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Winfield Scott, who served during the Civil Indian wars, had the distinction of having two cities named after himWinfield, Kansas, and
and Scottsdale, Arizona. (R. K. Smith Collection, Phoenix, Arizona)
Charles C. Pierce, on active duty from 1882 to 1884 and from 1888 to 1908, served at several posts in the United States, Philippines, and Cuba; changed his denomination from Baptist to Episcopal "for doctrinal reasons"; was the first Army Chaplain selected for promotion to major (1904); and retired in 1908. He was recalled to active duty in 1917, served as Chief of the A.E.F. Graves Registration Service in France, and in that position received quartermaster promotions to lieutenant colonel and colonel. Thus, he was the first chaplain to receive active duty promotion to those grades. (T. G. Steward, Active Service)
Allen Allensworth, the second black clergyman to receive a Regular Army commission won recognition as an educator from Army authorities and civilian educators. He was one of the first four chaplains selected for promotion to major (1904). Because of his Civil War service, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1906 on the day of his retirement. His promotion was touted by the Negro press as the "highest honor ever given an Afro-American in the Army." (R. K. Smith Collection, Phoenix, Arizona)
Henry V. Plummer, the first black clergyman to receive a Regular Army commission, served with the 9th Cavalry Regiment from 1884 to 1894. (Howard University Library)
Theophilus G. Steward, 25th Infantry Regiment, wrote extensively about the black man's prowess as a soldier. (H. V. Caskin, Under Fire With The Tenth
In Cuba, the Philippines, and China:
THREE CONFLICTS AND THE ARMY
It was not difficult to understand why Secretary of State John Hay called it "a splendid little war.” 1 From his vantage point, the SpanishAmerican War was magnificent; it marked the emergence of the United States as a world power. In less than four months—21 April to 13 August 1898—the American Navy and Army combined to defeat the Spanish forces in Cuba and the Philippine Islands. In addition, the Navy took Guam without a fight, and in an almost bloodless operation, the Army took Puerto Rico. Furthermore, the peace treaty signed in Paris on 10 December 1898 provided for the indepedence of Cuba and the annexation of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands to the United States. Those annexations, along with the earlier annexations of Samoa (1889) and Hawaii (1898), provided the United States with an empire.
Other Americans also had good reason to consider the conflict splendid. To Alfred Thayer Mahan it was the confirmation of his theory that a country's strength on the seas was of primary importance to its prosperity and position in the world and of his efforts to convince Americans to build a powerful navy. The war was principally a naval war; the Army's campaigns around Santiago and Manila were undertaken to complete the naval campaigns. To the “jingo” and “yellow" journalists, particularly William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, who used the Cuban revolution to sell newspapers and aroused public opinion for war against Spain, it was a source of profit and satisfaction. To Reverend Josiah Strong and other evangelical Protestants it was partial fulfillment of their dream to "Anglo-Saxonize” the entire world. To Theodore Roosevelt it was a justification of decisions he made as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, a
See notes at end of chapter.
means of becoming a war hero, and a catapult into the Vice-Presidency and the White House.?
There were those, however, who believed that the annexations tarnished the splendor of the little war. Influential Americans who had supported the conflict as a war of liberation opposed their nation's new policy of expansionism; many of them joined the Anti-Imperialist League. Their influence in the Senate was so strong that the peace treaty was ratified by only a two-vote margin. Moreover, the Filipino leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, declared the establishment of the Philippine Republic with himself as its leader; on 4 February 1899, two days before the ratification of the peace treaty, he and his troops attacked the American forces in Manila. The attack marked the beginning of the Philippine Insurrection, and the United States suddenly found itself in a longer and bloodier war that lasted until President Roosevelt proclaimed its end on 4 July 1902. The proclamation did not instantly end the hostilities, yet its date marks the official end of the Insurrection.3
While the Americans and Aguinaldo's insurrectos were locked in combat, some United States forces—most of them from the Philippines were ordered to suppress the “Boxer Rebellion" in China. In early 1900 a secret Chinese society called the “Patriotic Harmonious Fists”—Westerners nicknamed them “Boxers”—moved to eliminate Western and Japanese influence from China by destroying property and massacring everyone considered foreign, including Christian missionaries and Chinese Christians; the Manchu government supported the Boxers. Watching the uprising develop and fearing for their safety, accredited foreign diplomats in Peking asked their government on 26 May for troops to protect the legations in that city. Five days later, the guards—350 sailors and marines from Japanese, Russian, British, French, Italian, and American warships—arrived. On 20 June the Boxers and Manchu government troops besieged the legations, but the defenders held their ground until rescued on 14 August by an International Relief Expedition composed of forces from the eight countries that sent guards. The United States expedition totaled about 2,100 troops. For about two months following the rescue, the expeditionary forces moved to crush the Boxers; American troops operated near Peking and Tientsin. Then they began their departure; except for one company that stayed as legation guard, all United States troops left China by May 1901. During the expedition American casualties totaled 102. On 7 September 1901 the Manchu government and dip