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VOL. 20.

THE LIBRARY JOURNAL

SEPTEMBER, 1895.

WHEN the train from the east rolled into Denver, bringing in one contingent 70 representatives of library interests from the eastern and midwest states, Colorado stood ready to treat them with unbounded hospitality, and every participant joins in the verdict that a library conference never had a better time than the conferees of 1895 enjoyed at the hands of its hospitable citizens. The brief report given in this number shows that the proceedings, if they did not bring together in the total as large a number of persons as on some previous occasions, were of real value and wide interest, and those who had not the good fortune to be in attendance will wait with interest the full report, which will come later in the year. A good bit of work was done in Colorado Springs, where a peculiarly successful meeting was held, and indeed one of the real values of the conferences that of making every year new centres of influence for the library spirit—will be notably accomplished this year, as the field is almost entirely a new one. It is to be hoped that the Atlanta Exposition, with its women's congress of librarians we presume masculines will not be ruled out, if they chance to go - will furnish a second conference opportunity which will be utilized to the utmost. All librarians who can spare the time for a second professional vacation should arrange their plans so as to be in lanta at the date named.

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ly, so that within the present year the issue may be made at the proper date. In planning this monthly record, Mr. Crandall or Mr. Hickcox, who is his chief cataloger - has departed from the plan of Mr. Hickcox's old "Monthly catalogue" and adopted instead an arrangement by departments and bureaus similar to that used in 1884 for the appendix covering the U. S. Government publications in the "American catalogue." This plan was at that time adopted as a makeshift, and Mr. Crandall presents it now in the same light, with profuse apologies. But continued use of the classification raises the question whether, after all, this is not the most practical way of Government cataloging, and superior in plan for practical purposes either to the Poore catalog, which is a bad piece of work, or the Ames catalog, which is a good piece of work. These monthly issues are in| tended, as Mr. Crandall explains, for the temporary record, and their material will be put in final shape in the annual catalog or "comprehensive index," also provided for in the law. Mr. Crandall invites suggestions and criticisms before deciding on the method for this annual catalog, and it is important that he should have them fully and promptly, so that once started the annual index may be carried on systematically and uniformly. We suggest that, At-after all, the best method may be to make the

annual catalog on the lines of departments and bureaus - which is practically a subject classification and a classification by publishers,-supplementing this with an index by author, title, and specifically by subject. If the other method is adopted, certainly the present, which is the natural classification for government documents, should be given as an appendix necessary to supplement the original work.

No. 9

THE first fruits of the new public documents bill are shown in the "Monthly catalogue of Government publications" for January, February, and March, 1895, just issued from the office of Superintendent Crandall. As the bill was not signed until January 12, and Superintendent Crandall was not appointed until March, and the whole force had to be reorganized by the new superintendent, these first issues are neces- It is to be regretted that the further investiga. sarily far behind date; but Mr. Crandall has tion into the accounts of the Library of Congress acted wisely in beginning the issue with the first and the copyright office has shown deficits of a month of the calendar year, and it is promised really serious nature. In employing more peothat the succeeding numbers will follow prompt-ple than the law authorized and distributing the

total salary amount according to his own discretion instead of at the rates prescribed Ły law, Mr. Spofford of course laid himself open to serious criticism from every point of view, and with the natural result. The system of handling cash receipts has also been so defective as to invite trouble, and evidently the library has not only been swamped physically by the enormous accumulation of books, but administratively by the enormous increase of detail, particularly in the copyright department, without the executive oversight and organization to handle these details. Mr. Spofford's mistake throughout a mistake which has led to very unfortunate results-has come, as has more than once been suggested, from willingness to handle detail which should be clerks' work, instead of general organization, which is the proper work of an executive. The general desire to recognize that this result is a failing rather than a fault of Mr. Spofford has shown a most kindly feeling toward him, and it is to be hoped that in the long run the investigation will do good without showing more than seriand blamable carelessness, from which there can scarcely be acquittal.

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to decide why printers and proof-readers so often leave undone what they ought to have done and do what they ought not to do. Library work is distracting enough, but it is doubtful whether a course of instruction in lunacy will ever take the place of the State Library School.

Communications.

THE LEADING OF CATALOG TYPE. IT seems to me that the use of solid brevier

in catalogs ought not to be criticised. I believe it adds about one-third to the cost of a catalog to use leads ("6 to pica"). A catalog is not to be read continuously, but consulted for only a few minutes at a time, at most; and heavylegible for libraries which cannot afford luxuries, faced catch-words make solid brevier sufficiently that is 99 out of 100.

W. K. STETSON.

NEW HAVEN, CT., FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY.

THE recent investigation of the office of the Regents of the University of the State of New York seems to have resulted chiefly in demonstrating how largely the volume and value of the Regents' work has increased under Mr. Dewey's energetic management. This, of course, is against accepted precedents, for an "investigation" that does not reveal misdoing and malfeasance is, in popular opinion, unworthy of its name. The present investigation appears to have failed in this respect; but its failure has been directly beneficial, in setting the work accomplished by the Regents prominently before the public. The full reports of the examining committee's sessions in the local press' have served a useful purpose, though some of the information there imparted must have surprised even those acquainted with the work. The Regents maintain- the Albany Argus gravely states -"a state lunacy school," where, in 1894, out of 1600 applications but 87 could be accepted, owing to lack of desk-room. This is certainly startling, and readers of the Argus may well ponder why the state should furnish instruction in lunacy and why 1600 persons should seek such instruction. It will probably be easier to settle these questions than

[It is undoubtedly true that economy obliges many libraries to do what they must, rather than what they would, especially where cataloging is concerned; but it is also a fact that a closely packed solid page is unattractive, and fatiguing to the eyes. In the case cited, this was especially marked, some divisions of the catalog being set with leads and heavy-faced catchwords, while others combined catch-words in capitals (not heavy face) with solid brevier for titles and solid nonpareil for contents, even omitting leads between separate entries. — Ed. L. J.]

LIBRARY ADVERTISING.

in street cars interested me particularly, as it MISS MCGUFFY's suggestion as to advertising

had also occurred to me that it would be a legitimate way of bringing a library into notice. We have been discussing it here, and at the boards at our nearest "L" station, at the ensame time whether or not to place bulletintrance to the viaduct, in local stationers', and in the branch post-office. Within a few days I have learned that one New York library-the Harlem Library does advertise in the Third avenue cable cars.

Why should we not, also, where the entrance is not on the main thoroughfare, place at the street corner some sign directing attention to the location of the library?

I remember when visiting one of the "model" public libraries situated on a side street, and not having anything to call attention to it, going on for several blocks. If this is true of one looking need to have its advantages suggested to them. for the library, how much more so of those who

ALMA ROGERS VAN HOEVENBERG. FREE LIBRARY, WASHINGTON HEIGHTS,

N. Y. CITY.

THE TRAINING OF LIBRARY EMPLOYES. IV.
BY ADELAIDE R. HASSE.

CLASSIFICATION.

BEFORE the pupils are permitted to make any original research or to enter upon the more difficult reference-room work, they should be thoroughly familiar with the classification of the library. To some extent they must have come in contact with it during the time in which they were occupied with accession-book, shelf-list, etc. If the principle of the system used has been thoroughly explained to them at that time, even then they have had no opportunity of becoming acquainted with its specific application in the library. A simple way of assisting this acquaintance is to have all the books which are returned by the borrowers put back in their places on the shelves by the pupils, until they are as thoroughly familiar with the location of every book, map, pamphlet, etc., as are the attendants who are regularly employed to do this work. Then begin with the assembled class to take up subject after subject of the classification, with a view to bring out the following facts: who is the authority on this subject; what is the most important book on this subject; what is the ground covered, and the stand taken; or in what respect do two or more equally important books differ; what periodicals are devoted to this subject; what persons are to-day prominently engaged in researches along these lines; call attention to recent literature, etc.; point out also co-ordination of subjects in the classification, etc. Let the class make notes and copious references. So much of real enthusiasm may be awakened by this exercise that the writer has come to the conviction that it might successfully be introduced among the regular employes of libraries where the system of "specialties" prevails.

Do not attempt to cover this ground too rapidly, as it is one of the most important means of extending the pupils' point of view and arousing a permanent interest while they are pursuing their studies. Classification presented merely with an explanation of the inventor's selection of general subjects, and the systematic grouping of specific subjects under these, with reference perhaps to preceding and now historical systems, means nothing real to the pupil, and brings nothing home to him. What a wealth of material may be brought out in the discussion, comparison, etc., in the subject of

psychology alone, with its modern application in education, medicine, and criminology! The eagerness with which these lessons were looked forward to in the Los Angeles Library TrainingClass was proof conclusive of their usefulness one class in particular displayed special interest, which numbered among its members professional teachers and college and university graduates. Let the instructor have an ample supply of reference books at hand, and an equally ample supply of carefully prepared notes. Let the pupils make annotated lists of reference books for each subject as it is gone over, including standard histories, compendiums, dictionaries, etc., and at the end of this course prepare a classified list of this material for their own

use.

Insist always on good arrangement, capitalization, abbreviation, etc., according to catalog rules. Or let each pupil be given a subject on which to prepare a complete list of all the standard histories, etc., making critical annotations of the scope, comparative value, etc., and showing publisher, price, and date. These may then be duplicated and a copy distributed to each pupil. If the D. C. is used in the library a variation may be introduced in the subjects of history, 900, literature, 800, and portions of science, 500, sociology, 320, 330, and religion 200, by arranging all in one chronological table, using the D. C. time subdivisions; or, a number of historical periods may be selected and the pupils required to fill them in chronologically from the above-named classes, showing contemporary events, prominent characters, etc.; an object lesson thus being given also of the ramification of subjects in the D. C.

These same methods may be applied to the Cutter clasification, and a diagram can be prepared of this classification to show the pupils at a glance the gradual growth of this system from its first to its last class. A comparison of the D. C. and the Cutter may very profitably be made by placing the D. C. numbers under their synonymous letters in this diagram. In the actual classification of books, the pupils should by all means be given a hand, whenever new books are added to the library.

REFERENCE WORK.

The pupils having become acquainted with a wide range of subjects, and to a certain extent of the contents of the library, they are now com

paratively better able to make original research. In the reference work they will find greater opportunity to exhibit individuality than in the more clerical routine of the accession work and its dependent records.

Without inflicting an unexperienced pupil upon The pupil having served the stated period of a busy public, a course of work can be arranged time in the reference-room as allowed by the which will give to the pupil the same experience entire course of study, should have a fair knowlas that gained by the regular employes in direct edge of the general literature of the referencecontact with the public. Let the instructor re-room, but above all the manner of using, and quire of the regular employes to submit a value of the various indexes, concordances, quantity of questions, all of which have been bibliographies, etc., which go to make up the actually put to them at delivery-desk, registry- tools of the reference-room clerk. desk, reference-room, etc. Enclose of these questions, one each in a sealed envelope, of which distribute one to each pupil, with the general instructions that a reference-list on enclosed subject is to be submitted within a stated time, to be accompanied by a list of all books consulted, whether a reference be found or not this to test pupils' discrimination in the selection of books. File the returns, re-envelope the questions, addressing them this time in order to avoid the same person having the same questions, and repeat until each pupil has had all questions, then collate and report result to class. Every librarian knows the range of these questions from Kaffir mythology to the news flashed across the wires yesterday. Such exercises as Too much stress cannot be laid on the imthe above are useful chiefly in preparing the portance of reference-room work. It is a preppupil to meet these varied demands without dis-aration for the cataloger who, without this exmay. Let the pupils be assigned to deputy duty perience, will often fail of the realization of the in the reference-room in rotation to prove their most essential part of a catalog, i. e., not so much mettle in the actual fray. Meanwhile, work its mathematical arrangement and uniformly should be begun in the systematic preparation preserved nicety as the ability of the ignorant of reading lists on current topics, which, when public to use it. completed, may be posted, sent to the local newspaper, or included in the bulletin, for care should be taken that all work, when finally sub-cataloging until they have had larger experimitted, shall have been well done, and being well done the material so brought together should be made available to others.

The cataloging question must be omitted here. No pupils are competent to undertake

ence in the general use of books than that here related gives. They may be thoroughly equipped with all the rules, and be able to write perfect cards, yet the ultimate, the great, the final thing they may not be able to do—that is, to so ripely grasp the meaning and place of a book as to properly assign to it a subject, and judiciously to analyze its contents. This judgment is born of experience brought about by contact with the public.

The writer again wishes to call attention to the fact that the foregoing memoranda have been preserved largely at the suggestion of some librarians who by virtue of distance and other equally potent reasons were debarred from the advantages of contact with the great supply

pursued by many libraries. As an instance of the usefulness to which even a small library can attain by judicious reference work, the reader is referred to the last report of Miss Crawford, then of the Sioux City Library.

Most libraries have a certain patronage of club members and teachers who depend largely upon the reference-room of the public library, and where demands for lists on live topics are consequently continually accumulating. Here the pupils will find ample opportunity for genuine work, and in this way, too, a measure of return may be made for the expenditure of the time of the employes given to pupils. The work of the reference-room may be much extended, so that it becomes a valuable adjunct to the cataloging department and to the work among children and schools now so earnestly

The attention of the pupil should be trained to discover those numerous and often valuable bibliographies which it has recently become more generally the custom to insert in books not coming under the head of reference books, and to be found more particularly in those dealing with sociological questions. MacDonald's "Abnormal man" may be cited as a book greatly increased in value on account of its excellent bibliography, and Bandelier's "Gilded man," as one which would be greatly improved by the addition of one. Many libraries preserve such bibliographies for reference by indexing them on cards, and keep them solely for reference

room use.

centres of trained librarians, and who perforce were compelled to select from raw local material, rather than from experienced material at large; and, moreover, that these memoranda were the results of practical and successful experience in an active public library and are addressed mainly to librarians of public libraries.

Tabulation in regular program form was not made, because it was not intended that these statements should be arbitrary, but they were offered simply in the hope of being suggestive, For further material the reader is referred to the Much that would properly find a place in the 'Handbook of the Denver Public Library," the foregoing has been omitted, each librarian being bulletin issued by that library, to the bulletins at liberty to introduce such accessories as he and reports of the Los Angeles Public Library may deem necessary to the rudimentary educa- bearing on training classes, to the circulars of tion of library employes as such. Trips to the the Armour, Pratt, and Drexel Institutes on bindery, the printing office, the newspaper | library schools, and finally to the handbooks offices, to neighboring libraries, may, with ad- and reports of the Library School of the New vantage, be made; Mr. Dana even including | York State Library.

THE WOMAN'S EDUCATION ASSOCIATION.*

BY ALICE E. CHANDLER, Advisory Librarian, Town Library, Lancaster, N. H.

THE subject of the Woman's Education As- | by such approval as seems to warrant its consociation will perhaps be best introduced by the tinuance and extension. A year ago three lipresentation of a circular issued for distribution braries similar to those mentioned were prethis summer among the smaller libraries of pared, and lent to as many towns, recommended Massachusetts: by the State Library Commission. In the autumn these were exchanged for the first time, and now a second transfer has been made. The association has been heartily thanked by every town for the use of the books, and the work seems to be highly appreciated. The circulation varies greatly. In one town of 300 inhabitants the first set only went out eleven times. With the next library the use increased to 70, fully as large as could be expected in a town of that size.

WOMAN'S EDUCATION ASSOCIATION.

The Woman's Education Association, of Boston, a body organized to promote educational interests, has been interested lately in studying how to make the libraries in the smaller towns of the state more useful. It has been noticed that the circulation of these libraries often does not increase as it should, but, after the library has ceased to be a novelty, the demand for books diminishes. Frequently this is due to the fact that the readers have exhausted the small number of books, and the town appropriation is insufficient to keep the library up to its original standard. Of course in no one of these smaller towns can many readers of solid books be found, but no town is so small or so quiet that there may not be in it some person, young or old, eager for knowledge, whose whole life may be changed by having a chance to read the best or latest books of travel, science, history or literature, which are too expensive or too little in demand to be bought by the town purse.

The Woman's Education Association offers to supply this want by lending travelling libraries of about 25 volumes, on various subjects, for six months. In these collections are books of American History, Natural Science, General Literature, Travel, Agriculture, Sports, etc. Requests for books from local societies studying special topics will receive due consideration, and lists of the most desirable books on one or more subjects, will be sent to libraries or societies applying for them. The Association has the cordial endorsement of the State Library Commission in this work.

Application for the Travelling Libraries may be sent from any town by the librarian and two other citizens. No charge is made for the use of the books, except the prepayment of the return freight, but an account is expected of their circulation. The libraries will be sent out early in October, but, as the number is limited, an early application is desirable. For all information, address the secretary of the Association, Miss Mary Morison, 26 Marlborough st., Boston, Mass.

The publication of this circular is induced by the desire to extend a work instituted during the previous year, and which has been followed

attendance during the session of the city council.

* Read at the meeting of the Massachusetts Library Club, at North Easton, May 22, 1895.

earnest

to

Another library was lent in a town of 2000 people, where no public library existed. A number of women determined start one with the hopes that the town would presently adopt it. Though their hopes have not yet been realized, they have fully demonstrated its usefulness and popularity by a circulation of over 2000 in six months, to which the travelling library contributed 172.

At the same time a fourth library of a slightly different character was started. A small town with a low valuation had declined to establish a library, thinking that they could not afford the yearly expense. Knowing that there was one town official who was an earnest advocate of a library, the association offered to loan 50 volumes for a year, if they would be properly housed and cared for. Of course this library had to be of an entirely different character from the others, and the committee found the selec

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