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* "The United Christian Commission, Its Origin and Objects,” undated 1890 pamphlet, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 1; "Minutes of the Conference of Army Chaplains held at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 13-18," 1891, pp. 5–7.

Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. 1890 (Philadelphia: McCalla and Company, Printers, 1890), pp. 20–21.

“The United Christian Commission, Its Origins and Objects,” undated 1890 pamphlet,

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P. 2.

6° Ibid.

72

Ibid., p.

75

76 Ibid.,

78 Ibid.,

Ibid.,

81 Ibid.,

70 “The United Christian Commission, Its Late Meeting,” undated 1890 pamphlet, pp. 1-2. 71 Ibid., pp. 2–3.

3. Ibid.,

p.

3. 74 "Minutes of the Conference of Army Chaplains held at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 13–18, 1891,” pp. 5–7. Ibid.,

p.

3. pp.

3-4. * Ibid., pp. 4, 7-8.

p.

9. pp.

13-14. ** This appears to be the genesis of what eventually became known as “Character Guidance" instruction. Ibid., p.

12.
p.

17.
Army-Navy Journal, 13 June 1891, p. 720.

63 "Minutes of the Conference of Army Chaplains held at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 13–18, 1891," Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 5.

$4 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1892 (Philadelphia: McCalla and Company, Printers, 1892), pp. 190–191.

* John Mortimer Smith, "The Military Ordinariate of the United States of America,” (J.C.D. diss., The Catholic University of America, 1966), p. 97.

$* Journal of the General Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, North, 1892 (Cincinnati, Ohio: Cranston and Curts, 1892), p. 257.

87 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1892, pp. 190–191 ; Journal of the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1898 (Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son Printers, 1898), p. 127.

* Journal of the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1901 (Boston: Alfred Mudge and Son Printers, 1901), pp. 66-67.

** Daniel B. Jorgensen, The Service of Chaplains to Army Air Units, 1917–1946 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961), p. 11. s0 Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1893, p.

68. p. 69. " O. J. Nave, "The Status of Army Chaplains," Steward, Active Service, p. 42; Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1895, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1895), p. 44.

Proceedings of the Thirty-first International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Associations of North America, 1895, pp. 116–117.

** O. J. Nave, “The Status of Army Chaplains," Steward, Active Service, p. 41; Army-Navy Journal, 14 September 1895, p. 19.

Proceedings of the Thirty-first International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Associations of North America, 1895, pp. 116-117.

Cephas C. Bateman, “The Army Chaplain Among the U.S. Soldiers,” Steward, Active Service, pp. 29–30.

Ibid., p. 30.

a1 Ibid.,

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96

08 Ibid.

100

* O. J. Nave, "The Status of Army Chaplains.” Steward, Active Service, p. 42.

Frances C. Carrington, My Army Life, (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1910),

101

102

103

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104

Dairy of Chaplain David White, 12 December 1867, 14 December 1867, 15 December 1867, 22 December 1867, 24 December 1867, 25 December 1867, 5 January 1868, 12 January 1868, 25 January 1868, 30 January 1868, 2 February 1868.

Ibid., 13 January 1868, 14 January 1868, 15 January 1868, 16 January 1868.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 1 July 1891, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA; Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1891, Vol. 1, 312.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Jeremiah Porter from Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming Territory, 12 July 1877, 12 May 1878, Selected ACP, J. Porter, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain George W. Prioleau from Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 30 June 1895, 31 October 1895, AGODF No. 10315, G. W. Prioleau, RG, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 1 August 1892, and Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 August 1893, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, 94, NA; Omaha Bee, 28 November 1883; Monthly Reports of Chaplain George P. Robinson from Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 1 April 1892, 30 April 1892, Selected ACP, G. P. Robinson, RG 94, NA.

107 Mrs. Anthony Wayne Vogdes to parents from Fort Sedgwick, Colorado, 9 September 1868, Archives, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York.

105

105

108 Ibid.

109

110

111

112

Ibid., 6 December 1868.
Army-Navy Journal, 27 April 1878, pp. 608-608; 21 February 1880, p. 579.
Ibid., 24 May 1879, p. 751.

Ibid., 27 May 1878, pp. 608-609; 24 May 1879, p. 751.
113 Ibid., 21 February 1880, p. 579; 6 March 1880, pp. 626-627.

Ibid., 15 February 1879, p. 498; 27 November 1880, p. 335.
Kelly and Bradley, History of the Diocese of Boise, pp. 111.

114

115

116 Ibid.,

p. 116.

119

117 Ibid., pp. 95,

112. 118 When Archbishop A. M. A. Blanchet learned of Mesplie's appointment to an Army chaplaincy, he disapproved, saying, “I declare that you are too easy-going to be competent for that office . . . . Catholic soldiers will always find priests; not so our poor Indians.” Apparently the archbishop was a keen judge of Mesplies disposition. Mesplie took a leave of absence to visit his home in France and stayed six months too long; he also duplicated warrants for his salary. Consequently, when he returned, he found himself charged with absence without leave and fraud. Unfortunately, he was tried by a general court-martial, found guilty, and sentenced to dismissal from the Army. Kelly and Bradley, History of the Diocese of Boise, pp. 105, 113; General CourtMartial Orders No. 62, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 29 December 1883.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman form Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 1 July 1891, 1 August 1891, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 1 July 1891, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA; Individual Service Reports of Cephas C. Bateman from Fort Assinniboine, Montana, 20 January 1894, 24 June 1895, 27 June 1896, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 1 July 1891, 1 August 1891, 30 September 1891, and from Fort Assinniboine, Montana, 1 August 1893, 1 February 1897, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA.

12 Ibid., from Fort Sherman, Idaho, 1 March 1897, 1 October 1897, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA.

123 Ibid., 1 October 1897, 1 February 1898.

124 Cephas C. Bateman, “The Army and Education,The Army Magazine, April 1894; Cephas C. Bateman, “A Group of Army Authors,The Army Magazine, November 1894 ; Cephas C. Bateman, "The Army Chaplain Among U.S. Soldiers,” Steward, Active Service,

120

121

pp. 30–33.

125

Monthly Report of Chaplain John H. Macomber from Fort Sherman, Idaho, 1 August 1892, 1 September 1892, Selected ACP, J. H. Macomber, RG 94, NA.

120

197

129

130

131

139

Theophilus G. Steward, Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry, (Philadelphia, Pa.: African Methodist Episcopal Book Concern, 1921), pp. 276–277; Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 August 1894, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Steward, Gospel Ministry, pp. 277-278; Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 August 1894, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

129 New York Times, 21 July 1895, p. 20.

Alexander Gilmore, “Semi-Centennial Sermon delivered by Rev. Alexander Gilmore at the Annual Session of the New Jersey Conference held in Trenton, March 10, 1887," p. 30.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Jeremiah Porter from Fort Sill, Indian Territory, 17 May 1875, Selected ACP, J. Porter, RG 94, NA.

Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1881, Vol. 1 pp. 562–563; 1877, Vol. 1. pp. 468– 469; 1879, Vol. 2, pp. 508, 529.

' Ibid., 1877, Vol. 1, p. 469; 1878, Vol. 1, p. 529; 1879; Vol. 1, p. 508; 1880, Vol. 1, p. 292; 1881, Vol. 1, p. 563.

1.33 In 1884 and 1889 Chaplain McCleery took a religious census among the prisoners. Of the 456 prisoners in 1884, 290 were Protestant (63.6%), 164 Catholic (35.9%), and 2 Jewish (0.5%). Of the 324 prisoners in 1889, 209 were Protestant (64.5%), 113 Catholic (34.8%), and 2 Jewish (0.7%). Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1882, Vol. 1, p. 511; 1883, Vol. 1, p. 335; 1884, Vol. 1, p. 771; 1889 Vol. 1, p. 251; Henry Schindler, "Public Worship, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1827–1907,” Library, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York, p. 20. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1882, Vol. 1, p. 511; 1889, Vol. 1,

pp. 251-252; Annual Report of the Commandant of the U.S. Military Prison, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 18 July 1892, Selected ACP, Charles C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

Extracts from the Annual Reports of the Commandant of the U.S. Military Prison, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 18 July 1892 and 30 June 1893, Selected ACP, Charles C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

134 Monthly Report of Chaplain Charles C. Pierce from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, August 1891, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; Wesley Merritt to Pierce, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 28 January 1895, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; Schindler, “Public Worship,"

134

135

pp. 20-21.

139

139

137 Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1891, Vol. 1, p. 312; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Jeremiah Porter from Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming Territory, 15 January 1897, 12 May 1879, Selected ACP, J. Porter, RG 94, NA.

Act of 28 July 1866, 39th Congress, 1st Session, Chapter 299, Section 30.

Notes on the services of Chaplain John C. Jacobi by the Assistant Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 13 January 1875, Selected ACP, J. C. Jacobi, RG 94, NA; Hatch to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 3 December 1880, Selected ACP, M. J. Gonzales, RG 94, NA; Pierce to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 5 April 1884, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; Monthly Report to Chaplain Charles C. Pierce from Fort Riley, Kansas, 1 December 1883, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; Hatch to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 4 December 1883, RG 94, NA.

140 Earl F. Stover, "Chaplain Henry V. Plummer, His Ministry and His Court-Martial," Nebraska History, Spring 1875, p. 22.

Ibid., pp. 24-25. 149 Ibid., p. 33.

141

143 Ibid., 14 Ibid., 145 Ibid.,

pp. 28–32.
pp.
pp. 36–46.

34–35.

148 G. W. Prioleau, “Is the Chaplain's Work a Necessity?,” Steward Active Service,

pp. 27-28.

147

Monthly Reports of Chaplain George W. Prioleau from Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 30 June 1895, 31 October 1895, AGODF No. 10315, G. W. Prioleau, RG 94, NA; Cleveland Gazette, 5 March 1898, p. 1.

Steward, Gospel Ministry, pp. 268–269, 271, 273; Steward to John Wanamaker, Washington, D.C., 8 October 1891, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA.

148

140

150

Monthly Reports of Chaplain T. G. Steward from Fort Missoula, Montana, 31 October 1891, 1 May 1892, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA; Steward to John Wanamaker, Washington, D.C., 8 October 1891, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA; Steward Gospel Ministry, p. 271; T. G. Steward, “Colonel George L. Andrews,Harper's Weekly, 7 May 1892, p. 437.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain T. G. Steward from Fort Missoula, Montana, 31 August 1892, 31 December 1892, 31 March 1894, 1 December 1894, 1 May 1895, 1 May 1897, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA.

Steward, Active Service, p. 14; T. G. Steward, “The Canteen in the Army," Harper's Weekly, 9 April 1892, pp. 350–351; T. G. Steward, “The Colored American as a Soldier,The United Service, April 1894, pp. 323–327; T. G. Steward, "A Colored Crack Rifle Shot,” The Army Magazine, October 1894, pp. 67–70; T. G. Steward, "Starving Laborers and the 'Hired Soldier',"' The United Service, October 1895, pp. 363–366.

15 Monthly Report of Chaplain William T. Anderson from Fort Assinniboine, Montana, 1 December 1897, Selected ACP, W. T. Anderson, RG 94, NA.

163 Anderson to the Adjutant General, Department of Dakota, 10 May 1898, Selected ACP, W. T. Anderson, RG 94, NA.

151

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