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Chuff (218), a churl or miser. Church-bench (193), the bench in
the church-porch. Churlish (73), stiff, hard. Circumstance (151), a roundabout
story. Civil doctor (182), one who has taken at a university the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. Clay-brained, thick-headed. Clemency, mercy, kindness. Closely, secretly. Clouts, rags: Cloy, to fill with too much of a
thing. Cockpit (63), a pit in which cock. fighting took place; here used for the theatre. As if Shakespeare's Agincourt, compared with the real battle, was better than a cock-fight. Cockshut time (93), when it grows dark. "Cockshoots' were glades in which nets were stretched after dark to catch the birds that shot into them when they were driven by beaters. Coffer, a money-chest. Cogitation, thought. Coil, a noise, bustle. Colours (85), excuses. (Also re
ferring to the red rose.) Colt (217), to make a fool of. Combustion, violent disorder. Comeliness, beauty. Commandement (178). We pro
commandment' now. Comment, bear a (140), to be
By and by, at once.
Calendar of Virtue (105), a list
metal in anything made of gold. Carriage (97), the way a man
carries himself or behaves.
on society, an extortioner.
vant of an inn.
criticized. Commiseration, pity. Commission, a warrant allowing people certain rights or ordering them to carry out certain duties. Commissioner, one who has a com
money could be raised.
Compound 80), to come to an
agreement. * Comprehend (192, 195).
D. means ' apprebend', take to jail. Con by rote, learn by heart, Conceit (130), to judge of. Conception, an idea. Concord, agreement. Condition (186), on condition that. *Condole (199. B. seems to mean
"feel with, sympathize'. * Confidence (194). D. means'con
ference. Confines (57), the nearest countries. Confound, to destroy. Conjecture (72), a notion. Conjoin, to join with. Conjure (121), to call up a devil by magic, using some sacred name to do it. Conscience, my (74), my real
thought. Considerance, consideration. Consign (63), to agree. Constancy, firmness, unshaken
truth. Constitution, state. Construe, to explain to one's self. Contain (181), to keep. Contaminate, to stain, disgrace. Contemplative, given up to quiet
study. Controversy, dispute. Controversy, hearts of (120), hearts eager for a struggle. Conveniency, promptness. Convert, to change. Convoy, conveyance, travelling. Cope (177), to match, give as a fair
return, Cormorant, sea-raven, noted for
the quantity of fish which it eats. Corrupted (87). When a man was condemned by a bill of attainder, his family lost their rank and their estate: this was called 'corruption of blood'. Couching, lying on the ground,
grovelling Counterfeit, to make a false copy
of. Counterfeit, a sham. Counters (142), round pieces of
metal used in reckoning; used scornfully of real money. Courtnol, courtier. Coward 67), to make a coward
of. Coxcomb, fool (because the jester's
cap had a cock's crest). Coz, cousin. Crave, to ask. Craven, coward. Crestless, not having the “crest'
which in heraldry makes a gentleCrown him ?-that ;- (122), if we crown him ;-yes, if we only do that. Crowns (64), crown-pieces. Cry (27), hounds giving tongue. Cue, the last words of an actor's speech, written out in another actor's copy to let him know when his turn comes to speak. Cuirass, breastplate. Culled, picked. Cumber, to be a burden to. Current, it holds (215), it holds
good, is true. Dalliance (64), trifling, light playfulness (here used of the gay dresses and behaviour of the courtiers who had passed their time in mere amusement). Danger, within his (170), in his power (A lawyer's phrase: compare 'out of debt, out of dan. ger'). Dare us with his cap like larks (113). Larks were caught with the help of a hawk called the 'hobby' which flew over them and dared' them or frightened them from rising ; then the net was drawn over them by the fowler. Sometimes a piece of scarlet cloth was used for the
daring': Daw, jackdaw. * Decerns (194). D. means 'con
Do withal, I could not (164), I
could not help it. Dogged, cruel, like a savage dog. Dogs of war (132). Compare
63, Chorus, 1. 7. Doit (155), a Dutch coin worth half a farthing. Dole (211), sorrow. Dole, happy man be his (218), may happiness be his lot, good luck to him. Domestic fury (131), the madness
of civil war. Doublet, a man's dress before coats and waistcoats were invented ; a close-fitting jacket with short skirts. Drachma, an old Greek silver
coin, worth about 9 d. Dub, to make a knight. Ducat, a gold coin of Venice worth Dukeling (101), poor duke (a
sneer). Dull (54), making dull, quieting.
* Defend (190). H. means of
fend'. Defray, to pay the cost of. Degrees, base (123), lower steps. Demean, to behave. Demeanour, behaviour. Demi-paradise, half paradise, a heaven upon earth. * Demurrer (226), objection.
(Really a law word for trying to stop an action.) Deputy, one who acts for another;
(112) the king's representative. * Desartless (191), without desert. D. means 'deserving': Descry, to make out in the dis
tance. Destiny, fate. Determine (56), to make an end of. Device, a plan, invention ; (205),
a show. Dexterity, doing a thing cleverly
and quickly. Diadem, an ornamental headband, Dialogue, a talk between two people. Dicker, ten hides. Dignity, rank, office. Dint, impression. Disable, to cripple. Discord, disagreement. Discourse, to speak. Discretion, prudence, acting
wisely. *Disfigure (202). Q.
'figure'. Disjoint, to separate. Dispiteous, pitiless. * Dissembly (195). D. means
assembly'. Distemper (66), the mind thrown
off the balance. Distemper (48), to derange. Distil out (73), to draw out, extract, find out the hidden mean. ing. Distressful (77), won by hard and painful work. Divers, several. Divert, to turn aside. Divorce, to part what has been joined by law.
Earn (43), to grieve.
vance as a pledge of more to be paid when the work is done. * Eftest (196). D. means ' deftest',
or 'readiest'. Eight and six (202), the ballad metre, alternate lines of eight and six syllables each, Eke out, to piece out, fill up. Elaborate, worked out carefully,
perfect. Elegance, neatness and grace. Element (45), the sky. Elements so mixed in him (145). Man's body in old days was thought to be made up of the four elements, earth, air, fire, and water, showing themselves in the four humours, blood, phlegm, choler, and melancholy. Melancholy came from earth, blood from air, phlegm from water, choler from fire. If they were all mixed evenly in a man, he was perfect; if not, he showed what humour he had most. Too much fire made him a choleric or angry man. Elf-skin (222), a shrunk and
shrivelled creature. Eloquence, the gift of speaking
well. Embracement, an embrace. Empery, empire. Enamoured on, in love with. Encompass, to surround, close in. Enforce (49), to compel. Enforced (82), thrown with great force; (142), struck strongly, greatly provoked. Enfranchisement (126), giving public rights to a man who has lost them, (127) equal rights to all citizens. Engage, to pledge, bind over. Engirt, to surround. Englut, to swallow up. Enow, enough. Enround, to surround. * Enterlout (189). He means 'interlude,' but he thinks the word means "Enter Lout', or "The Clown comes in ' (as if it were a stage-note). Enthronize, to enthrone. Environ, to surround. Epilogue, an actor's speech to the people at the end of a play. Epitaph, the words on a grave or in memory of the dead. Equity, justice. Estimable, valuable. Estimation (170), value, esteem;
(175) value the scales, weight. Exaction, making people pay. * Examination (195). A verb
made up by D. Exchequer, the court which col
lected the king's money. * Exclamation on (194), crying out against. But D. means "talk about'. * Excommunication (195). D.
on the spur of the moment.
struction'. Extortion, wringing money out of people in the name of the law. Eyne, eyes. Faction, party, side. Facundious (226), having a flow
of words, eloquent. Fair, speak mie (173), speak kindly
of me. Falconer, a keeper or trainer of
hawks for sport. Fall (93), to let fall. Farced (76), stuffed, full. Favour, appearance, face. Favourable (54), kindly. Feign, to pretend. Feli, cruel. Fern-seed (215). Ferns seed themselves from the tiny, dust-like spores on the back of the fronds. Before people knew this, they thought the plant grew from invisible seed; if you had any, you would be invisible too. Fet, fetched, derived. Fetlock, the tuft of hair on a horse's
leg behind the pastern-joint. File (20), to place among public
records. File (110), to march in line, keep Fine (82), to stake, agree to pay
as a fine. Firmament, sky. Fix posterity (104), to make peo
ple of a later day firmly believe. Flaw (52), a storm of rain or
snow. Fleece, to rob. Fleeting (89), shifting, unfaithful. Flight (150), power of flight, an arrow of equal size and weight. Flight (19), an arrow for distant
shots. Flocks (213), tufts of wool or bits of cloth.
Flourish, a sound of trumpets to announce the coming of a great
Flourish (137), to show off as a
winner. Flux, flow. Foils, blunt rapiers used in fenc
ing. Followed (19, 1. 65), if it is kept
up. Fond, foolish. Foot (154), to kick. Foot-land-raker (215), foot-pad,
highwayman. For stirring (32), against his
stirring. Force, of (177), whether I wish
or not. Fore-hand, front position, advan
tage. Forestall, to be beforehand with. Form (57), state, orderly govern
ment. Formal, stately, in full state. Forsooth, truly. 'Found (188), confound. Franchise (36), free use. Franklin, one who farmed his
own land. French-crown-colour (200), bright yellow. Fret, to disturb. Frustrate, to disappoint, make
useless. Full-fraught (68), richly stored, highly gifted. Function, action. Furniture (99), outfit. Gaberdine, a long coarse smock
frock. Gait, walk. Gall (66), the bile, and so, bitter
feeling. Galled (71), chafed, lashed by the
spray. Gamesome, fond of sports, gay. Gammon, the lower end of a Aitch. Garland (58, 61), wreath, crown.
Compare p: 3. Gear (102), business. General, for the (122), for the sake of the people.
Gentle his condition (79), to make
him a gentleman. Gentry, the rank of gentleman. Giglot (36), false, changing. Girded (70), hemmed in. Glistering, shining. God buy' you (78), God be with you ! Godfathers, twelve (177), a jury. Good (152), well off (in a commercial sense). Gorbellied, with a big belly. Gossip (156), (1) a godmother,
(2) an intimate, (3) a chattering Gramercies, many thanks. Grand-jurors (218), citizens appointed by the sheriff to examine the charges against persons accused of crime and send them to trial if they think the charges true. F. uses the word as an insult: a thief would naturally think a grand-juror a kind of devil. Gratify, to thank and reward. Gratis, for nothing. *Great-oneyers (215). G. perhaps means 'those who have to do with great ones' (just as lawyer' is one who has to do with law); he has not the sense to keep quiet, and he dare not do more than throw out a hint. 'Gree, agree. Gross (68), large and plain. Gross (153), the full sum. Grosser, coarser. Gulled, deceived. Gummed (216), stiffened with
gum, and so liable to fret. Habitation (153), dwelling-place. S. refers to the story of the Gadarene swine in the Bible. Hale, to drag, haul. Half-sword, at (220), at half a
sword's length, at close quarters. Hangings, the curtains or tapestry
hung round the walls of a room instead of papering them. Harbour (98), a shelter. Harbour (41), to cover, hide.