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Librarians had a great opportunity for good work in assisting readers in the choice of books. Within the last 50 years a reading public had arisen which could be counted by millions in England alone. It was to be hoped that a great future was opening out before them, and that writers of genius might be found sufficiently strong to take their place among the giants of all ages. Meanwhile librarians must play their part in directing the stream into its proper course so far as was possible, so that no valuable crop should be carried away by the flood of literature, but that its waters might fertilize the land and produce in due time a rich harvest of ripe fruit.

Miss Dorothy Taylor, of Cardiff, then read a paper on 'Hospital libraries," in which she urged the claims of three classes of hospital libraries, viz., those for the use of the medical staff and students, for nurses, and lastly, for patients. She had sent circulars to 70 hospitals and infirmaries in London and the provinces, and the statistics showed that only 25 libraries exist for the use of patients, varying in size from 100 to 4000 volumes. The discussion which followed educed the fact that in nearly all large towns surplus papers and magazines are sent by the public libraries to the hospitals, and it was suggested that in order to secure supplies from private houses a systematic collection should be made.

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Mr. Barrett, of Glasgow, opened a discussion on "How best to display periodicals." The recent rapid development of periodical literature made this question really of considerable importance. In the Mitchell Library Mr. Barrett is able to exhibit 386 current periodicals, each having a definite place; but it is difficult to persuade readers to return them to their proper places when finished with. The plan adopted at St. Martin-in-the-Fields seemed to meet with general approval. There each periodical is fastened in its place with its name boldly labelled above.

The next paper was read by Samuel Smith, of Sheffield, "On the public librarian: his helps and hindrances." This paper, as it touched on a good many contested points in practical librarianship, evoked a somewhat heated discussion; and among the hindrances to the progress of the librarian Mr. Smith instanced the wretched salaries paid in several important public libraries, where the rule was for well-educated youths of 15 years of age to begin at 6s. per week, with a prospect of attaining to 10s. per week in five years' time.

On Wednesday the association resumed its conference under the presidency of Peter Cowell, chief librarian of the Liverpool Public Libraries. Miss Ellen Verney aroused great interest by her paper entitled "The Middle Claydon (Parish) Public Library: a successful experiment," in which she showed what had been done in a rural parish with a population of only 225, and so small an available penny rate as £9 per annum, The adoption of the free libraries act under such circumstances, she said, evoked a healthy sentiment of public spirit opposed to

the spirit of patronage which generally prevailed when a reading-room was condescendingly founded by some rich individual of the neighborbood. The first requisite was to put the village library on a sound business footing so as to give it the element of permanence, which only the adoption of the act could supply, after which there was ample scope for volunteer effort. It had been shown that there was a real appreciation of good literature among classes that hitherto had lacked opportunity of developing such tastes, and that libraries could be made a success without " penny dreadfuls" and "shilling shockers," even in a small rural parish. The public library under the act of 1892 appealed to the inhabitants as no other library could, and became a power for good to the whole neighborhood. The lending library and readingroom are greatly used, and every Wednesday the room is thronged with the laborers and their wives. The library now contains over 1000 v.

The next paper was read by John Shepherd, of the Cardiff Public Library, and dealt with "The collection and arrangement of topographical prints, drawings, and maps." In the discussion which followed, Mr. Welch, of the Guildhall Library, strongly emphasized the advantage of preserving local prints and drawings on separate mounts and unbound, as this admits of their being easily photographed or divided into special collections for exhibition. Several members spoke, and the result showed that the practice of collecting local prints in public libraries had become very general, and that some libraries contained costly and important collections.

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The next paper, on the Bibliography of Monmouthshire," was by Mr. W. Haines, and in his absence was read by Colonel Bradney.

A paper on "Welsh publishing and bookselling," by Mr. Eilir Evans, of Cardiff, gave rise to a discussion on the use of the Welsh language, in the course of which Sir William Bailey said he thought it was about time the Welsh gave their productions to the English people in the English language. If the works of Buchanan, Burns, and Sir Walter Scott had been printed in Gaelic, they would scarcely have been known beyond the limits of Scotland. Some of the finest poetry in the Church of England hymnbooks had been written by Welshmen, but few hymns had been rendered in English compared to the great mass of really beautiful hymns buried in the Welsh language, of which the English people knew nothing. Why should the genius of Wales be cribbcd, cabined, and confined by adherence to their own language? It might be patriotism, but it was patriotism in a wrong direction. This speech evoked an energetic protest from Mr. Williams, of the Swansea Free Library, who declared that the English language was too poor in expression to convey the eloquence of the Welsh nature.

Mr. J. Potter Briscoe, of Nottingham, read a paper entitled "How to extend the library movement," which was followed by a practical discussion.

The final session of the conference was held on Thursday, September 12, under the presidency of Lord Windsor. "Workingmen's libraries in Glamorgan and Monmouthshire" was the subject of a paper by Evan Owen, of Cardiff, who emphasized the need of helpful institutions for the benefit of colliers. He pointed out various obstacles to be overcome in meeting the needs of that particular class, such as the migratory habit of the collier. Many colliery libraries were thriving and prosperous. The passing of the free educational and the parish councils acts had been a great incentive to their formation. What was essential to the success of a colliery library was a fair start on a sound and proper basis. Now that Wales had been blessed with intermediate schools and university colleges, a great deal might be expected of her sons and daughters. If a good system of colliery libraries could be established the social edifice of the mining community in "gallant little Wales" would be practically complete. During the discussion of the paper Lord Windsor recommended a scheme of affiliation of such libraries for purposes of mutual co-operation, and Dr. Garnett suggested the utilization of electrical communication between the different districts by telegraph or telephone for local library work.

sult in deadening uniformity and discouragement of individual work, and would do a great deal more harm than the good which would be gained by having all cataloging done at a central bureau.

Miss Petherbridge, of London, read a paper entitled "A cataloging class for Great Britain and Ireland," which led to a somewhat animated discussion, most of the cataloging experts present protesting that such a scheme would re

After a short excursion by steamer and luncheon in the town hall, the members visited Cardiff Castle, by the invitation of the Marquis of Bute.

At the evening meeting Mr. Boosé, librarian of the Royal Colonial Institute, read a valuable paper upon "The colonies and the registers of colonial publications." To the discussion which followed Mr. Cundall, librarian of the Jamaica Institute, contributed a note upon library work now being done in Jamaica. This was followed by a paper on "Free libraries and the local press," by Mr. Joseph Gilburt, of Day's Library. Mr. MacAlister, the honorary secretary of the association, then read a paper on "The future of the library association: a forecast," which, he stated, was practically an introduction to the resolution which stood in his name, recommending that the association take steps to become incorporated. He briefly sketched the amount and kind of work that might be done by the association if it were strongly established and endowed, and urged the great importance of securing a continuity of effort which should be independent of the fluctuations of an income derived merely from annual subscriptions. He believed that the wealthy friends of the movement would be quite willing to endow the association; but it must first prepare itself by incorporation to hold property and otherwise to develop its resources, and results of incorporation.

The report of the council, with the treasurer's audited accounts, having being adopted, Mr. MacAlister moved:

"The public library and the elementary school — a note on an experiment," was the title of a paper by J. J. Ogle, of Bootle, who described a scheme of affiliation between board schools and the free libraries which had met with encouraging success. In the discussion that followed, Lady Verney urged the desirability of providing works on local topography and history in such libraries so as to interest the children in objects and places within their reach. Such books would be of great value to the members of cycling clubs, which largely consisted of boys, and would serve to give interest to their excursions. John Williams, of Swansea, thought such a plan should be extended to schools other than elementary, and suggested that the scattered libraries in the different technical schools should be concentrated in the public library and made available for general reference. Mr. Cowell followed up this suggestion by relating the experience of the Liverpool Public Library, where they applied the money which had become available under the customs and excise act to the purchase of technical books not only for the reference library but also for their branch libraries, a list of the works so bought being circulated in the work-shops of the city. The resulting to be held in London in November next." was that in the succeeding 12 months an increase in the circulation of technical books took place to the extent of 12,000 volumes. Such books, however, soon got out of date, and had to be frequently replaced by the latest editions, entailing an expense for which they had to make up their minds.

"That this meeting of the Library Association of the United Kingdom believes that the time has come when it will be for the permanent advantage of the association that it should be incorporated, and that its objects will be greatly furthered and helped by the improved status which incorporation confers; that it approves and indorses the decision of the council in the matter of petitioning for a royal charter of incorporation, and instructs and empowers the council to take all necessary steps to bring the matter to a successful conclusion." After considerable discussion, this resolution was put to the vote and carried unanimously. Mr. MacAlister then moved his second resolution:

"That the council be, and is hereby, instructed to revise the constitution, with a view to the requirements of an incorporated society; and that the revised constitution be submitted for confirmation to a special general meet

Mr. Welch, of the Guildhall Library, moved as an amendment that the matter be deferred to the next annual meeting; but this amendment being lost, the original resolution was put to the meeting and carried by a large majority.

Mr. James Yates, librarian of the Leeds Public Library, in the name of his committee, invited the association to hold its next annual meeting at Leeds, an invitation which was unanimously accepted. This brought to a close the formal business of the meeting.

State Library Associations.

MASSACHUSETTS LIBRARY CLUB. THE Massachusetts Library Club held its annual meeting on October 2, 1895, at Malden, by invitation of the trustees of the Public Library. The First Baptist Society having kindly placed their chapel and social-room at the service of the club, the meeting was called to order in the chapel at 10:15 a.m. The forenoon session was devoted to a discussion of children's reading, and the afternoon session to a consideration of some of the philanthropic aspects of library work.

Mr. D. P. Corey, president of the board of trustees, made a brief address of welcome.

President Foster in opening the meeting referred to the impressiveness and significance of architecture, and said that few communities possessed so impressive a monument as the Converse Memorial Building, in which the Malden Library is housed. A paper on "Some successful methods of developing children's interest in good literature," describing the work done by Mr. James M. Sawin, principal of the Point st. Grammar School, at Providence, R. I., was then read by Mr. Foster. It was hoped that Mr. Sawin would have presented the paper in person, but he was unfortuntely prevented, by illness, from attending.

Mr. Sawin's experience represents 27 years' work in one school. His plan comprised a careful study of the public library, a selection therefrom of school literature, and, thirdly, the careful study of the works selected, striving to fit the books to individual pupils. The pupil keeps the book a certain time, and then gives an account of the substance of it. What it is intended to induce is not so much knowledge of a book as the habit and right way of reading a book. At first stress was laid on oral work, but this has now given way to written summaries. The attempt is to lead children from paraphrases of great writers and extracts to the complete original. The case was mentioned of one boy who was turned from detective stories and now has a private library of 600 volumes.

Mr. Foster said that a librarian could cultivate knowledge of the interests of the various teachers and send them clippings to use in stimulating classes acts of heroism, current events, and incidents appropriate to young people. Over 20,000 of Mr. Sawin's lists of selected books have been distributed.

Mr. Horace E. Scudder said he was glad Mr. Sawin brought to the front the personal element. Nothing is so sure of results as contact with the individual. The recognition of the library idea as an adjunct of school life is one of the most hopeful signs of the times. The idea of the enrichment of human life through good literature is a great fact of the last few years. A boy was given toy tools for working in his garden, because he was interested in horticulture, but the boy preferred his father's old hoe and rake. The amount of great literature suitable for all ages is enormous. In 1867 Mr. Scud was asked to edit a magazine for young people.

For four years he introduced old ballads, history, etc., and had the gratitude of parents and the appreciation of the children. We should not depend largely on literature written for children. The one-syllable folly came soon to an end. Stories from ancient authors are of doubtful value. Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare" form perhaps a good introduction to the drama, which is difficult of approach for children. But it is not good to read an abstract or digest of Scott. A work of art should not be whittled down. If children are to be taught the old Greek stories let them read Palmer's translation of the "Odyssey." Give them the best there is. They may not understand all, but there will be bright spots they will never forget. The accidental things like chronology and the lives of the authors are not of great value. The essential thing is the living spirit of literature. A little fellow who learned to love the "Odyssey" in Palmer's translation, heard it spoken of as Palmer's "Odyssey." When his parents were to entertain Mr. and Mrs. Palmer, the boy was much interested, and asked if Mr. Palmer was married before or after Christ. The fact that he did not comprehend that Mr. Palmer was the translator, not the author, of the poem, did not in the least interfere with his appreciation of the work.

Mrs. Harry E. Converse then sang a solo. Miss A. L. Sargent, treasurer, presented her report, which showed a balance on hand of $278.66.

Mr. Lane called attention to the recent action of the A. L. A. Publishing Section in placing the membership fee at $5. Members receive all publications charged against their subscriptions at 20 per cent. discount, and may order additional copies at the same discount. The "List of subject headings" is now ready, and the "List of books for girls and women and their clubs" is in process of publication. An "Index to portraits" is promised for the future.

The meeting then adjourned until 2 p.m., and the members sat down to a most bountiful repast.

Mr. C. W. Birtwell, secretary of the Boston Children's Aid Society, opened the afternoon session with a paper on Books enough and to spare." He urged that the securing of books from public libraries should be made easier and more attractive. He looked forward to the day when there would be a free delivery of books. If the newspapers could scrape the world for news and get it to us, often before it happens, for two cents, he could not see why the public library could not have free delivery, or even send a cart-load of books and say to the busy, tired woman, who has no time to go to the library, "Here, my poor woman, come out and see what I have got."

Mr. R. E. Ely, president of the Prospect Union in Cambridge, said that among the working people were found two classes, one feeding on husks, and one not feeding at all. We must try to get at them through personal sympathy. Take them through libraries. They tell others. In the Prospect Union is an iron-moulder, over 60

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years old, an agnostic and philosophical an archist. He heard a lecture on Wordsworth, and next day saw a book of poetry; he read something that expressed his thought. So he is a great reader of poetry now, and Shelley is his idol. Every library should have a person with tact and kindliness to give his time to help the public. Put bulletin boards about the town, and post lists of books in the churches and the Y. M. C. A.

most unwise in the earlier days of its history, before the liberalizing influences of public libraries were so apparent on every hand, in expelling one from its borders for religious differences of opinion, but we are glad to see that Rhode Island does not cherish unkind thoughts toward us, as is shown by her contributions to this present meeting, and may we always, as to-day, forget that Rhode Island is not a part of our old commonwealth."

Mr. Woods, of Andover House, in Boston, Resolutions were adopted instructing the exsaid: "You must not only offer good influence, ecutive committee, if practicable, to arrange but go out and compel people to come in. The during the winter for a meeting of the club to place where the books are should be attractive, which library associations in other New Engand social element should be cultivated. Set- land states should be invited to send delegates, tlements might become distributing centres for and all persons in other New England states public libraries. Mr. Barnes, of Leland Stan-active or interested in library work invited to ford, Jr., University, has made a study of children's ideas of religion, of beauty, and of form. This study is necessary if books are to be carried wisely to these people. The library should circulate pictures."

Miss N. E. Browne, of Denison House, said that arrangements had been made with the Boston Public Library to have a station at the House. The library furnishes an attendant, and Denison House gives the room. About 250 books have been placed there, and more are promised if a constituency is secured. It is found that the people want short books.

Mrs. A. R. Marsh, of Cambridge, described the work of the Book Club, that branch of the Cheerful Letter Exchange. Each member has the care of 20 correspondents, to whom letters are written and books sent monthly. During the past year 1171 books (exclusive of magazines) were distributed thus to people who are too poor to buy, and unable, for one or another reason, to draw books from public libraries. Many of the correspondents are mothers in places where there are poor schools or none. Some correspondents circulate books among their neighbors, or to ships in port, or among colored people, etc. Lists of books asked for by correspondents are printed in the monthly paper of the society, The Cheerful Letter, which is issued under the care of Miss L. Freeman Clarke, Jamaica Plain. Mr. Lane asked that librarians co-operate with the Cheerful Letter Exchange by sending them duplicates not needed.

Mr. Jones, chairman of the committee on lists of select fiction, presented a report of progress, accompanied with samples of blanks used and proof of list No. 1. As the estimated cost of the list is large when compared with the income of the club, the question of continuing the work was, according to the wish of the committee, referred to the executive committee with full power.

Mr. Whitney, of Watertown, in presenting resolutions of thanks to the trustees and librarians of the Malden Public Library, to the First Baptist Society, to Mr. Foster, the retiring president of the club, and to all who contributed papers or remarks to the meeting, said: "It is particularly fitting that this Rhode Island meeting should be held in a city where a Williams is chief librarian, and under the protection of a Baptist church. Massachusetts was unjust and

attend.

A proposition having been made looking to the creation of a class of corresponding members, not resident in this state, it was referred to the executive committee to report an amendment to the constitution at the next meeting.

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, C. K. Bolton, librarian of the Brookline Public library; Vice-presidents, F. H. Hedge, librarian Lawrence Public Library, Miss L. A. Williams, librarian Malden Public Library; Secretary, Wm. H. Tillinghast, assistant librarian Harvard College Library; Treasurer, Miss A. L. Sargent, Public Library, Medford.

The secretary not being present, Mr. Bolton acted as secretary pro tem. during the meeting. WM. H. TILLINGHAST, Secretary.

CONNECTICUT LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. THE fall meeting of the Connecticut Library Association was held October 2, in the David M. Hunt Library, Falls Village. The building, erected by the Misses Hunt in memory of their brother, is a tasteful and substantial one of brick, which cost $10,000, and has rooms for the high school on the lower floor. The meeting was in the afternoon and evening, in order to insure a full attendance, and many visitors from neighboring towns took advantage of the fine weather and full moon. Guests were met at the noon train by a committee of ladies, and taken to homes in the village, where they were entertained at dinner and for the night, a bountiful and daintily served repast being spread in the vestry of the Congregational church at teatime. The pretty little library was beautifully decorated with ferns and potted plants, and filled to overflowing both afternoon and evening with an intelligent and appreciative audience. Twenty-two different towns were represented, and nearly 100 delegates registered.

The meeting was called to order at 2:30 by the president, W. K. Stetson. Rev. C. W. Hanna, of the Congregational church, welcomed the association in a hearty manner to the “promised land."

After the president's response, and the usual reports of secretary and treasurer, an interesting paper was read by Miss Cate E. Herrick, of the New Haven Public Library, on "Open shelves

at New Haven." Since July of the present year the experiment of permitting free access to the shelves has been tried, with very satisfactory results. Readers have found out that there are many classes of books in the library besides novels, and are using them with pleasure and profit. A children's room has been opened in one of the galleries, and children are free to choose all their own books from the shelves. Books are of course misplaced, and one assistant spends two hours every day putting them in order, but the advantages of the plan outweigh the disadvantages.

Miss Annie B. Jackson, of North Adams, Mass., told of methods employed in the public library of that town in the "Circulation of children's books." In 1883 there were only 75 or 80 books for children in the library, and there had to be "boys' days" and " girls' days." Since then the children's department has grown and is carefully classified, and the proportion of history, biography, travel, and science called for is much larger than in most libraries.

binding, and the advantage of glue prepared with rubber for making the backs of books flexible.

Miss C. M. Hewins's account of the meetings of the A. L. A. Conference at Denver and Miss Josephine S. Heydricks's description of the pleasures of the post-conference trip were so graphically portrayed that the entire company almost felt that they too had been to Colorado and the cañons of the Rockies. With a unanimous vote of thanks to their kind entertainers, the association adjourned to meet February 22, 1896, in the Silas Bronson Library, Waterbury.

Mr. Harden, from the New York office of Houghton, Mifflin & Co., spoke of paper and

book" for 1895, containing a list of the officers THE association has recently issued its "Handdation of the association, the constitution, a for 1894-95, a list of the officers since the founsummary of the meetings, discussions and addresses held since the preliminary meeting in February, 1891, and a list of the members, who

now number 82.

the pennsyLVANIA LIBRARY CLUB.

THE formal sessions of the club do not commence till November, but a pleasant preliminary excursion was had on September 5th. Fortyone of the members met together at Darby, where they were received by Mr. Robert P. Bliss, librarian of the Bucknell Theological Library, and Miss Burnap, of the Chester Free Library, from whence they went in a chartered car to Marcus Hook.

Miss Louise M. Carrington, of the Beardsley Library, West Winsted, opened a discussion on replacing worn-out books. The general opinion of the meeting was that good and valuable books should be replaced, but that money may be better spent for new books than for new copies of many gone-by novels, or of obsolete books of information. The poor paper and binding of some modern books were condemned, Arthur W. Tyler, of the new $300,000 Blackstone Memorial Library, Branford, speaking of the 17th century as "the time when they printed for the glory of God, and not to make money." In the evening the ladies of Falls Village entertained the whole audience at supper in the chapel opposite the library. At the evening session Mrs. Donald T. Warner, of Salisbury, read an historical sketch of the Scoville Memorial Library in that town, quoting some of the rules for the Smith Library given by a generous resident about 1775 : "If any person shall be uneasy about a book, he shall have it for one copper." The fines for misuse of books are on record: "Leaves doubled down, 2 pence; book nastied with coloring stuff, I shilling; drop of tallow, I shilling." This collection and the After dining together in Chester the party later Bingham Library were the beginning of returned to Philadelphia, and are looking forthe collection now housed, through the gener- ward to their next meeting, toward the end of osity of the Scoville family, in a fine stone build-October, when they are to be received by ing of Norman architecture, with a clock-tower. Mr. W. J. Latta at his residence on Wissahickon chime, auditorium, and Steinway grand piano. Heights, who promised to afford them an inspection of his very fine collection of Napoleoniana.

About four o'clock in the afternoon they inspected the Chester Free Library, and a short meeting was held under the presidency of Mr. John Thomson, librarian of the Free Library of Philadelphia, when there was a brief discussion on the subject, "How can you best promote the best use of books in a public library ?" The discussion was opened by Mr. Thomson, and remarks were made by Miss Kroeger, Miss Burnap, Miss Middleton, Mr. Bliss, and one of the committee of the Chester Free Library.

They next visited the Bucknell Library, where Mr. Bliss and some of the trustees did the honors. The literary curiosities were examined and a very enjoyable time was given to the visitors.

The Rev. John De Peu, of Norfolk, made a scholarly and thoughtful address, taking for his subject Tennyson's "Merlin and the gleam," tracing in it the development of Tennyson's mind, speaking of him as the poet of the grandeur and sublimity of human life, and of his confident assurance, hope, and faith in God, and saying that he never wrote a line that would disgrace the rectory where he was born. The address was a suggestion to the librarians of means of interesting readers in a more careful study of Tennyson.

MICHIGAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.

THE fifth annual conference of the Michigan Library Association was held in Kalamazoo, September 24-25. As the president, Mr. Utley, was unavoidably absent, the first vice-president, Miss G. M. Walton, librarian at the Normal School, Ypsilanti, presided at the meetings. The first session was called to order at 3 p.m., and after a few introductory remarks by the vice-president the president's address was read by the secretary. The subject of the paper

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