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quins was Lucius Junius Brutus,
an ancestor of the Brutus in
Shakespeare's play. See Macau-
lay's Lays of Ancient Rome.
Caesar's brag (35, 1. 20). In the
summer of 47 B.C. Julius Caesar
by rapid movements mastered
Asia Minor. After striking down
King Pharnaces of Pontus and
storming his camp at Zela, he
summed up the success in three
words Veni, vidi, vici, 'I came,
I saw, I conquered.'
Caperdochie, a high-sounding name
for the stocks.
Cassibelan, a British chieftain
whose tribe lived in Middlesex.
He was entrusted with the chief
command against Julius Caesar
in 54 B.C., the second Roman
invasion of Britain, and he was
Cato, a famous Roman who fought
on the republican side against
Julius Caesar. He is often spo-
ken of as a type of 'the ancient
Roman honour'. He killed him-
self at Utica in North Africa,
46 B.C., to avoid falling into
Caesar's hands after the repub-
lican defeat. His daughter Portia
married Brutus, the murderer of
Charles's Wain, the Great Bear.
Colchos. See Jason.
Colossus, a gigantic figure of
Apollo, 70 cubits high, standing
over the entrance to the harbour
of Rhodes; anciently one of the
6 seven wonders of the world'.
Crispian, Crispin, two brothers,
shoemakers, martyred at Soissons
in France about the year 287 A.D.
Their day is October 25.
Elysium, the Paradise of the
Greeks and Romans, where the
spirits of the good resided after
Endymion, a beautiful shepherd
loved by Diana, the Goddess of
the Moon. He lived in a grotto
on Mount Latmos, and received
the gift of eternal youth and
eternal slumber; every night the
Moon came down from heaven
and kissed him as he lay asleep.
*Ercles. B. means 'Hercules'.
Fates. The three goddesses of
Fate are mentioned rather ab-
surdly in this book (199, 211),
though Brutus has a serious
reference to them (127). In the
old myths they are three sisters,
the daughters of Night, who
watched over man's life; they
were Clotho (the Spinner')
who spun the thread of life,
Lachesis (the Disposer of Lots')
who decided how long the thread
should be, and Atropos ('the Un-
avoidable') who cut it off.
Ferryman (89). To pass from
this world to the next, according
to the old Greek and Roman idea,
your spirit had to cross the river
Styx (Loathing '), over which it
was ferried by Charon, a dark
and grim old man dressed in a
black sailor's cloak. A small
coin to pay the fare was put in
the mouth of the dead.
Furies, the goddesses of vengeance
in the old mythology. They
punished any great sin in home
life, such as the murder of a
mother. They were pictured as
maidens with snakes twined in
their hair and with torches in
their hands. One of them was
named Tisiphone ('the Avenger
Jason, the captain of the Argo-
nauts, who sailed in the Argo,
the first of ships, to the land of
Colchis (or 'Colchos', as Shake-
speare calls it) and captured there
the golden fleece hung up in the
grove of the Wargod. See Kings-
Hymen, the Greek god of Marriage.
Hyperion, an old Greek name for
Jove, or Jupiter, the chief god of
the Romans. It seems funny to
us that Henry V in his great
speech at Agincourt should swear
by him (78, 1. 24), but these
heathen oaths are often found in
old plays, because in 1606 an
Act of Parliament was passed to
stop the free use of the word
'God' on the stage.
Mercury, the messenger of the
gods in the old mythology, and
represented as wearing a winged
cap and winged sandals which
made him swift as the wind.
Muse, one of the nine goddesses of
poetry in the old mythology.
Nazarite (153), Nazarene, or na-
tive of Nazareth. This form of
the name is found in all transla-
tions of the Bible before 1611.
Neptune, the Roman god of the
Nero, emperor of Rome, 54-68
A.D. His most brutal crime was
the murder of his mother Agrip-
Nervii, a Gallic tribe living in
modern Belgium, conquered by
Caesar in 57 B. C. after a stubborn
battle in which Caesar himself
showed great bravery. Sir Tho-
mas North (whom Shakespeare
used) describes the Nervii as
'the stoutest warriors of all the
Nicholas, Saint, popularly looked
upon as the patron saint of thieves
(his 'clerks as they are called,
215). It is supposed that his
name got mixed up with that of
Pluto, the Greek god of the under-
world, or region of the dead; and
so lord of the gold and mineral
treasure lying underground.
Pompey, a Roman general and
statesman, born 106 B. C. He
became the rival of Julius Caesar,
and was defeated by him at the
battle of Pharsalus, 48 B. C. Fly-
ing from the battle he was killed
Pythagoras, a Greek philosopher,
born about 580 B. C. He is said
to have believed that when any
creature died, its soul passed into
another living body, human or
animal, and so went on from life
to life, being itself immortal.
Rialto, the money-market or Ex-
change of Venice.
Rome, and Room (121). A pun :
'Rome' in Shakespeare's day was
pronounced 'Room '.
Shafalus and Procrus (209). Pro-
perly, Cephalus and Procris, two
lovers in the old mythology.
Procris, jealous of Cephalus, fol-
lowed him in his hunting; and
he mistook her for an animal as
he heard her move through the
covert, and killed her.
Sisters, Three (212). See Fates.
Tarquin (123). See Brutus.
Tartar (68), Tartarus, a name for
hell in the Greek and Roman
Thisne (199). A silly pronuncia-
tion of Thisbe'.
Thracian singer (205), Orpheus,
who, when his wife Eurydice was
killed by a snake, won his way
into the other world by his divine
skill as a harper, and was allowed
to take her back to life if he did
not look back at her until she
reached the earth; on the very
brink of the light he looked back
and saw her fade away. In his
grief he wandered harping through
the wild places of the earth, and
was torn in pieces by a band of
Bacchanals, or women worship.
pers of Bacchus, upon whose
secret rites he had intruded.
Tisiphon, Tisiphone. See Furies.
Trojan (215), a slang name for a
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