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think what would happen in the event of an act of war, or even of fire, in our national copyright depository. "The carefulness and foresight of ordinary business affairs demand that all shall not be risked in one place."

Mr. Hopkins' paper on "A handbook of library economy," read by A. E. Whitaker, suggested the publication of such a handbook in the form of a dictionary, which should contain about 1000 articles, arranged alphabetically by subjects, with cross-reference, and a carefully prepared bibliography with an index.

This paper was referred to the Publishing section.


A paper on the "Best method of changing a subscription library to a free public library," by C. W. McClintock, was read by J. T. Woodruff. The only plan found feasible in Pennsylvania was that of subsidizing the common schools, making an appropriation for them exclusively. An act was passed by the last legislature giving the schools the requisite assistance in establishing and carrying on free libraries.


Prof. G: T. Little's paper on "Helping inquirers," read by Miss Garland, presented briefly and clearly the essential qualifications of a good reference librarian. The first point in giving help is understanding the inquirer, who may not be able to state clearly what he is in search of. The mental dexterity of a lawyer, the manners of a diplomat, and the patience of a saint are qualities the librarian must cultivate, if he would clearly comprehend the inquiries put to him." Mastery of the library is also essential. Not all librarians are walking encyclopædias. Most know only because they know where to find the facts. The librarian should have the acquaintance of an expert, (1) with reference books, (2) with the classification of the library, (3) with recent bibliographies, especially the more informal and helpful notes in library bulletins and literary newspapers, the aids which his fellow-librarians have put in print.

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Treasurer: George Watson Cole, Jersey City' N. J. Trustee of Endowment Fund: Norman Williams, Chicago, Ill.

A. L. A. Council: Katherine L. Sharp, Chicago; Herbert Putnam, Boston; Henry W. Utley, Detroit; Edwin H. Anderson, Pittsburg.

The committee on place of next meeting reported the following resolution, which was adopted:

"Voted, That we have received with great satisfaction the proposals for an international conference of the American Library Association, and the Library Association of the United Kingdom in Great Britain, at some time in the near future, and promise that this Association enter heartily into such plans to that effect as may be made by future conferences.


But it is the conviction of this meeting that the near approach of the grand centennial in Paris, in the year 1900, points to that date as the one to be chosen for a gathering of the librarians of the world."

Opportunity was then given for the presenting of names of places for the next meeting. Miss Imogene Hazeltine, of Jamestown, N. Y., presented the attractions of Chautauqua Lake, its accessibility, its delightfulness as a place of rest, the great opportunity for reaching thousands of people by holding sessions for one day at the Chautauqua Assembly grounds, and on behalf of the people of Jamestown extended their cordial invitation to a banquet to be given to the Association.

No abstract can give any idea of the charming eloquence with which Miss Hazeltine presented her case. Her earnestness, clear-cut phrases, and glowing word-pictures captivated the conference, and she took her seat amid a storm of applause.

Mr. Brett arose with the remark that if he had not come to the conference expressly to present the claims of Cleveland he should have to vote for Chautauqua. But there were reasons why the invitation from the city of Cleveland should be accepted for next year rather than any other. It would be the 200th anniversary of the settlement of the place, and the 50th of the founding of the library. The great lakes offered special attractions for post-conference excursions at low rates. This was the second year the call to meet at Cleveland had been made, and he hoped for a favorable answer. Miss Hazeltine, perceiving the cogency of Mr. Brett's arguments, and evidently unwilling to enter into a contest in which victory for her cause would bring great disappointment to others, gracefully withdrew the claims which she had presented for Chautauqua in favor of Cleveland. By this delicate and tactful move Miss Hazeltine secured for her cause, when she next chooses to present it, the votes of all who were present. No other places being presented, Cleveland was chosen by a unanimous vote as the place for the next conference, the time to be selected by the council-probably about the first of September, 1896.


The report of the finance committee was read and accepted.

The following queries from the question-box were read, and the answers obtained by a show of hands:

How many of those present at this conference, who came from active library work, had their expenses met by their several libraries? Answer: 21.

How many had their time given but not expenses? Answer: 32.

The amendments proposed to the constitution were fully discussed and finally laid over until the afternoon session.

The committee on resolutions presented the following resolution, prepared by Mr. Fassig: "As the rapid growth of that class of scientific literature which is being issued in serial publications makes a comprehensive subject-index to this material of the greatest importance, and as the labor involved in the preparation of such an index makes international co-operation necessary, the American Library Association heartily indorses the movement inaugurated by the Royal Society of London for indexing the currect scientific literature in serial publications.

"Believing that the best method for accomplishing this purpose can most readily be arrived at by discussion in a conference of those most directly interested in the work, the Association further indorses the recent recommendation of the Committee of the Royal Society to hold an international conference in London in the summer of 1896 for the consideration of plans." Accepted and referred to the council. The special committee on Mr. Brett's scheme for indexing current periodicals reported, “That they are convinced that the plan is a good and proper one to try, and recommend it to the favorable consideration of the conference." Adopted.

At the afternoon session the proposed amendments to the constitution were taken up and again discussed. When the final vote on their adoption was taken, failing to secure a twothirds vote in their favor, they were declared rejected.

At 3.15 p.m. a committee from the Chamber of Commerce took charge of the members, and in electric cars took them for a ride over nearly all the electric lines in the city. The excursion proved a most delightful one. We were whirled thro' fine wide avenues in the heart of the city, back and forth thro' shaded suburbs, up hill and down, by park and gardens, lakes, and pleasure-grounds, with constantly changing and ever attractive views, now of the city from the summit of a hill, and now of the magnificent mountain-range to the west. The queen city of the plains was exhibited to us in all her loveliness. A specially notable feature was the utter absence of rookeries or slums. Scarcely a wooden building was to be seen, save a few neat cottages.

Friday evening the members sat down to their annual dinner in company with a number of guests. It was royally served and keenly enjoyed. Hon. Platt Rogers, of the committee of the City Library, gave an entertaining after-dinner speech, and C: Alex. Nelson recited an original poem on Oliver Wendell Holmes. The

remainder of the evening was delightfully spent in pleasant social intercourse.


At 10.30 a.m. of Wednesday, Aug. 21, the final session of the conference was called to order in the lecture-room of the beautiful Coburn Library at Colorado Springs. The committee on the memorial to the late Dr. W: F: Poole presented the following preliminary report: "Your committee has organized by the election of Dr. Wire as secretary and treasurer, and requests that members present who wish to subscribe to the fund hand their names to Dr. Wire. Your committee recommends that the memorial take the form of a bronze bust, which, with a suitable pedestal, can be procured for a sum not to exceed $500. This sum can certainly be raised in an association of this size; and your committee would urge upon all members of the A. L. A. that in thus paying respect to the memory of a distinguished representative we are honoring the profession to which we are proud to belong."

The report was unanimously adopted.

The report of the special committee, to which was referred the communications from the board of women managers of the Atlanta Exposition, was read by Mr. Carr, viz.: "Your committee appointed to consider the communications from Mrs. Wallace and others concerning the action of this body in regard to the Atlanta Cotton Exposition beg leave to submit the following: 1, It is advisable that the secretary respond to the letters received, accepting the invitation for individual members to attend and take part in proceedings of the library congress to be held during the Exposition. 2, It is further advised that the committee in charge of the library exhibit be informed that the A. L. A. no longer has possession of the model library exhibited at Chicago, the same having been given into the charge of the U. S. Bureau of Education, to whom application should be made."

The report was received and adopted.


The committee on resolutions reported the following: Resolved, That the thanks of the American Library Association are due and are hereby tendered to the Denver Chamber of Commerce, to the Colorado Library Association, and to the resident members of the A. L. A., and also to the Chamber of Commerce and the Reception Committee of Colorado Springs, for the cordial hospitality they have extended to this Association and for the enjoyable entertainment they have provided for visiting delegates."

Accepted and unanimously adopted.

On the suggestion of Mr. Elmendorf, all friends of the library movement were invited to become members of the Association.

The president then announced the topic for the morning's discussion: "Systems of control, support, and administration of public libraries."

Mr. Ehrich, of Colorado Springs, after cordially welcoming the Association, remarked that in former times the librarian filled the position of custodian and keeper of books. "As Longfellow has said that books are the sepulchres of



human thought, so the librarian was the pre-mine-owners and make him see that this is the
venter of body-snatching. But now he is an opportunity to make his name immortal."
President Utley: "In a city in Michigan a
educator co-operating in extending and carrying
out the library sentiment. There are in Colo-public-spirited man said he would give $100,000
rado Springs three libraries: 1, The Coburn for a library. He erected a building on a lot,
Library, the gift of a noble son of Massachusetts, which he also gave, and the total cost was
the more remarkable since the donor never saw $150,000. This he gave to the city on the con-
Colorado Springs; it is a students' reference dition that it would maintain the library, and
library of about 16,000 v., well selected. 2, A there it stands in Muskegon as a lasting monu-
ment to the generosity, liberality, and public
small private subscription library of 1500 books,
principally fiction. 3, A free public library. I spirit of this individual. The same thing was
trust none of you will visit it, as we are not done in Kalamazoo. You ought not to be too
proud of it. It contains some 2000 books, and timid in calling upon the taxpayers. There is a
circulated 11,000 v. last year, chiefly among the public spirit among all classes ready to support a
invalid class who visit our city, to whom it says library."
in the words of Titus Andronicus:

Mr. Elmendorf: "I want to wish well to the
scheme for Colorado Springs. The public li-
brary movement is a popular one. It is not an
extra tax to support it, but a necessity; the
Cripple Creek war, sewers, etc., are the extra
This is a distribution to be regularly
counted on in your tax levy. Our people in St.
Joseph were disposed to consider favorably
changing not the amount of the levy but the
distribution; the vote was almost unanimous in
favor of the apportionment."

Miss Hewins: "Mr. Gregg has referred to
the Hartford Library Association. Twenty
years ago it was a struggling institution, sup-
ported by a $5 subscription from 500 or 600
subscribers. For years there were meetings
and talks about making it a free library, but no
results, until five or six years ago a nephew of
Pierrepont Morgan induced him and others to
give $250,000, on condition that $150,000 more
were raised. It took some time to do this, but
it was accomplished."

'Come, and take choice of all my library,
And so beguile thy sorrow."

"We have had a library law passed, but our city is only 25 years old; it is expensive to convert a prairie into a city; school-houses have to be provided, and there is a demand for a church for every 10 inhabitants, so that we have not yet ventured to levy the library tax allowed.

"Some of us have a scheme - the gold-bugs have a plan - but we silver-bugs have a scheme. After the panic of 1890-93 Colorado Springs said: 'I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help,' so we have the hope that some citizen into whose lap the hills have poured wealth will establish and endow a public library, and then will we boldly raise the cry, 'No taxation without library representation."

Rev. Mr. Gregg said: "I cannot add very much to what Mr. Ehrich has so well said. I am filled with a sanguine feeling at finding myself here by the side of Miss Hewins, formerly librarian of our old Hartford Library Association, and I realize that 15 years ago I read a paper there begging for a free library in Hartford. I think Mr. Ehrich's prophecy will come true. I wish you would visit our library and see how our books have been used. Some of them are tied together with strings and circulate in that condition. Our city fathers gave us $500 a year for two or three years, and $9co last year. We have accomplished here in 20 years what New England towns took 200 to do. The Cripple Creek war cost this county $75,000. There are 23 different religious organizations here, each calling for support. I am delighted that this meeting has been arranged for, and look for good results from its influence."

Mr. Eastman: "We all feel at home having a welcome from men who are working for a library. Ditches and sewers don't wait for a man to die, nor are they dug and built from the proceeds of entertainments. We must create a sentiment that the public library is a necessity. We have no right to lecture the people of Colorado Springs, when neither New York, nor Buffalo, nor Albany has any such free public library as Denver has. Endowments are uncertain, entertainments tire out, taxation must come as a necessity. A current toward the delivery counter will start the other. A building is not the first thing to be desired."

Mr. Walter C. Frost: "Our citizens have come from everywhere. I came from a New England town where the library was open every Sunday at the Unitarian Church. I never lived in a New England city where they had not a library. Newton, Mass., was one where they had nine or ten delivery stations, and carried out books to the people. A library centre here in El Paso county would bind people together. Here people are accustomed to co-operation. It took $600,000 to bring water here. I have great hopes for our scheme. But I would be glad to learn how we can consolidate this idea for a library; how to get at one of these rich

Mr. Carr referred to the experience at Scranton, Pa., where a citizen set out to erect a memorial to his parents, started with $75,coo, and landed at $125,000. Popular subscription raised $25,000, and the city agreed to maintain the library.

Mr. Woodruff emphasized the idea of a combination of forces. One town in Illinois had a circulating library supported by contributions. A lady offered $5000, provided $30,000 could be raised. The offer stood for some years exerting influence. She died and provided by will for giving the amount she had promised, so the library was finally successful. In another place the deed of the donor gave the impulse. His donation was seconded by his children, and then by the town. The motive to appeal to for needed help is not only the perpetuation of a name.


Property is a trust. There is a community of interest and right in property accumulated. The unearned increment is a fit object of public claim.

Mr. J. C. Dana: "Our experience cannot be of much value to people of Colorado Springs. Our School district no. I is perhaps the only one in the state able to raise a tax sufficiently large, about $6000. The board of education runs the library with a special tax levied under the school law."

Rev. Mr. Washburn, formerly of Stockbridge, Mass., referred to Mr. S. S. Green and his work in Worcester. "We are like Artemus Ward, all ready to have some rich man start. I say begin on a popular movement, do something ourselves. We must raise money and afterward let the rich man come along."

Mr. Nelson: "I simply wish to acknowledge the correction of the impression I received on reading your Colorado library law. It seemed to me to put too much control of library funds into the hands of the politicians and rings. But since I have seen the magnificent school-houses in every town I have visited, even in the mining towns in the heart of the Rockies, often the finest building in the town, and have met and talked with and heard, as we have this morning, the men who handle public moneys, my fears have vanished. Your taxes will be well spent and your libraries will come soon."

Rev. W. A. Platt, editor of the Gazette, said: "I came here to take notes for my paper, not to talk. But this is one of the most practical discussions I have ever heard. Let us get up a popular sentiment and we shall have a library. The Gazette will help all in its power."

On motion of Mr. Eastman, a unanimous vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Warren for his untiring efforts for the comfort and pleasure of the members.

Meetings of the various sections were called to be held immediately after adjournment. Adjourned at 12.20 p.m.

The cordiality of our reception will long be remembered. Members of the Colorado Library Association sent bouquets to 40 rooms at the Windsor shortly after our arrival. The reception Wednesday evening at the High School was a brilliant success. It was held in the fine large entrance hall of the building, which, with the Friends in Council room and others, was handsomely decorated with flowers. Gov. McIntyre and many of the leading citizens of Denver were present. Music was furnished by an orchestra and refreshments were served throughout the evening. The University Club House at Denver and the El Paso Club at Colorado Springs were freely opened to members of the Association. The various excursions arranged for were fully enjoyed by all who took them. The Flower festival at Colorado Springs and the illuminated bicycle evening parade were added beautiful incidents of our visit. The post-conference trips and excursions will be fully written up for the Proceedings.

C: ALEX. NELSON, Secretary pro tem.

TRANSACTIONS OF EXECUTIVE BOARD. THE executive board of the A. L. A. met at the Coburn Library Building, Colorado Springs, Wednesday, August 21. Present: Messrs. Utley, Dana, Carr, Dudley, Elmendorf, and Miss West; also W: H. Brett, as representing place of next meeting. Mr. Brett (as chairman) and Secretary Elmendorf were selected as local committee (with power to add to their number); said committee to arrange for exact date of next meeting, the Association having designated "on or about the first of September, so far as satisfactory arrangements can be made." The president and secretary were appointed a committee on program, and, in conjunction with the local committee, to determine upon the general policy and nature of the next conference.

The following additional officers were chosen: C: Alex. Nelson, recorder; Miss Nina E. Browne, assistant recorder; Charles Orr, G: B. Meleney, F: W. Faxon, S. H. Berry, and T: L. Montgomery, assistant secretaries.

Messrs. Whitney, Jones, and Whelpley were reappointed as finance committee; also Messrs. Thwaites and Gould and Miss Ahern as foreign documents committee. For the several other committees the following named chairmen were appointed: W: H. Tillinghast, on co-operation; R: R. Bowker, on public documents; Pliny T. Sexton, on endowment; J. N. Larned, on library school and training classes. Other members of said committees to be selected by the president and ex-president in conjunction with the respective chairman of each committee.

Voted, That all persons not in library work who have joined and paid dues since the last conference be elected members under Section 3 of the constitution.

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Dora A. Barber, North Adams, Mass.; Helen M. Bradley, State College, Pa.; Fannie R. Davis, Salisbury, Ct.; Florence P. Davis, Hartford, Ct.; W: T. Dempsey, Orange, N. Li-J.; Margaret C. Dyer, Washington, D. C.; Martha J. Eastman, Westborough, Mass.; Juliet B. Graham, Washington, D. C.; Helen T. Guild, Fort Wayne, Ind.; Louise Hosmer, Worcester, Mass.; Julia P. Hughes, Baltimore, Md.; Agnes C. Kite, Philadelphia; Anna B. Miller, New York City; E: M. Monfort, Marietta, O.; Frances E. Moulton, Fitchburg, Mass.; Rosa A. Oberholtzer, Sioux City, Ia.; Miss M. E. Robinson, Palmer, Mass.; Cornelia A. See, New Brunswick, N. J.; Adele Smith, Waltham, Mass.; Caroline Smith, Amherst, Mass.; Emilie R. Smith, Bloomsburg, Pa.; Alice F. Stevens, Washington, D. C.; Sarah M. Tatum, Philadelphia; Ida M. Taylor, North Conway, N. H.; Miss M. A. Vanamee, Middletown, N. Y.; Carolyn Wells, Rahway, N. J.; Annie R. White, Lexington, Va.; E: C. Will. iams, Cleveland, O.; Caroline A. Woodman, Lewiston, Me.

Utley, Detroit Public Library), vice-presidents, secretary, recorder, and treasurer.


Finance: J: L. Whitney, Boston Public
brary; Gardner M. Jones, Salem Public Library;
A. W. Whelpley, Cincinnati Public Library.
Co-operation: W: H. Tillinghast, Harvard
University Library (chairman).

Public documents, U. S. and State: R: R.
Bowker, Brooklyn, N. Y. (chairman).

Foreign documents: R. G. Thwaites, Wisconsin State Historical Society; C: H. Gould, McGill University, Montreal; Mary E. Ahern, Indianapolis.

Endowment: Pliny T. Sexton, Palmyra, N. Y. (chairman).

Library school and training-classes: J. N. Larned, Buffalo Library (chairman).

Trustees of the endowment fund: E. C. Hovey, New York City; C: C. Soule, Brookline, Mass.; Norman Williams, Chicago.


Term expires 1896: Melvil Dewey, New York State Library; S: S. Green, Worcester Public Library; C: C. Soule, Trustee Brookline Public Library; J. L. Whitney, Boston Public Library.

Term expires 1897: R: R. Bowker, Director Brooklyn Library; C: A. Cutter, Forbes Library, Northampton, Mass.; V: I. Fletcher, Amherst College Library; W: E. Foster, Providence Public Library.

Term expires 1898: Mary S. Cutler, New York State Library; Hannah P. James, Osterhout Free Library, Wilkesbarre, Pa.; J. N. Larned, Buffalo Library; Justin Winsor, Harvard University Library.

Term expires 1899: W: C. Lane, Boston Athenæum; Theresa H. West, Milwaukee Public Library; Caroline M. Hewins, Hartford Public Library; Caroline H. Garland, Dover Public Library.

Term expires 1900: E. H. Anderson, Carnegie Free Library, Pittsburg; Herbert Putnam, Boston Public Library; Katherine L. Sharp, Armour Institute Library, Chicago; H: M. Utley, Detroit Public Library.


SONNENSCHEIN, W: Swan. A reader's guide to contemporary literature; being the first supplement to "The best books: a reader's guide to the choice of the best available books (about 50,000) in every department of science, art, and literature, with the dates of the first and last editions, and the price, size, and publisher's name of each book; with complete author's and subject index." London, Sonnenschein; N. Y., Putnam, 1895. 15+ 124 + 775 p. 2.


As usual the library class, under the direction of W: I. Fletcher, the college librarian, was one of the most successful departments of the Summer School at Amherst, Mass. The class numbered 30, 26 women and four men, most of them already engaged in library work and seeking a better acquaintance with the well-recognized standards. Cutter's "Rules for cataloguing" were studied carefully, with constant comparison with other rules and methods. The other departments of library work accessionbook, shelf-list, classification, charging systems, binding, etc.—all received attention, and were treated practically as well as theoretically. Following is a list of the class:

That useful bibliographical work, "The best books," is now supplemented by another volume hardly less formidable in size and appearance, which brings the record of the "best" literature down to the end of 1893 and into 1894. Strictly speaking, the "Reader's guide," while supplementing the earlier work, is not a "sup

Library Schools and Training Classes. plement." The differences in plan and

fully explained in the preface, and are due to the three besetting woes of the bibliographer- lack of time, lack of remuneration, and surplus of material. Mr. Sonnenschein's first intention, of making this the first of a series of five-yearly supplements to "The best books," was perforce discarded in the process of compilation, owing to his "inability to obtain anything like a perspective view of modern literature, and the rapidity with which the work, in so far as it is critical, had to be done." The present volume, therefore, though widely comprehensive, is not a critical selection of the best literature, but rather" a mere record of practically all new publications in book form which seemed to have any lasting value at all, prominence having been given to subjects of the day." In so far as it has been practicable, brief characterizations of the books

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