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movements, the number of churches burgeoned, and a majority of the populace became church members. Protestantism still dominated the general scene, but Catholicism, Judaism, and Orthodoxy, largely through immigrations, were reducing that predominance. The expansion, however, was turbulent rather than smooth. Science, technology, industrialization, urbanization, and unfamiliar social and economic philosophies affected traditional theological positions; tensions and controversies erupted in churches and on seminary faculties. Yet many “liberals” and “conservatives” were able to join together with “moderates” in crusades to Christianize America. In fact, crusades were as characteristic of church life as expansion and turbulence.' One observer wrote:
The first fifteen years of the twentieth century may sometimes be remembered in America as the Age of Crusades. There were a superabundance of zeal, a sufficiency of good causes, unusual moral idealism, excessive confidence in mass movements and leaders with rare gifts of popular appeal. The people were ready to cry "God wills it” and set out for world peace, prohibition, the Progressive Party, the “New Freedom” or “the World for Christ in this Generation.” The
air was full of banners, and the trumpets called from every camp.
Two long-standing crusades to Christianize America were those of the Young Men's Christian Association and the American Bible Society; with their broad-based support, they were able to reach out and influence many. The campaign for temperance and prohibition continued to be the greatest unifying factor among Christians. Sunday school lessons promoted it at least once each quarter. Preachers espoused it from pulpits. Ecclesiastical bodies supported it with resolutions. Both Protestants and Catholics were involved in it, separately if not together. Other causes did not stir such widespread enthusiasm, but they did draw various churches and large numbers of church persons together. Foreign and home missions boards, albeit for a variety of motives, cooperated on an official basis. To address the moral and ethical problems of a society that was turning increasingly industrial and urban, 33 Protestant denominations launched the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America in 1908. The anti-imperialist and peace movements derived much of their support from the churches, and though there were no national public opinion polls to measure their strength, they were vigorous and influential. The observable results of the various crusades fed the fires of optimism and idealism. That, along with the spirit of Progressivism, made it seem to some "as if the kingdom was coming speedily."
REFORM WITHIN THE CHAPLAINCY
Fortunately, the reform and reorganization of the Army, begun by Secretary of War Root, did not bypass the chaplaincy. For years the qualifications for becoming a Regular Army chaplain had remained the same, except that Orville J. Nave's efforts had inspired some denominations to send better qualified applicants to compete for appointments. Moreover, once an applicant was appointed, he generally received little or nothing to enhance his ministry. Facilities for religious activities and post
schools left much to be desired. The whims of commanders frequently determined whether chaplains received enough support-supplies, equipment, transportation, and enlisted assitsance—to do their duties effectively. There were no Army education or training programs for chaplains and no incentive promotions or assignments. Except for the privilege of submitting suggestions through military channels, there were no provisions for chaplains, individually or collectively, to participate in policy matters affecting the chaplaincy. If they used military channels to recommend means of improving the chaplaincy, their letters generally resulted only in polite but terse acknowledgements of receipt. And as Chaplain Nave learned, some officers, particularly in the Office of the Adjutant General, resented attempts outside of military channels to affect reforms on behalf of the chaplaincy or the moral and religious condition of servicemen.
Before the Spanish-American War, the Army merely required that an applicant for a chaplain appointment be a “regularly ordained minister of some religious denomination"; recommended by “some authorized ecclesiastical body” or by at least “five accredited ministers” from his denomination; and able to present “testimonials of his present good standing” as a minister. In 1899, however, it raised the standards by lowering the maximum appointment age to 44 years and by requiring each applicant to satisfactorily pass an examination “as to his moral, mental, and physical qualifications as may be prescribed by the President.” 10 The mental examination, which was the same kind given to candidates for a Regular Army officer's commission, was quite comprehensive and covered 14 subjects: arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, surveying, logarithms, grammar, writing from oral dictation, English literature, geography, orthography, international law, the U.S. Constitution, and history." Applicants who demonstrated their fitness as Volunteer chaplains during the war with Spain were not required to take the mental
examination. In addition, if a candidate failed parts of the examination, the examining board could still deem him “physically, mentally and morally qualified to perform the duties” of a chaplain, as it did in the case of H. Percy Silver. Silver's grades in the mathematical subjects were “not entirely satisfactory”; but when everything was considered, especially his "excellent showing” in the other subjects, the board was convinced that he could “speedily acquire” proficiency in mathematics, and thereby “discharge ... those duties ... which pertain to Post Schools.” 12 The board evidently made a wise decision. On the basis of his demonstrated ability as a chaplain from 1901 to 1910, Silver was selected to be the chaplain at West Point, where he served from 1913 to 1918.
In 1901 the maximum appointment age was lowered to 40 years, with the provision that chaplains commissioned in the Volunteers subsequent to 21 April 1898 could be appointed as Regular Army chaplains, if under age 42 when originally appointed as Volunteer chaplains. Furthermore, and undoubtedly as a result of the policy of assigning chaplains to regiments during the Spanish-American War, the Philippine Insurrection, and the Boxer Rebellion, the office of post chaplain was abolished; all chaplains became unit chaplains with the regiments or corps of artillery, serving at "such stations” as directed by the Secretary of War. Consequently, the number of authorized chaplains was increased from 34 to 57. In addition, while serving in the field, they were authorized a “necessary means of transportation by the Quartermaster's Depart
Later that year, the Adjutant General's Office specified that each board of examination for chaplain candidates must include at least one medical officer and that each applicant must be a United States citizen. Most important, it provided a general description of the examination and the weight that would be given to each part. A candidate could score a maximum of 300 points for pastoral experience, and a maximum of 200 points each for attendance at college, teaching experience,writing and spelling ability, and competence in English grammar and composition. He could score less heavily in other parts, for example, a maximum of 150 points each in mathematics, geography, and history; 100 points each for his physical examination, attendance at schools and academies, attendance at a theological seminary, and knowledge of Constitutional and international law; and 50 points in physiology and hygiene. Except for the parts about college and seminary attendance and teaching experience, a passing score consisted of an overall average of at least 70 per cent,
and an average of not less than 65 per cent in any of the parts." Passing the exam, however, did not guarantee a candidate an appointment. There had to be vacancies to be filled, and presumably appointments were awarded to candidates who made the highest scores. Then again, as in the case of Chaplain Silver, the President had the prerogative of appointing a candidate, even if his scores were “not entirely satisfactory.
Except for two subject areas eliminated in 1908—Constitutional and international law, physiology and hygiene—candidates continued to be examined in the same subjects. Joseph S. Loughran, who was examined in 1916, reported that the Office of the Adjutant General sent him a copy of an old examination to give him some idea of what to expect, but that the test was very difficult. Some chaplains recommended that the examination be modified. Aldred A. Pruden claimed it an "absurdity for a man of any ordinary education” to be tested in the elementary subjects and in 1909 suggested that a diploma or certificate from a college or seminary be accepted as evidence of proficiency in those subjects. He also suggested that the candidates' knowledge of Constitutional and international law be tested once again. While agreeing with Pruden in regard to the absurdity of testing candidates in the elementary subjects, the Chief of Staff did not concur with either suggestion. He was convinced that candidates should demonstrate ability to teach the "common English branches” to enlisted men, and that chaplains would "seldom, if ever," be required to make use of the and subjects of Constitutional and international law.!
The Chief of Staff, however, did concur with another of Pruden's suggestions. Pruden believed that the examination alone was insufficient to determine if a candidate would make an effective chaplain. He therefore suggested that candidates "be made the subject of special investigation” through confidential correspondence with officials of churches in which they had served, and with other persons of various communities in which they had lived. He thought that the investigation would “ascertain the standing of the applicants, their temperament, ability to work peaceably and harmoniously with others, their habits and characters.” 1? Once the requirement for the special investigation was implemented, it almost eliminated Louis A. Carter as a candidate. In lieu of confidential correspondence, the board which examined him requested a Knoxville, Tennessee, recruiting officer to make inquiries concerning his character. The officer was told that Carter, a successful young pastor of a large black congregation in Knoxville, possessed bad
moral character and had secured his many letters of recommendation "by some political deal”; he therefore recommended that someone from the board look into the matter. Upon receiving the report, the examining board sent Chaplain Washington W. E. Gladden of the 24th Infantry Regiment to Knoxville to ascertain the "truth or falsity of the rumors.” Fortunately, Gladden found that the rumors were false, and Carter was appointed as Chaplain to the 10th Cavalry Regiment.
Efforts to raise the mental and moral standards for the chaplaincy were accompanied by periodic increases in the number of authorized chanlain and by at least one attempt to secure the appointment of a Jewish itinerant chaplain. In 1906 an additional chaplain was authorized for the Corps of Engineers, and in the following year two more were authorized for the Coast Artillery Corps and one for each field artillery regiment, raising the number of authorized chaplains to 67. The next increase occurred in June 1916, when the Pershing Punitive Expedition was in Mexico and the threat of the United States' entry into World War I became more acute. Congress passed legislation to expand the Regular Army to 64 infantry regiments, 25 cavalry regiments, and 21 field artillery regiments; one chaplain was authorized for each regiment of arms, one for each engineer regiment, and one for each 1,200 officers and men of the Coast Artillery Corps. The same act specified that "preference and priority” be given to applicants who were “duty qualified" veterans under 41 years of age. Efforts to secure the appointment of a Jewish chaplain were unsuccessful.19
The “particularly meritorious service” of various chaplains during the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion called attention to the absence of legal authorization for the President to recognize them through promotion, or to promote other chaplains for “exceptional efficiency.” To remedy that “long standing discrimination,” Secretary of War Root submitted recommended legislation to Congress in 1903. Chaplains apparently were given some voice in preparing the legislative material, for Charles C. Pierce, who was stationed at Fort Myer, Virginia, claimed in one of his official reports that he composed it. Moreover, some chaplains actively aroused newspaper editors and public opinion in behalf of the measure; due to the efforts of Pierce and Walter Marvine, the influential New York Tribune "warmly espoused it.” Church leaders—Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, Lutheran, and Baptistvigorously endorsed it as a matter of “justice and honor to worthy