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Young's Astronomy is studied for one term in the junior year, and from the new observatory opportunity is given, when the conditions favor, to observe the heavenly bodies through one of Clark's 4-inch telescopes.

Botany occupies one term of the sophomore year, and students are required to sustain an examination in physiological and structural botany, and also to be able to describe fully aud determine the names of ordinary plants, excluding only a few of the more difficult families.

Zoology.-The sophomores study the elements of zoology, including physiology and the general principles of classification, during one term.

Geology and Mineralogy are studied in the second term of the senior year.

Physical geography.— The study of the relations of man to his environ. ment, as set forth in Guyot's Earth and Man, is pursued during one term of the senior year.

Whenever practicable, use is made of one of Beck's binocular microscopes, with the manipulation of which the students are familiarized. Morton's college lantern is also used for purposes of illustration.


Ancient history. The study of Meyers's General History occupies the first term of the freshman year, and includes a brief survey of the minor monarchies of the ancient world and a more detailed study of the four great empires—Egypt, Persia, Greece, and Rome. The geography and chronology are studied with thoroughness, the use of maps as pursued in the introductory class and the construction of chronological charts being required, while occasional essays upon some character or event that will demand contemporaneous reading are exacted. The student is also encouraged to apply the knowledge obtained in this study to his reading of the classical authors.

Mediæval and modern history are taught with the text-book above mentioned during the second term of the freshman year. Additional information upon the subjects treated is imparted by the professor in connection with the recitations; the students are encouraged to under. take as much collateral reading as their time will permit, and an essay on some historical subject is required occasionally during the entire term.

V.-PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE. Logic.-First term, senior year: Davis's Elements of Deductive Logic is thoroughly studied, and written exercises upon the principles under consideration are required almost daily.

Mental science.—During the first term of the senior year the more important topics of intellectual science are studied, with aid from the professor, as required by subjects of so abstract a nature. Buell's Essentials of Psychology is the text-book usually employed.

Moral philosophy.During six weeks of the first term the seniors have a daily exercise in this study, reading the whole of Haven's Moral Philosophy. Questions are asked on each day's portion of the text-book, and comments are made by the professor.

Evidences of Christiunity.-During six weeks of the second term the seniors have a daily recitation in Butler's Analogy. Dr. Emory's Analysis is used and made the basis of questions. The book is studied without omissions.

Political economy.Perry's text book is used, with a daily exercise, for six weeks of the second term of the senior year.

International law.—Gallaudet's text-book is read, with a daily recitation, during about six weeks of the third term of the senior year.

Æsthetics.—Bascom’s Lectures on the Science of Beauty are read during the last month of the senior year, with a daily recitation, accompanied by brief lectures from the professor.


A one-year post-graduate course in the science and art of instructing the deaf is afforded to a limited number of young persons who desire to become teachers of the deaf. These students must be able to hear and speak, for they are all trained to make use of the oral method in teaching the deaf.

Manual spelling and the language of signs.-All members of the normal class not already familiar with the natural language of the deaf receive daily instruction throughout the year in the language of signs. The origin and meaning of signs are explained, and the students are required to use them in telling stories, in giving lectures, and in conducting chapel exercises.

The use of manual spelling is also taught, great care being taken that correct habits of forming letters are learned. The students receive much daily practice in the use of spelling and signs through their intercourse with the students of the college.

For a reference book Denison's Manual Alphabet in the Public Schools is used.

Acoustics.—Lectures are given on acoustics and the general laws of sound; also on the formation, use, and defects of the vocal organs. The mechanism of the ear is explained, and the causes of deafness inquired into. These lectures are illustrated by means of charts, casts, and experiments, and are supplemented by reading.

Arnold's Teachers' Manual is used as a reference book and text-book; also Dr. Hewson's articles on the throat and ear, published in the reports of the first and second summer meetings of the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf.

The elements of speech.—Daily instruction is given in the first term in the formation and production of the elements of speech. This is accompanied by practical illustrations and the use of casts and charts. Visible speech is taught thoroughly. Daily class-room observation and practice is required for the first two terms. Each student carries on the training in speech and speech-reading of several of the college students throughout the year with the advice of the articulation teachers.

Graduates of this department will be found prepared to teach speech and to make use of the oral method when required.

The text-books used are Bell's Visible Speech in Twelve Lessons, Bell's Lectures on Phonetics, and Arnold's Teachers' Manual.

Pedagogy.During the second term lectures on pedagogy are given by members of the college faculty. These are supplemented by readings in Joseph Payne's Lectures on the Science and Art of Pedagogy, W. H. Payne's History of Pedagogy, and Page on Teaching.

Auricular training.Lectures on auricular training are given in the second term, together with practical work with a number of semi-deat pupils.

Language teaching.--Special work in language teaching for all grades is given to the class under the supervision of the teachers of the Kendall School. The use of action work, toys, pictures, stories, journals, current events, etc., in teaching language, is explained. Students pre

pare lessons in language, geography, and American history, and give them to the classes under the direction of the teachers. The five-slate system of teaching language is studied.

Reference books used are F. D. Clarke's First Year Work, Second Year Work, etc., in connection with Miss Sweet's First Lessons in English; also the American Annals of the Deaf, in which the students are required to read the many valuable articles on language teaching.

Number work.—Lectures on number work are given, together with practice in teaching arithmetic in the different grades. The number work in F. D. Clarke's articles on the education of the deaf, now appear. ing in the Annals of the Deaf, is also carefully studied.

Lectures and chapel exercises.—The young men of the class are required to give lectures and to conduct chapel exercises during the third term in the language of signs, and are thus fitted to take up immediately on graduation a most important and indispensable part of the education of the deaf.

History of the education of the deaf.—Reading is required on the his. tory of the education of the deaf. Arnold's Teachers' Manual, Vol. I, is used as a text-book. Students are encouraged to make use of the Baker library, belonging to the college, which contains about 600 rare and valuable books dealing with the education of the deaf from the earliest times. The duplicate of this library is not to be found any. where in our country. It contains the works of Bonet, De l'Epée, Amman, Holder, Sicard, Bulwer, Heinicke, and many others who have made their names famous in connection with the education of the deaf.

Theses.-A thesis is required at the end of each term. Last year the subjects of the theses were, The History of the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, Occupations Most Suitable for the Deaf, and The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Pure Oral Method of Teaching the Deaf.

In addition to these regular lectures and courses, lectures are given from time to time by members of the college faculty on various topics connected with the welfare of the deaf. The members of the normal class also bave the privileges of the college library, the students' reading room, and the students literary society. During the year they are able to come continually into contact with the deaf students and pupils, and to become thoroughly acquainted with them. Thus they acquire a personal interest and an enthusiasm in the welfare of the class whom they are to instruct, which is the foundation of all successful teaching.


As an adjunct to the regular courses of study, it has been the custom for several years for the professors, instructors, normal fellows, and members of the senior class of the college to give courses of lectures to the students and pupils during the winter. These have been as follows the past year:


What makes a Nation Great, by President Gallaudet.
Man's First Steps toward Civilization, by Professor Fay.
Egypt, Greece, and the Holy Land, by Professor Chickering.
The History of the Alphabet, by Professor Porter.
The Foundations of Literature, by Professor Hotchkiss.
Explosives, by Professor Ely.
Some Stories of Creation, by Professor Hall.
Cervantes, by Mr. Fay.


Brer Rabbit, by Mr. Denison.
Growth of the United States, by Mr. Ballard.
Prince Bladud, by Mr. Kiesel.
General Charles George Gordon, by Mr. Payne.
Toussaint Louverturo, by Mr. Shreve.
Resources of the State of Washington, by Mr. Pope.
Beauty and the Beast, by Miss Rogers.
The Story of Roland, by Mr. Davis.
The Merchant of Venice, by Mr. Stutsman.
Ben Hur, by Mr. Wills.
Robin Hood, by Mr. Bumgardner.


The annual public exercises of the college took place on Wednesday, the 10th of May.

The Rev. Frank M. Bristol, D.D., pastor of the Metropolitan Methodist Church, offered the opening prayer.

The essays of the academic class were as follows:

Orations.-College Education and Manhood, William H. Davis, Texas; The Influence of Ideals, Edith Vandegrift, Minnesota; The Disarmament of the Nations, Daniel Picard, Louisiana; A Dream, Asa A. Stutsman, Illinois; Mount Lowe, Ho! George V. Bath, Ohio; The Pleasantness of American Life, George F. Wills, Iowa; Legends of the Flowers, Sarah A. Rogers, South Carolina; Theodore Winthrop, Roy J. Stewart, District of Columbia.

Dissertations.—The Navy, George A. Brooks, Texas; A Deaf Girl, Sadie E. Griffis, Pennsylvania; What Man Owes to the Forests, Joseph B. Bumgardner, Missouri; Self-culture, Walter B. Rosson, Tennessee; Edmund Burke, Albert W. Ohlemacher, Ohio.

Arnold H. Payne, B. A., Oxford, England, a fellow of the normal class, delivered an address on the Advance of the Education of the Deaf in the United Kingdom.


At the close of the intermission President Gallaudet introduced Mr. William A. McIlvaine, of the class of 1893, now an instructor in the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, who presented a beautiful reading desk to the college on behalf of the class of 1893 and a few friends, as a memorial of Harvey D. DeLong, the valedictorian of that class, who died not long ago while filling a teacher's place most successfully in the Virginia School for the Deaf.

Mr. Mcllvaine read the following tribute to Mr. DeLong which had been written by Miss Agatha M. Tiegel, another member of the class of 1893, and a teacher in the Minnesota School for the Deaf:

During the first recitation of the class of 1893 Harvey DeLong, quiet and unassuming, was among those who sat facing the professor. He hazarded no remarks, but when his turn came to speak he was ready. And this trait of quietly holding himself in reserve was one that always distinguished him. He was not a leader, if we take the word as meaning one who is always conspicuous at the front, yet he showed to all that he had strength of character. He held his own in the class room, and won the honor of the valedictory. There was no construction in a foreign language so difficult, no problem so involved that it could hold ont against his steadiness and patience. One by one the various branches of study yielded up their mysteries to him, and he became the conqueror. Outside the class room he was popular among his associates, and received his share of the honors which they had to bestow. And so he passed from college life bearing with him the affection and respect of both faculty and students, and leaving behind him the memory of an honest worker and a good-hearted man.

Then followed his brief career as a teacher. As he had before labored for his own advancement, ho now toiled for that of others. To cheer him and make life still sweeter there came the cozy home, the little wife, and the tiny son with his father's eyes. Hope pointed forward to long years of honorable toil and pleasant content. Suddenly came the call that no man may deny, and he left everything to travel into the unknown land.

In affectionate memory of his virtues and in sorrow at his untimely and his classmates and college friends tender this reading desk to the college chapel. May it ever prove a reminder that the world is the better for every good man who has lived in it, and that, though friends meet us and then pass all too soon, yet the meeting is a help and a gain in our lives.

President Gallaudet introduced Mr. Lars A. Havstad, a distinguished and highly educated deaf-mute of Christiania, Norway, now visiting schools for the deaf in this country, and on whom the college conferred the honorary degree of master of arts some years since.

Mr. Havstad spoke as follows: The kind words from the president of this college move me deeply. Having looked forward for a visit to America for many years, I can hardly realize the fact that I stand here now. Being strongly interested in the education of my fellow-deaf, I considered the honor conferred upon me by your board and sanctioned by the President of the United States a greater one than any other I have received during my life, and since that time I always consider myself one of the alumni of the Gallaudet College. I hope you will not dispute that with me. In fact, I have from this country obtained a diploma that is seldom, if at all, within the reach of European deaf in their own country, owing to certain defects in the educational system.

That will explain the cause of my now visiting this country. I am anxious that the deaf of Norway shall reach a higher educational standard than at present. But in no country in Europe I found the deaf given a better education than in my own country. If the Norwegian deaf did not stand high in knowledge, they were certainly not worse off than the deaf in other European countries. But I knew that the deaf were capable of learning much more, and seeking as yet in vain for models worth imitating in Germany, in France, in Great Britain, I went to America, where I knew that the deaf did really learn something and were educated to be enlightened men and women.

That I did not know until I, several years ago, by a letter from Mr. Lars M. Larson, now principal of the Santa Fe School for the Deaf, was made acquainted with the fact that the deaf of America could even get a university education in a college of their own. And when I knew that, I knew also that the common school education for the deaf must have reached a high standard in the United States. Therefore I am here now to see and learn myself how the deaf here obtain their high amount of knowledge. And what I have seen bas inspired me, first, with a feeling of admiration for the American schools, and, secondly, with a strong belief upon tlie possibility of the deaf reaching a position of equality with the hearing world. Now I shall return home filled with new hope of being able to do something for my fellowdeaf in Norway. I take this college with me in my thoughts and in my arguments. I shall do my best to make it known to the deaf and to the authorities of my coun. try. And, Mr. President, I shall never forget the kindness shown me by you, by the professors, and by the students of this college. I shall treasure it as a dear remembrance, and I thank you all.

Candidates for degrees and certificates recommended by the faculty were presented to the board of directors as follows:

For the degree of master of arts (normal fellows).--Arnold H. Payne, B. A., Jesus College, Oxford, England; Norman Shreve, B. A., University of Nebraska; Frances K. Bell, M. S., Synodical College, Missouri; Alvin E. Pope, B. A., University of Nebraska.

For the degree of bachelor of arts.-George Vernon Bath, George Albert Brooks, Joseph Bertram Bumgardner, William Henry Davis, Sadie Eliza Griffis, Albert William Ohlemacher, Daniel Picard, Sarah Antoinette Rogers, Walter Boling Rosson, Roy James Stewart, Asa Albert Stutsman, Edith Vandegrist, George Franklin Wills.

Normal students, 1898–99.-Louise S. Robinson, Portland (Me.) High School; Hattie Marshall Bear, Mary Baldwin Seminary, Staunton, Va.

The degree of master of arts, in course, was conferred on John E. Crane, B. A., 1877, now an instructor in the American School for the Deaf at Hartford, and on James I. Sansom, B. A., 1880, now employed

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