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General Orders No. 36, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 4 March 1899, Section 7; President of the Board of Officers to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 12 July 1901, AGODF No. 315634, H. P. Silver, RG 94, NA.

General Orders No. 9, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 6 February 1901, Section 12; General Orders No. 26, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 8 March 1901.

Circular No. 41, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 4 November 1901.

15 Circular No. 4, War Department, Washington, D.C., 28 January 1907; Circular No. 24, War Department, Washington, D.C., 2 April 1908; Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, notes of telephone conversation, 21 February 1975, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

16 “Memorandum for the Secretary of War,” Subject: Recommendations made by a board of chaplains for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the chaplains, United States Army, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 30 November 1909, AGODF No. 1436700-J, RG 94. NA, pp. 9–10; “Memorandum for the Secretary, General Staff Corps," Subject: Elevating the standard of examination of candidates for appointment as chaplain, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 19 February 1910, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA; Memorandum for the Chief of Staff, Subject: Elevating the standard of examination of candidates for appointment as chaplain, War Department, Washington, D.C., 23 February 1910, AGODF No. 1436700. RG 94, NA; Chaplain Leslie R. Groves to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 28 March 1910, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA; Chaplain Aldred A. Pruden to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 8 April 1910, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA; “Memorandum for the Secretary, General Staff Corps," Subject: Elevating the standard of examination for appointment as chaplain, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 6 May 1910, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA; “Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary of War," Subject: Examination of candidates for appointment as chaplains in the Army, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 20 June 1910, AGO–1435700, RG 94, NA.

17 Ibid., pp. 8–9.

18 “Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary of War," Subject: Examination of the Rev. L. A. Carter, a candidate for appointment as chaplain, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 9 April 1910. AGODF No. 154908, L. A. Carter, RG 94, NA, pp. 1-6.

10 Since the Army made no surveys of the religious preference of soldiers during the 18651920 period, the number of Jewish soldiers in the Army at a given time is unknown. There were, however, Jewish soldiers, and in 1912 Jewish leaders testified before the Committee on Military Affairs in the House of Representatives and requested the appointment of one itinerant Jewish chaplain. Although the leaders were unsuccessful, they continued to seek the appointment. In an apparent effort to substantiate their case, the Bureau of Statistics of the American Jewish Committee, in conjunction with the Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associations, endeavored to ascertain the number of Jewish soldiers. It wrote to “all (383) regimental post commanders throughout the Army” and asked for the "names of the Jews in their commands,” but only received 181 responses (47 percent). Using the data from the responses and making some "estimates,” the statisticians estimated that there were 3,741 Jewish soldiers (6 percent of the enlisted men). 66nd Congress, 2nd Session, Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on House Report 11717, 25 April 1912, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), pp. 3–13; Cyrus Adler, Ed., The American Jewish Year Book, (Philadelphia, Pa.: American Jewish Committee, 1916), pp. 76–79; Roy J. Honeywell Chaplains of the United States Army, (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Chaplains, 1958), pp. 167–168.

20 «Unsigned Memorandum for Secretary of War Taft from someone connected with the New York Tribune,” 19 October 1904, with attached New York Tribune news clipping, "Justice to Chaplains,” datelined Washington, D.C., 27 December 1903, Selected ACP, Walter Marvine, RG 94, NA; Congressional Record 58th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. 38, pp. 1712–1713; Act of 21 April 1904: "To recognize and promote the efficiency of army chaplains” 58th Congress, 2nd

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Act of 21 April 1904; "To recognize and promote the efficiency of army chaplains”; Chapter 1404, Section 1–2; Official Army Register, 1905. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1905), p. 86; Official Army Register, 1906. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1906), p. 174.

22 General Orders No. 81, War Department, Washington, D.C., 4 May 1904, pp. 4, 9–10–18; General Orders No. 128, War Department, Washington, D.C., 12 July 1906, p. 16; General Orders No. 147, War Department, Washington, D.C., 8 July 1907; General Orders No. 192, War Department, Washington, D.C., 23 September 1909, p. 18.

George W. Simpson, Manual for U.S. Army Chaplains, (Publication data unknown, 1893), Table of Contents; "Memorandum for the Secretary of War.” Subject: Recommendations made by a board of chaplains for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the chaplains, United States Army, Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 30 November 1909, AGODF No. 1436700-J, RG 94, NA, pp. 11-12.

Chaplain Washington W. E. Gladden to the Adjutant General, U.S.A., Washington, D.C., 2 August 1910, AGODF No. 1549808, RG 94, NA; Chaplain Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, 24 February 1975, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

“Memorandum for the Secretary of War," Subject: Recommendations made by a board of chaplains for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the chaplains, United States Army, Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 30 November 1909, AGODF No. 1436700-J, RG 94, pp. 12–13; General Orders No. 253, War Department, Washington, D.C., 28 December 1909, paragraph I.

"Memorandum for the Assistant Secretary of War,” Subject: Increase of the efficiency of Army Chaplains, Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 2 October 1908, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA, "Summary of replies. ...,' pp. 8, 11.

27 “Memorandum for the Acting Secretary of War," Subject: Addition of a paragraph to Army Regulations referring to Chaplains, Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 29 November 1907, AGODF No. 1305659, RG 94, NA, p. 1.

pp.

1-4. Chaplain Aldred A. Pruden to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 3 February, 1908, AGODF No. 256664, A. A. Pruden, RG 94, NA.

30 “Memorandum for the Secretary of War," Subject: Recommendations made by a board of chaplains for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the chaplains, United States Army, Office of the Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 30 November 1909, AGODF No. 1436700–J, RG 94, NA.

Chaplain Aldred A. Pruden to the Adjutant General, United States Army, Washington, D.C., 20 July 1911, AGODF No. 1436700, RG 94, NA.

* Circular Letter, Orville J. Nave to Chaplains of the Army, Navy, National Guard, and of the Civil and Spanish-American Wars, 15 July 1912, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

33 "Memorial to the Churches and General Christian Public from the Association of the Chaplains of the Military and Naval Forces of the United States.” Los Angeles, California, 12 September 1912, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

* Orville J. Nave to the Honorable Woodrow Wilson, Trenton, New Jersey, 7 November 1912, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

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28 Ibid.,

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35 Ibid.

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* "An Appeal in Behalf of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Army and Navy and National Guard of the United States," undated 1913, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, pp. 10–30; Annual Reports of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1913, (New York: Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1913), pp. 4–11, and 1914, (New York: Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1914), pp. 71-72; Pamphlet, “To Patriots from the Association for the Promotion of the Moral and Religious Welfare of Our Soldiers and Sailors,” Los Angeles, California, 2 August 1915, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; Spencer D. McQueen, “A Half-Century in Behalf of the Chaplaincy,The Chaplain, May-June 1967, p. 7.

Pamphlet, “To Patriots from the Association for the Promotion of the Moral and Religious Welfare of Our Soldiers and Sailors,” Los Angeles, California, 1 August 1915, Selected

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Ibid., 15 Ibid.,

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Memorandum for the Chief of Staff, Subject: Duties and efficiency of chaplains, War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, D.C., 15 April 1914, War College Division 6861-5, RG 407, NA.

George J. Waring, Chaplain's Duties and How Besť to Accomplish His Work, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), p. 15.

Annual Reports of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1914, p. 73, and 1915, pp. 39-41.

41 “Memorial to the Churches and General Christian Public from the Association of the Chaplains of the Military and Naval Forces of the United States,” Los Angeles, California, 12 September 1912, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

Annual Reports of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1915, pp. 37–38, and 1917, (New York: Missionary Education Movement, 1917), p. 245. Congressional Record, Vol. 34, 56th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 682.

pp. 115, 531-532.
p.

682.
" Ibid., pp. 114, 119,693.

Congressional Record, Vol. 34, 56th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 113–116, 119–120, 693; Army-Navy Journal, 16 February 1901, p. 598.

** Monthly Reports of Chaplain William T. Anderson from Manzanillo, Cuba, 1 March 1902, and Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 1 December 1902 and 1 March 1903, AGODF No. 53910, W. T. Anderson, RG 94, NA.

Orville J. Nave, Nave's Handbook on the Army Chaplaincy, (Los Angeles, California: published unknown, 1917), p. 26.

$0 Individual Service Report of Francis B. Doherty, Camp Camaguey, Cuba, 30 June 1908, AGODF No. 418082, F. B. Doherty, RG 94, NA.

61 Monthly Reports of Franz J. Feinler from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 31 March 1910, 31 August 1910, and 30 November 1910, AGODF No. 1469251, F. J. Feinler, RG 94, NA; "Account of Service,” Chaplain Andrew J. Murphy, 1911, AGODF No. 487115, A. J. Murphy, RG, NA: Monthly Reports of George W. Waring from Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 1 January 1906, 1 February 1906, 1 July 1906, AGODF No. 952845, G. W. Waring, RG 94, NA: P. J. O’Callaghan to Secretary of War J. M. Dickinson, Washington, D.C., 19 April 1910, AGODF No. 952845, G. W. Waring, RG 94, NA; Francis Martel to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 3 July 1911, AGODF No. 952845, G. W. Waring, RG 94, NA; P. J. O'Callaghan to Secretary of War H. L. Stimson, 12 June 1911 and 14 December 1911, AGODF No. 952845, G. W. Waring, RG 4, NA; Army-Navy Journal, 17 August 1912, p. 1585. Many instances of such prejudices are recounted in Marvin Fletcher's book, The Black Soldier and Officer in the U.S. Army, 1891-1917, (Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1974).

62 Interview with Sergeant William Banks (Retired), West Point, New York, 10 May 1973, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

63 Monthly Reports of Chaplain William T. Anderson from Manzanillo, Cuba, 1 March 1902, and Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 1 December 1902 and 1 March 1903, AGODF No. 53910, W. T. Anderson, RG 94, NA; William T. Anderson to George A. Myers, Cleveland, Ohio, 18 April 1901, George A. Myers Papers, 1890–1929, Ohio Historical Society Columbus, Ohio; Frank N. Schubert, “The Fort Robinson Y.M.C.A., 1902–1907; A Social Organization in a Black Regiment," Nebraska History, Summer 1974, pp. 165-179; Chaplain Aldred A. Pruden to the Officers, enlisted men and civilian employees connected with the Meet, “Chapel Library Tent," Division Military Meet, Philippine Islands, 7 January 1908, AGODF No. 256664, A. A. Pruden, RG 94, NA.

** Monthly Reports of Chaplain John T. Axton from Transports Sheridan and Kilpatrick, Enroute to Philippine Islands, 30 April 1903, and Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 31 May 1905, 31 December 1906, and 20 January 1907, AGODF No. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA.

56 Willard E. Wight, “A Young Medical Officer's Letters from Fort Robinson and Fort Leavenworth, 1906–1907," Nebraska History, June 1956, p. 146.

Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell to the Military Secretary, War Department, Washington, D.C., 5 January 1906, AGODF No. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA; Monthly Report of Chaplain John T. Axton from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 31 December 1906, 9th Indorsement, 26 January 1907, AGODF No. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA; Brigadier General John

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J. Pershing to the Commanding General, Southern Department, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 2nd Endorsement, 22 March 1915, probably an endorsement to Colonel J. S. Parke's letter of commendation to the Adjutant General of the Army regarding John T. Axton, Fort Bliss, Texas, 16 February 1915, AGODF No. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain W. Waring from Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, 1 March 1901, AGODF No. 952845, G. W. Waring, RG 94, NA.

Efficiency Report of Chaplain Edmund P. Easterbrook for 1912, AGODF No. 138353, E. P. Easterbrook, RG 94, NA, pp. 11, 16, 19.

to Individual Service Reports of Chaplain Edmund P. Easterbrook, 30 June 1909 and 30 June 1910, AGODF No. 138353, E. P. Easterbrook, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Franz J. Feinler from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 31 July 1909 and 31 January 1910, ADOGF No. 1469251, F. J. Feinler, RG 94, NA.

* Individual Service Report of Chaplain George W. Prioleau, 30 June 1908, Selected ACP, G. W. Prioleau, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Franz J. Feinler from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 31 July 1909; Corregidor, Philippine Islands, June 1913, and Fort William McKinley, Philippine Islands, January 1914, AGODF No. 1469251, F. J. Feinler, RG 94, NA.

** Richard Johnson, “My Life in the Army,” Entry No. 199, Special Bibliographic Series No. 6, Manuscript Holdings of the U.S. Army Military Research, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

** Efficiency Report of Chaplain Franz J. Feinler, Tokyo, Japan, 31 December 1914, AGODF No. 1469251, F. J. Feinler, RG 94, NA; Franz J. Feinler to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 14 October 1916, AGODF No. 1469251, F. J. Feinler, RG 94, NA; Special Orders No. 103, War Department, Washington, D.C., 4 May 1917, paragraph 9; Major William D. Beach to Samuel H. Bell, Fort Du Pont, Delaware, 15 June 1906, Selected ACP, S. H. Bell, RG 94, NA.

Waring, Chaplain's Duties, p. 6; Monthly Reports of Chaplain George J. Waring from Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 1 August 1905; Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, 30 May 1909; Maneuver Camp, San Antonio, Texas, 1 June 1911; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, March 1915; and Governor's Island, New York, April 1917, AGODF No. 952845, G. J. Waring, RG, NA; Monthly Report of Chaplain Franz J. Feinler from Vancouver Barracks, Washington, 30 April 1909; and Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, 30 September and 31 December 1912, AGODF No. 1469251, RG 94, NA.

* Waring, Chaplain's Duties, pp. 3–4, 16; Monthly Reports of Chaplain George J. Waring from Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 1 August 1906; and Maneuver Camp, San Antonio, Texas, 1 June 1911, AGODF No. 952845, NA; U.S. Army Regulations, 1913 (Corrected to 15 April 1917), (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1917), paragraph 2241/2, p. 60.

67 Daniel B. Jorgensen, The Service of Chaplains to Army Air Units 1917–1946, Vol. 1, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961), p. 9.

George J. Waring, “Chaplain's Duties and How Best to Accomplish His Work,” (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), pp. 6–7.

Jorgensen, Service of Chaplains To Army Air Units, pp. 9–10.

Waring, "Chaplain's Duties," pp. 13–14.

71 John D. Weaver, The Brownsville Incident, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1973), p. 15; Theophilus G. Steward, Fifty Years in the Gospel Ministry, (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: African Methodist Episcopal Church Book Concern, 191), p. 362; Monthly Report of Chaplain Theophilus G. Steward from Fort McIntosh, Texas, 31 August 1906, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA.

** Weaver, The Brownsville Incident, pp. 16–17; New York Times, 31 December 1972, p. 33N; Interview of Edward Warfield of Los Angeles, California, by Chaplain (LTC) Lee A. Thigpen, 2–3 April 1973, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

** Monthly Reports of Chaplain Joseph Clemens, 15th Infantry, from Tientsin, China, 30 April 1912, 31 August 1912, 31 December 1912, 31 January 1913, and September 1913, AGODF No. 313620, J. Clemens, RG 94, NA; Joseph Clemens, Chaplains' Work, (Publication data unknown, 915), pp. 3-4; Army-Navy Journal, 7 September 1912, p. 12, and 28 September 1912, pp. 108–109.

70

75 Ibid.

78

70

83

78 Clemens, Chaplains' Work, p. 2.

* Clarence C. Clendenen, The United States and Pancho Villa: A Study In Unconventional Diplomacy, (Ithaca, New York; Cornell University Press, 1961; Herbert Molloy Mason, Jr., The Great Pursuit, (New York: Random House, 1970), pp. 33–35, 43–53; Annual Report to the Secretary of War, 1914, Vol. 1, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1914), p. 179.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Francis P. Joyce, 4th Field Artillery, Veracruz, Mexico, August 1914, AGODF No. 501222, F. P. Joyce, RG 94, NA; Officer Efficiency Report of Chaplain Francis P. Joyce, 4th Field Artillery, Texas City, Texas, 4 January 1915, AGODF No. 501222, F. P. Joyce, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Stanley L. Ramsden, 28th Infantry Regiment, Veracruz, Mexico, April through November 1914, AGODF No. 525964, S. L. Ramsden, RG 94, NA; Monthly Report of Chaplain James L. Griffes, 7th Infantry Regiment, Veracruz, Mexico, June and October 1914, AGODF No. 173569, J. L. Griffes, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain James L. Griffes, 7th Infantry Regiment, Veracruz, Mexico. April, May, and September 1914, AGODF No. 173569, J. L. Griffes, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Stanley L. Ramsden, 28th Infantry Regiment, Veracruz, Mexico, April through November 1914, AGODF No. 525964, S. L. Ramsden, RG 94, NA.

$0 Charles Stelzle to Secretary of War Lindley A. Garrison, Washington, D.C., 2 May 1914, AGODF No. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA; Charles Stelzle, "Chaplain of the Mexican Refugees,The Continent, 16 April 1914, pp. 508–509.

& Colonel Harry C. Hale to the Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D.C., 4 November 1915, and 3rd endorsement, 15 November 1915, AGODF N. 436857, J. T. Axton, RG 94, NA.

San Antonio Express, 10 March 1916.

Frank Tompkins, Chasing Villa, The Story Behind the Story of Pershing's Mexican Expedition, (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Military Service Publishing Company, 1934), pp. 48–57.

San Antonio Express, 11 March 1916, 14 March 1916; Hugh L. Scott, Some Memories of A Soldier, (New York: Century, 1928), p. 520.

Herbert Molloy Mason, Jr., The Great Pursuit, pp. 87, 246–247.

New York Times, 12 March 1916, p. 2, and 4 May 1916, p. 4; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Simon M. Lutz from the 13th Cavalry Regiment, Mexico, March and April 1916, AGODF No. 272337, S. M. Lutz, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain John A. Randolph from Mexico, March through November 1916, AGODF No. 200596, J. A. Randolph, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Charles W. Freeland from the 6th Cavalry Regiment, Marfa, Texas, May and September 1916, Selected ACP, C. W. Freeland, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain Timothy P. O'Keefe, from the 5th Cavalry Regiment, Mexico, June and December 1916, AGODF No. 384850, T. J. O'Keefe, RG 94, NA.

Bø Monthly Reports of Chaplain John L. Maddox, from the 17th Infantry Regiment, Columbus, New Mexico, August and September 1916, AGODF No. 1838628, J. L. Maddox, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Washington W. E. Gladden from the 24th Infantry Regiment, Columbus, New Mexico, March through November 1916, AGODF No. 974780, W. W. E. Gladden, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Thomas J. Dickson from the 6th Field Artillery, Douglas, Arizona, March through December 1916, AGODF No. 264291, T. J. Dickson, RG 94, NA; Monthly Reports of Chaplain Charles W. Freeland from the 6th Cavalry Regiment, Marfa, Texas, May and September 1916, Selected ACP, C. W. Freeland, RG 94, NA.

Bernice Larson Webb, The Basketball Man, (Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1973), pp. 177-178.

Ibid.,

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p. 179.

82 Ibid.

John J. Pershing, My Experiences in the World War, Vol. 1, (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1931), p. 283.

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