Слике страница
PDF
ePub

7

[ocr errors]

13

* The casualty breakdown was: 33 killed in action; 18 mortally wounded; 47 from disease; and four from accidents. Shannon, Twentieth Century America, pp. 132–133; Charles W. Thomas, III, “The United States Army Troops in China, 1912–1937,” (U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania), pp. 3–4; "Bronze Tablets Erected to commemorate the China Relief Expedition of 1900,” (Reprint from Journal Military Service Institution, U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania), p. 2.; 1950 Army Almanac, (Washington, D.C.; Government Printing Office, 1950), p. 411.

5 Kreidberg and Henry, History of Military Mobilization, pp. 150, 164-165, 170; Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States Army, (New York: MacMillan Company, 1967), pp. 290-292.

• Combat casualties totaled: 498 killed in action; 202 mortally; 349 from accidents; and 2,974 wounded but not mortally. Casualties from diseases—primarily typhoid, malaria, and yellow fever-totaled 5,423. Kreidberg and Henry, History of Military Mobilization, pp. 172173; 1950 Army Almanac, p. 411.

Weigley, History of the United States Army, pp. 307-308, 568.

Combat casualties totaled: 777 killed in action; 227 mortally wounded; and 2,911 wounded but not mortally. In addition, 589 died from accidents, and 2,572 perished from diseases. Weigley, History of the United States Army, pp. 307–308; 1950 Army Almanac, p. 411.

Though several American church historians have described the churches' support of diplomatic and military intervention, William A. Karraker's dissertation is most definitive. William A. Karraker, “The Amercan Churches and the Spanish-American War,” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, December 1943), pp. 277–281; Ahlstrom, A Religious History, pp. 878–880; Robert T. Handy, A Christian America, (New York: Oxford, 1971), pp. 124–127, 259.

10 Frank Friedel, "Spanish-American War,The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 17, (Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1968), p. 590.

11 Freidel, "Spanish-American War,” World Book, Vol. 17, p. 590; Kreidberg and Henry, History of Military Mobilization, p. 148; Shannon, Twentieth Century America, pp. 17-19.

19 Shannon, Twentieth Century America, p. 21; Hudson, Religion in America, p. 18.

Forbes W. Cameron, The Philippine Islands, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1945), p. 297; Shannon, Twentieth Century America, p. 18.

14 On 12 April 1864 Confederate cavalrymen under General Nathan Bedford Forrest allegedly murdered black Union soldiers who had surrendered at Fort Pillow, Tennessee. The news spread to other black soldiers, and for the remainder of the war, they went into battle using the battle cry, “Remember Fort Pillow!" Charles Alexander, The Battles and Victories of Allen Allensworth, (Boston: Sherman French Company, 1914), pp. 349, 352.

p.

355. 14 Theophilus G. Steward, The Colored Regulars of the United States Army, (New York: Arno Press, 1969), pp. 91–92, 103; Theophilus G. Steward to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 19 December 1898, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA; Special Orders No. 122, Headquarters Department of the Colorado, Denver, Colorado, 22 December 1898, paragraph 3; Special Orders No. 12, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 16 January 1899, paragraph 52.

17 V. Edmund McDevitt, The First California's Chaplain, (Fresno, California: Academy Library Guild, 1956), pp. 87–88.

18 Steward, Colored Regulars, pp. 105, 326–327.

Ibid., pp. 328–329.

Chaplain Groves was the father of Lt. Gen. Leslie R. Groves, Jr., the Director of the Manhattan Project in the 1940s. Leslie R. Groves, Sr., “Traveling Light,” L. R. Groves, Sr., Papers, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, N.Y., p.

3. McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, p. 97.

22 Leon Friedman, The Law of War, Vol. 1, (New York: Random House, 1973), p. 191; “The Geneva Convention of 22 Aug. 64,The Statutes at Large of the United States of America from December 1881 to March 1883 and Recent Treaties, Postal Conventions, and Executive Proclamations, Vol. 22, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1883), p. 943.

23 Leslie R. Groves, “Campaigning a la Hobo," L. R. Groves Sr., Papers, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York, p. 9.

15 Ibid.,

19

20

21

24 William T. Anderson to the Adjutant General, Department of Dakota, 10 May 1898, Selected ACP, W. T. Anderson, RG 94, NA; Herschel V. Cashin and others, Under Fire With The Tenth U.S. Cavalry, (Chicago: American Publishing House, 1902), p. 291; Frank N. Schubert, “Anderson William T.,” Dictionary of American Negro Biography, (To be published by Thomas J. Crowell of New York); William T. Anderson to George A. Myers, Cleveland, Ohio, 4 May 1898, 3 June 1898, George A. Myers Papers, Box 6, Folders 3 nad 4, Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.

* Cashin, Under Fire With The Tenth U.S. Cavalry, p. 110; Marvin A. Kreidberg and Merton G. Henry, History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army, 1775–1945, pp. 159-162; Theophilus G. Steward to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 5 July 1898, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA; Special Orders No. 180, Adjutant General's Office, War Department, Washington, D.C., 2 August 1898; Charles Alexander, Battles and Victories of Allen Allensworth, pp. 355-362.

* "Report Of The Work Done By, And Under Direction of Orville J. Nave, Post Chaplain U.S. Army, Fort McPherson, Georgia, In Camp And Hospital, 1 May to 15 September 1898," Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

97 lbid.

[blocks in formation]

2 Ibid.

31

20 William E. Biederwolf, History of the 161st Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, (Logansport, Indiana: Wilson, Humphreys and Co., 1899), pp. 227–228.

Ibid., p. 226.

Chaplain Edmund P. Easterbrook to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 30 August 1898; First endorsement by Colonel E. E. Hardin, 6 September 1898; Second and third endorsements by Captain Albert F. Brugman and Major W. H. Carter, 30 September 1898; Selected ACP, E. P. Easterbrook, RG 94, NA.

* “The Historical Essays of the American Bible Society," Vol. 10, Essay No. 14, Part VI, B-6, Library, American Bible Society, New York, New York, p. 15; “Leslie R. Groves, Letters To His Wife, Gwen, May 19, 1898–September 30, 1900,” Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York, p. 1.

Leslie R. Groves, "Campaigning a la Hobo,” pp. 6–9; Utica Daily Press, 30 August 1898,

p. 4.

35

39

Groves, "Campaigning a la Hobo," p.

9.
Groves, “Campaigning a la Hobo," p. 11; Utica Daily Press, 30 August 1898, p. 4.
Utica Daily Press, 30 August 1898, p. 1.
Ibid.

Earl F. Stover, “A Chaplain and His Descendents,The Chaplain, Summer Quarter 1974, p. 72; Memorandum regarding L. R. Groves' eligibility for promotion, War Department, The Military Secretary's Office, Washington, D.C., 7 November 1906, Adjutant General's Office Document File, (Hereafter abbreviated AGODF) No. 45250, Leslie R. Groves, RG 94, NA.

* Peter MacQueen, “Chaplains in the Army of Invasion and Occupation,The Congregationalist, 13 October 1898, p. 481, and The Christian Worker, June 1899, pp. 7–8.

"Leslie Richard Groves, “Leslie Richard Groves,” (Unpublished autobiographical manuscript of Leslie R. Groves, Jr., in possession of Major General Richard H. Groves, Governor's Island, New York), p. 13.

42 Leslie R. Groves, “An Untitled Sermon or Talk” given before a church' group in 1898 or 1899 between his return from Cuba and his departure from the Philippines, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York, p. 1.

43 Peter MacQueen, “Chaplains in the Army of Invasion and Occupation,” The Congregationalist, 13 October 1898, p. 480.

* Major William Auman to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 8 February 1899, AGODF No. 20127, Swift, RG 94, NA; Chaplain Henry Swift to Colonel A. C. Markley, Fort McDowell, California, 2 April 1903, First endorsement by Colonel Markley, Fort McDowell, California, 3 April 1903, Selected ACP, H. Swift, RG 94, NA.

Major William Auman to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 8 February 1899, AGODF No. 201278, Swift, RG 94, NA; General Orders No. 15, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D.C., 13 February 1900; Major Louis A. La Garde to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 10 May 1904, Selected ACP, H. Swift, RG 94, NA;

45

48

[ocr errors]

61

[ocr errors]

68 Ibid.,

Colonel A. C. Mackley to the Military Secretary, Washington, D.C., 23 May 1904, Selected ACP, H. Swift, RG 94, NA; Chaplain Henry Swift ot Colonel A. C. Mackley, Fort McDowell, California, 2 April 1903, First endorsement by Colonel Markley, Fort McDowell, California, 3 April 1903, Selected ACP, H. Swift RG 94, NA.

48 MacQueen, "Chaplains in the Army of Invasion and Occupation,The Congregationalist, 13 October 1898, p. 480.

47 Cashin, Under Fire With the Tenth U.S. Cavalry, pp. 290–291.

MacQueen, "Chaplains in the Army of Invasion and Occupation,The Congregationalist, 13 Ocotber 1898, p. 481; Chaplain Henry A. Brown to Secretary of War R. A. Alger, Washington, D.C., 22 July 1898, First endorsement by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, 22 July 1898, AGODF No. 143327, H. A. Brown, RG 94, NA.

Weigley, History of the U.S. Army, p. 310; Steward, Colored Regulars, p. 230.

Steward, Colored Regulars, p. 227; Weigley, History of the U.S. Army, p. 310; Cleveland Moffett, “How We Bury Our Soldier Dead,” Leslie's Weekly, 22 September 1898, pp. 229, 232; Cleveland Moffett, “Stories of Camp Wikoff," Leslie's Weekly, 27 October 1898.

Weigley, History of the U.S. Army, p. 310; Steward, Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry. (Philadelphia: African Methodist Episcopal Book Concern, 1921), p. 304; Steward, Colored Regulars, pp. 227–228, 230-231; Moffett, "How We Bury Our Soldier Dead,” Leslie's Weekly, 22 September 1898, pp. 229-232.

Steward, Colored Regulars, p. 234; Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., "Smoked Yankees" and the Struggle for Empire, (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1971), p. 82; “The Historical Essays of the American Bible Society," Vol. 10, Essay No. 14, Part VI, B-6, p. 19.

McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 67, 70–71; John M. Gates, Schoolbooks and Krags, (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press Inc., 1973), p. 5.

54 McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 75–76. 55 McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 80–85; Gates, Schoolbooks and Krags, pp. 7, 18.

McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 85–86, 88–91. 57 Ibid., pp. 92–96.

P.

99. From a total force of 10,937 officers and men, 18 were killed and 111 wounded. Weigley, History of the U.S. Army, p. 307; Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, Vol. 2, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903), pp. 293, 449.

Gates, Schoolbooks and Krags, pp. vii-viii. McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, p. 100. Ibid., pp. 101-102. 63 Ibid., pp. 185–187. 64 Gatewood, “Smoked Yankees," p. 310.

5 Steward, Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry, pp. 318-331; Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1899, Vol. 1, Exhibit N (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899), pp. 271-272; Annual Report of Major General Arthur MacArthur, U.S. Volunteers, Commanding, Division of the Philippines, Vol. 2, (Manila, P.I. 1900), pp. 345–346, 355–357, 362–363; Annual Report of Major General Arthur MacArthur, U.S. Army, Commanding, Division of the Philippines, Vol. 2, Appendix GG, (Manila, P.I., 1901), pp. 1–33.

Gates, Schoolbooks and Krags, p. 277.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Charles C. Pierce from Manila, Philippine Islands, 1 October 1898, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

& Efficiency Report of George D. Rice, 1st Lt., 26th Infantry, U.S.V., Tigbanan, Panay, P.I., 30 June 1900, AGODF No. 170096, G. D. Rice, RG 94, NA.

Cephas C. Bateman, “Progress Among the Moros,The American Monthly Review of Reviews, December 1903, p. 689.

*° Brigadier General Samuel Ovenshine to Chaplain C. C. Pierce, Washington, D.C., 6 June 1903, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce RG 94, NA; "Succinct Account of Services, Charles C. Pierce, 1900,” filed with efficiency reports, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

*1 Karl Irving Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, (San Francisco, California: Hicks-Judd Company Publishers, 1899), p. 313.

01

67

74

79

* Annual Reports of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1899, Vol. 1, Exhibit M, p. 271.

* Annual Report of Major General Arthur MacArthur, Vol. 2, 1900, pp. 509–511 and Vol. 2, 1901, Appendix VV, p. 69.

Henry Lippincott to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 27 March 1903, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

* Charles C. Pierce to Chaplain Walter Marvine, U.S. Army, 9th Infantry Regiment, Tientsin, China, 1 August 1900, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, pp. 311-313.

Brigadier General Thomas H. Barry to C. C. Pierce, U.S. Army, Manila, P.I., 15 December 1900, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Charles C. Pierce from Manila, Philippine Islands, 1 October 1898, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA; “Leslie R. Groves, Letters to Jane, 19 February 1900, 18 April 1900” and “Leslie R. Groves, Letters to Jane, Mother, and Allen, November 16, 1899-June 18, 1901,” Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York; "Succinct Account of Services, Charles C. Pierce, 1901,” filed with summaries of efficiency reports, Selected ACP, C. C. Pierce, RG 94, NA.

Earl F. Stover, “A Chaplain and His Descendants,The Chaplain, Summer Quarter 1974, p. 73; W.F.N., “Presbyterianism in the Philippines,The Presbyterian, 21 February 1900, p. 7.

Brigadier General Frank D. Baldwin to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 30 June 1902, AGODF 458875, RG 94, NA; “Memorandum for the Secretary of War: Subject: Advancement to the grade of Major of Chaplain George D. Rice," AGODF No. 170096, G. D. Rice, RG 94, NA; General Orders No. 100, Headquarters Division of the Philippines, Manila, P.I., 21 October 1903, AGODF No. 170096, G. D. Rice, RG 94, NA; Decorations United States Army, 1862–1926, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927), p. 521.

Manila Times, 16 February 1900, p. 1, and 17 February 1900, p. 1; Alexander, Battles and Victories of Allen Allensworth, p. 281. Army-Navy Journal, 16 June 1900, p. 985, Manila Times, 8 February 1900, p.

1. *2 “Efficiency Record of Allen Allensworth, 1902,” Selected ACP, A. Allensworth, RG 94, NA.

* Gatewood, “Smoked Yankees,” pp. 262–264.

Steward, Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry, pp. 341–342. & Gatewood, “Smoked Yankees," pp. 306,309, p. 1.

Cleveland Gazette, 19 August 1899, p. 1.

McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 142–143. ** Ibid., pp. 146–147, 206.

* McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 148–149; Elting E. Morison, Ed., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, Vol. 3 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1951),

[ocr errors]

81

84

p. 189.

91

80 McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 145–146.

Henry F. Pringle, The Life and Times of William Howard Taft, Vol. 1 (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1939), p. 223; McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 149, 179–

183–184.
$2 McDevitt, First California's Chaplain, pp. 189–192, 194, 199–201.

83 Philip Carlyle Jessup, Elihu Root, Vol. 2 (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1938), pp. 366–367; Pringle, William Howard Taft, Vol. 1, pp. 227, 231; McDevitt, First California's Chaplain,

181,

p. 219,

** Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 October 1901, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; New York Times, 20 September 1901, p. 2; H. E. Palmer to Secretary of War Stephen B. Elkins, Washington, D.C., 31 August 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Vattmann to Senator Mark A. Hanna, Washington, D.C., 7 November 1901, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Chicago Daily Post, 25 April 1917, clipping filed with Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Secretary to the President George B. Cortelyou to Secretary of War Elihu Root, Washington, D.C., 26 October 1901, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

99

100

101

102

* Memorandum from George B. Cortelyou to Secretary of War Elihu Root, War Department, Washington, D.C., 14 November 1901, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Vattmann to George B. Cortelyou, White House, Washington, D.C., 15 November 1901, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG NA.

Archbishop John Ireland to Secretary of War Elihu Root, Washington, D.C., 15 December 1901, Selected ACP, RG 94, NA; Individual Service Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann, 29th Infantry Regiment, from Iloilo, Panay, Philippine Islands, 24 August 1902, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

" Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from 29th Infantry Regiment, Iloilo, Panay, Philippine Islands, 1 June 1902, 1 August 1902, 1 September 1902, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

os Individual Service Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann, 20th Infantry Regiment, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 26 July 1903, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Vattmann to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 5 February 1903, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG, NA; Jessup, Elihu Root, Vol. 1, p. 367.

Secretary to the President William Loeb to Secretary of War William H. Taft, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1904, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Chicago Daily Post, 25 April 1917, clipping filed with Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Joseph M. Gleason to President Theodore Roosevelt, Washington, D.C., 29 November 1908, AGODF No. 1463427, J. M. Gleason, RG 94, NA; A. S. Daggett, America in the China Relief Expedition (Kansas City: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Company, 1903), pp. 92–93.

The Adjutant General to the Commanding General, Philippine Division, Manila, Philippine Islands, 17 December 1908, with endorsements: 7th endorsement, 29 March 1909, 8th endorsement , 2 April 1909; 11th endorsement, 5 April 1909, 17th endorsement, 23 April 1909; 18th endorsement, 9 May 1909, AGODF No. 1463427, J. M. Gleason, RG 94, NA.

108 Monthly Reports of Chaplain Walter Marvine from Tientsin, China, 31 July 1900, 31 August 1900, 30 September 1900, 31 October 1900, 30 November 1900, 31 December 1900, Selected ACP, W. Marvine, RG, NA; Walter Marvine to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 20 March 1901, Selected ACP, W. Marvine, RG 94, NA; Brigadier General C. A. Coolidge to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 14 June 1904, Selected ACP, W. Marvine, RG 94, NA.

104 Daggett, China Relief Expedition, p. 69; Annual Report of the War Department, 1900, Vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1900), p. 60; Colonel A. S. Daggett to the Adjutant General, China Relief Expedition, Peking, China, 19 August 1900, AGODF No. 350370, Enclosure 13, RG 94, NA; “Proceedings of a Board of Officers Convened by the Following Orders: Special Orders No. 60, Paragraph 3, Headquarters China Relief Expedition, Adjutant General's Office, Peking, China, October 16, 1900, and Special Orders No. 66, Paragraph 5, Headquarters China Relief Expedition, Peking, China, October 22, 1900, AGODF No. 343103, pp. 6–7, RG 94, NA.

Stover, "A Chaplain and His Descendants,The Chaplain, Summer Quarter 1974, pp. 73–74.

196 “Leslie R. Groves, Letters to Jane, Mother, and Allen, November 16, 1899-June 18, 1901,” Letter to Mother, 13 September 1900, Archives, U.S. Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York; “Leslie R. Groves, Letters to Gwen,” 13 September 1900, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York; Leslie Richard Groves, “Leslie Richard Groves,” pp. 229-230; Stover, “A Chaplain and His Desecendants," The Chaplain,

106

p. 74.

107

Cephas C. Bateman, “The Army Chaplain: His Work and Worth,” Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, March-April 1905, pp. 294, 298–299; New York Times, 11 November 1899.

« ПретходнаНастави »