Слике страница
PDF
ePub

OR,

ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY:

ON A NEW PLAN.

IN WHICH IT IS SHOWN,

THAT CONSONANTS ARE ALONE TO BE REGARDED
IN DISCOVERING THE AFFINITIES OF WORDS,

AND

THAT.THE VOWELS ARE TO BE WHOLLY REJECTED;

THAT LANGUAGES CONTAIN THE SAME FUNDAMENTAL IDEA;

AND THAT THEY ARE DERIVED FROM

THE EARTH,

OPERATIONS, ACCIDENTS, AND PROPERTIES'^

BELONGING TO IT. fc" , .

WITH J . J >" \ ~y/

ILLUSTRATIONS DRAWN FROM VARIOUS LANGUAGES:

The Teutonic Dialects, English, Gothic, Saxon, German, Danish, fyc.Src^- -

Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish. The Celtic Dialects, Galic,

Irish, Welsh, Bretagne, exec. The Dialects of the Sclavonic,

Russian, Src. #c. The Eastern Languages, Hebrew,

Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, Gipsey, Coptic, fyc. fyc.

VOLUME II.

CAMBRIDGE:

Printed At The University PRESS:
FOR RICHARD PRIESTLEY, 143, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.

1822.

302. h. SO

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Jlhe terms in Latin beginning with v, having RT, RD, &c.&c, may be considered as belonging to our Element ART, ARD, by the addition of the labial sound v. We have seen the Latin V-irid-is, and its corresponding terms v-ERD-ure, P-ert, &c. (Eng. Fr. &c.) which, as we should all agree, would be naturally derived from the Earth. In v-lReo we have the form Ml. We shall likewise acknowledge, that the Latin V-1rtus, VIRTUE, would be naturally derived from the same spot. It may well be imagined, that the names for Moral Properties or Qualities would be deduced from the Properties or Qualities of Natural objects, either in their simple state, or as improved by Culture. In a term of this sort these ideas cannot be separated. The word virtue, in its original sense, signified, as I conceive, the Nature—Property— or Quality of the Soil or Earth; and it is thus perpetually used by the Writers on Agriculture. Cato, in the very commencement of his work, applies the word in its genuine sense, "Solo bono, «« sua Virtute valeat," (scl. Prsedium.) The word Virtue in English bears its genuine sense, when we speak of the Virtues

4 A of of the Soil—of Plants and Herbs. In the following passage of Lear it is brought back to its original Spot.

"All you unpublish'd Vibtueb of the Earth,
"Spring with my tears! be aidant and remediate,
"In the good man's distress." (Act IV. S. 1.)

If the Reader should be inclined to admit my idea respecting the origin of this word, that virtues belongs to the Earth, though it appears with the stronger labial breathing, bearing the form of the Consonant V, before the radical ART; his conviction will be unshaken, when he remembers the form of the parallel term in Greek, where no such obstacle presents itself. In Arete, (Apry, Virtus,) we see at once the Aretz, or Earth. We know, that Arete, (a^t*/,) as well as shows, relates to the qualities of Natural objects, *u<nx»j A^tjj, (Geopon. 14. 24.) In Arete, (A^nj,) as in Imrtks, we appear to see simply the idea of the Earth, as denoting Quality, without the action of Stirring it up, as in the verbs Artmo, (Afruw, Paro,) and V-erto. We know, however, that the sense of QualityProperty may be derived from the Earth, when the idea of its made up — meliorated or prepared state, by Stirring up or by Cultivation, has been annexed to it. Such distinctions are perhaps unnecessary; and it is sufficient for my purpose to shew, that the Earth affords the origin of the term.

Arete, (Af»nj,) means in Greek that peculiar QualityPrincipleFacultyPower, inherent in or appropriate to any thing, by which it exerts the energies of its Nature. In the opening of the Discourse Ity Ap-nt? E< iJcacrov' in the Socratic Dialogues of iEschines, the sense of Arete is fully manifest', as it denotes

that

[ocr errors]

mymSm

that Virtue'ArtQuality, or Power, by which men become excellent in any Art, {Ayadoi Tiji/ APETHN,) as that of CookeryMedicine, &c. It is impossible not to perceive in this explanation, derived from the above passage, the coincidence in sense of the Greek Arete, (a^ti?,) and the English Art; and we shall instantly agree, that they are only different forms of each other. This coincidence is so striking, that it has been noted by the Etymologists. The Commentary of John Le Clerc, on the sense of Arete, (arr,) in the passage of /Eschines, will sufficiently illustrate my Hypothesis:—"Coquinariam Artem cum vocat So«' crates APETHN," Aret<?», "satis ostendit sic dici potuisse quam"libet dotem, aut facultatem, qua quivis fit cuipiam rei a^evo; seu "aptus. Hinc et veteres Grammatici wrro Trig APETHN," Aret^, "nomen Arts deduxerunt, qua de re vide Ger. Joan. Vossium "in Etymol." The ordinary Lexicons detail every thing that is, important respecting this subject. "Ars, Art/v says R. Ainsworth, "(per sync, ab APETH, i.e. Virtus. Don. nam vett. "Artem pro Virtute accipiebant. Diom.) 1. Originally and "properly, Power, (a.) Virtue. (3.) Afterwards, Vt." We

here

[ocr errors]
« ПретходнаНастави »