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ESTABLISHED 1872

LONDON:

PARIS:

30 WELLINGTON ST., STRAND. 76 RUE DE RENNES.

LEIPZIG:

HOSPITAL STR. 10.

GUSTAV E. STECHERT Purchasing Agent for Colleges & Libraries

810 BROADWAY, NEW YORK,

(TWO DOORS ABOVE GRACE CHURCH)

begs to call attention to his facilities for obtaining FOREIGN BOOKS and PERIODICALS at more economical rates THAN ANY OTHER HOUSE IN AMERICA OR EUROPE can offer, because:

He employs no Commission Agents, but has his own offices and clerks at London, Paris and Leipzig. He has open accounts with all the leading publishing houses in the world.

His experience enables him to give information at once about rare and scarce books.

He receives weekly shipments from England, France and Germany, and can thereby fill orders in quicker time.

MORE THAN 200 LIBRARIES FAVOR HIM WITH THEIR ORDERS.

SPECIAL REFERENCES,

"Mr. Stechert has for years furnished this Library with most of its periodicals and European books, and has bought for us many thousand volumes. Mr. Stechert's success is due to his constant personal attention to the business, and the reasonable terms he is able to offer. I consider a New York agent far preferable to reliance on foreign agents alone."

GEO. H. BAKER, Librarian of Columbia College, New York.

"Seven years ago, in reorganizing the Columbia College library, I spent much time in trying to discover how to get our foreign books and periodicals with the least delay, trouble and expense. The result of the comparison of three methods, viz: ordering direct from foreign dealers, ordering through one agent in London, or ordering through one agent in New York showed us that it was to our advantage to give Mr. Stechert all our foreign orders, as he delivered in the library in a single package and with a single bill at as low cost as we were able with vastly greater trouble, to get a half dozen different packages in different bills from different places. In reorganizing the New York State Library, I opened the whole question anew, and the result of the comparison was the same as before, and we find that the library gets most for the time and money expended by taking advantage of Mr. Stechert's long experience, and the careful personal attention which he gives to our orders."

MELVIL DEWEY, Director of N. Y. State Library, Albany, N. Y.

Mr. G. E. Stechert of New York has served us with fidelity in procuring English, French and German books, both new and second hand and also periodicals. His terms are more reasonable than any others that have come to our notice, while he has always guarded our interests very carefully. We find it a great convenience to have one agency in New York, represented by branches in different European countries.'

Prof. ARTHUR H. PALMER, Librarian of Adelbert College, Cleveland, O.

"Your methods and facilities for doing business, as I have examined them here as well as at the Leipzig and London ends, seem to me admirably progressive and thoroughly live. I deal with you because I judge it for the advantage of this library to do so. If I did not, I should not. Up to date I am unable to find a method which is, all things included, so economical of time and money as dealing through you."

ERNEST C. RICHARDSON, Librarian of College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J.

LEIPZIG.

"Our library committee speaks in the highest terms of your services. You have not only saved us many dollars, but have shown an intelligent appreciation of our wants for which we thank you.'

..

A. 8. COLLINS, Act. Librarian of Reynolds Library, Rochester, N. V.
GUSTAV E. STECHERT.
LONDON. PARIS.

NEW YORK.

THE

Library Journal

OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION

CHIEFLY DEVOTED TO

Library Economy and Bibliography

VOL. 20. No. 12.

DENVER CONFERENCE

YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION, $5.00.

DECEMBER, 1895

For Contents See Next Page.

NEW YORK

PUBLICATION OFFICE, 59 DUANE STREET.

LO: DON: SOLD BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & Co., PATERNOSTER HOUSE,

CHARING CROSS ROAD.

MONTHLY NUMBERS, so cte,

Price to Europe, or other countries in the Union, 20s. per annum ; single numbers, as.

Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter.

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CONFERENCE OF

DENVER AND COLORADO SPRINGS,
AUGUST 13-16, AND 21, 1895.

LIBRARIANS.

ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, H. M. UTLEY, LIBRARIAN OF THE
DETROIT PUBLIC LIBRARY.

WE

E are met for the seventeenth Conference of the American Library Association in the Capital city of the Centennial State. It is a pleasing co-incidence that the Association and the State celebrate the same natal year. Within the memory of some of us the whole region of which this city is now the metropolis was a wilderness. The century was fairly begun when Lieut. Pike led his little band to the sources of the Arkansas and made his futile attempt to scale the lofty peak which now bears his name. Forty years later came the explorations of Fremont, and then fifteen years elapsed before the tide of immigration set in. The desert of that day has been converted into prosperous farms. Thriving towns have sprung up in the mountain fastnesses, at the gateway to which sits this Queen City of the plains, displaying all the evidences of wealth, culture, and refinement to be found in the proud cities to the eastward.

This rapid and wonderful transformation has been the work of human hands guided by intelligent brains and an indomitable spirit of pluck and perseverance. We are accustomed to think of this combination as purely American. In many of its characteristics it certainly is so. And in no respect more distinctively so than in the cause in which we are most interested. Not all the older commonwealths, even on this side of the Atlantic, have yet accepted the theory that the education of the citizen is the concern of the state. But in all this newer portion of our country this doctrine has been incorporated into the fundamental law. The ordinance of 1787 for the govern

ment of the territory northwest of the Ohio river declared that for obvious reasons schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged. The twenty states now organized within this and the subsequently acquired territory to the westward have all accepted to the fullest extent the doctrine of the ordinance. They have not only carried it into practical effect by general laws providing for free public schools for children, for universities and institutions of higher learning for the education of youth, but have also provided for the establishment and maintenance of free public libraries at the general expense and for the common use of all the people.

Let us consider very briefly the theory upon which the state assumes to levy tribute upon the property of individuals to provide means for maintaining libraries. By what right does the state tax the man of wealth to put miscellaneous books into the hands of the man who pays no tax?

So far as primary education is concerned, the basis seems clear. The free state which depends for its very existence upon the intelligence of the masses of its citizens must, as a measure of self-defense, provide the facilities by which all may become intelligent. Selfpreservation is the supremest natural law. Whatever has a right to exist has a right to do that which is necessary to preserve its existence. The free state which rests on the suffrage of its citizens is bound in duty to itself to see to it that popular education, which is essential to its perpetuity, is universal. Ignorant men are not competent to take care of themselves and their households, still less to

direct the destinies of an empire. The state has, therefore, the right, not only to provide the means of education, but to compel education. Laws are in force which require certain attendance upon the schools. These rest on the theory that the interest of the state in the education of the individual surpasses that of the individual, and therefore, the state cannot, in justice to itself, treat education purely as a matter of individual concern.

It is a notorious fact that the average person does not perceive the importance of self-cultivation. As the vineyard left to itself is soon choked out with weeds and chapparall, so man if left to himself lapses naturally into his primitive condition. The state cannot leave him to himself, but must interpose to make it certain that he acquires the best degree of information which his natural abilities and the time not necessary to his self-support shall permit. Neither can the state leave the matter of providing facilities and inducements to education to private enterprise, nor to the church, which has been the foremost of all organizations to appreciate its importance. While the state recognizes these agencies and accepts them as satisfactory, so far as they go, it nevertheless fully equips schools of its own, in pursuance of its inherent right and duty, which cannot be relinquished to any other agency.

The extent to which the state shall go in the matter of educating its citizens has been the subject of much discussion. There are those who maintain that as the education of the individual proceeds his concern in his own development increases, until finally, if his education proceeds far enough, his concern in his own development surpasses that of the state, and he must thenceforth be left to equip himself entirely at his own expense. If that point is marked by the line between primary and secondary, or between secondary and higher education, there is where the state is in duty bound to stop. The extent of the interest of the community as compared with that of the individual is held to grow less and less and finally to disappear as he advances.

But the better judgment of our time repudiates this theory, and holds apparently that there is no limit to the concern of the state in the mental progress of the individual. Ian Maclaren in his touching story of “Domsie"

quotes John Knox as saying: "Ilka scholar is something added to the riches of the commonwealth." It can probably be demonstrated by the rules of accounts that as a business investment the state is wisely spending money in the education of the people. The cost is more than returned to it in the material development which an enlightened citizenship ensures. If we contrast our own country, where education is free, with some older countries where it is yet held to be a matter of minor concern, or if we contrast some of the states of this republic with others of corresponding age, we shall see at a glance a wide difference in material resources and prosperity. In one the industrial arts are far advanced, there is intellectual activity, the average citizen is well clothed, well housed, and enjoys many luxuries; in the other, the methods and life of a past century prevail and poverty and ill-living are the rule. This, if not the highest motive, is an incidental one of considerable importance for doing at the common expense that which is for the common good.

But the maintenance of the public library is not based on the communistic idea. A former president of this association, speaking at the Lake George Conference, said: "The socialists and communists are all friends of the library, for we give them the books they want, and they hold that it is not only the duty of the government to educate the people, but to furnish them with reading. If the library ever shall have enemies they will be the rich, who do not enjoy being taxed for the benefit of the public, and have libraries of their own. Its defenders will be men of broad views, scholarly people, and behind them, with votes, the middle and poorer classes."

While it may be true, in a certain sense, that socialists and communists approve the public library because it appears to give them something which they desire at the public cost, that scheme, on its true ground, is as far removed as possible from any such theory of maintenance by the state. The essential principle of communism is that the members of the community shall hold their property in common for the common use and benefit. This principle flourished in the village community in which each individual was

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