashion for ladies' gowns that summer-those with small sprigs of flowers for their pattern. He laid in a stock of these, a different pattern for each author (and a good many yards were necessary of the styles chosen for Dumas and George Sand). The French volume of regulation size costs a franc a volume in France to cover prettily in this way, or a franc and a quarter a volume with "top edge gilt," not counting the cost of the printed calico which one buys by the yard: but this is cartonnage, or cloth binding of the usual sort, and the covers, although bearing the wear and tear of years without splitting or separating from the volume, do certainly spread at the back and grow unsightly. Now, if it were indeed true that modern industrial conditions do not allow of good leather being made, why not, so long as linen and cotton are still allowed us of reasonable strength and durability, bind in these? Plain gray and brown linen are there for the serious workman and for public libraries, variously colored stuffs are accessible for those who prefer them. Stamped work, which has now grown common in what are called commercial bindings, is capable of much, if not forced beyond its limitations, and finally silk is available, and has even been used in several instances of late in the binding of whole editions of gift-books, although the binders tell us that silk does not behave as well as the humbler textiles. Velvet used to be familiar on the covers of church service books; and figured velvets, such as those made nowadays in Venice, brocades like those brought from Japan, and the heavier kind of Indian kimkhab might be used as well as printed or thread-dyed cotton. The cheviot of which our summer outing shirts are made would seem to be well adapted for book-coverings, and so would the tartan silks which are offered us this year (1895) for spring neckties.

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