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McNally & Company, 1963), p. 186; Ralph Albertson, Fighting Without A War, (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920), pp. 3–7.

Roy J. Honeywell, Chaplains of the United States Army, (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, 1958), p. 171.

12 U.S. Army in the World War, 1917-1919, Vol. 15, (Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, Department of the Army, 1948) p. 421.

13 The baptisms and confirmations took place on 23 January 1910 in the Philippines. While the general was away at Fort Bliss Texas, Mrs. Pershing and the three children died of suffocation on 27 August 1915 at the Presidio of San Francisco, California. Donald Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J. Pershing, (New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1973), pp. 178, 213-214.

Interview of Milton Friedman by Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Hamilton, N.Y., 25 November 1972, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, N.Y.

Ibid.

Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, N.Y., 18 March 1975, Stover Collection.

17 Francis P. Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, (New York: G. H. Doran Company, 1919), p. 340.

Elzer Des Jardins Tetreau, "Pen Sketches and Diary of a Chaplain of Infantry, A.E.F.," (Ms., University of Arizona, Tucson, 1943), p. 3.

Lee J. Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain In France, (New York: Macmillan Co., 1922) pp. 140-141.

20 Ibid., pp. 45–46, 137.
21 Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” p. 21.
Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, p. 100.

Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, pp. 84, 146; Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain in France, pp. 7-8.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 186; Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain In France, pp. 154, 161-166; Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” pp. 7, 17, 38; Leslie R. Groves, Sr., “An Untitled Sermon or Talk," (Ms., u.d. but probably written in 1898 or early 1899), Stover Collection.

Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” p. 36.

* On St. Patrick's Day 1919, during the occupation, the theme of Chaplain Duffy's sermon was the "debt that the world owes to the sons of Saint Patrick for their fight for civil and religious liberty at home and abroad.” He prayed that that debt might “now be squared by the bestowal of liberty on the Island from whence we sprung.” Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, pp. 44, 65, 68, 109– 110, 324.

Scott, Emmett J., Scott's Official History of The American Negro in The World War, (Chicago: Homewood Press, 1919) p. 273; Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Religious Affairs Division, Department of the Army, to Comptroller, Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C., 11 March 1955, Identified as a third endorsement to correspondence with office symbol CHL, 8 March 1955, Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.

28 Decorations United States Army, 1862–1926, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927), p. 141.

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» Ibid.

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Decorations United States Army, 1862-1926, pp. 203, 249, 264, 324, 458, 479, 508; “Entry on Personnel File Card titled 'Applicant for Appointment as Chaplain, United States, for John B. DeValles, August 1918, Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.; The Stars and Stripes, France, 10 May 1918, p. 4, 17 May 1918, p. 8, 1 November 1918, p. 5; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 196-197.

Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” pp. ii-iii; Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, p. 207.

* Tetreau, "Diary of A World War I Chaplain," pp. 27–28; United States Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 14, p. 431, and Vol. 16, pp. 63, 211-212, 398; Decorations United States Army, 1862–1926, p. 754; 66th Congress, 1st and 2nd Sessions, "Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on H.R. 8287," from 29 September 1919 to 5 February 1920, Vol. 2, p. 1941.

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* Tetreau, "Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” pp. ii-iii; Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain In France, p. 6.

Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” pp. 35–39; Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, p. 304; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 196.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 193; Jorgenson, The Service of Chaplains to Army Air Units, 1917–1940, Vol. 1, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961), p. 37; Ovid R. Sellers to Chaplain James H. Young, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Hamilton, N.Y., 19 November 1974, Stover Collection; Diary of Bishop Brent, 4 June 1918, Container No. 3, “The Papers of Charles Henry Brent,” Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

* U.S. Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 17, p. 73.

37 “Minutes of the Conference of Representatives of Welfare Agencies and an A.E.F. Chaplain," u.d. but probably January 1918, Container No. 16, "Brent Papers."

Chaplain Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, N.Y., 18 March 1975, Stover Collection.

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40 Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, N.Y., 1 April 1975, Stover Collection.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 193; Jorgensen, Service of Chaplains to Air Units, Vol. 1, pp. 36–37; The Stars and Stripes, France, 8 March 1918, p. 5.

12 U.S. Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 15, pp. 422-423, Vol. 17, p. 150.

Ovid V. Sellers to James H. Young, 19 November 1974, Stover Collection; The Stars and Stripes, France, 6 February 1919, p. 6, 14 February 1919, p. 6.

* The Stars and Stripes, France, 27 September 1918, p. 1, 6 December 1918, p. 1, 21 February 1919, p. 1.

Ovid V. Sellers to James H. Young, 19 November 1974, Stover Collection; Tetreau, “Diary of A World War I Chaplain,” pp. 42–43; Duffy, Father Duffy's Story, p. 318.

General Order No. 109, War Department, Washington, D.C., 15 September 1919; “Clipsheet,” Religious Publicity Service of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 5 July 1919, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

Survey of the Moral and Religious Forces in the Military Camps and Naval Stations in the United States, (New York: General War-Time Commission of the Churches, 1918), p. 35, 65, 67; Jorgensen, Service of Chaplains to Army Air Units, Vol. 1, p. 42; Interview of Milton Friedman by Earl F. Stover, 25 November 1972, Stover Collection.

Coffman, The War to End All Wars, pp. 81-82, 132–133; The Stars and Stripes, France, 30 August 1918, p. 1; Poling, Huts of Hell, p. 38.

Coffman, The War to End All Wars, p. 133.

« U.S. Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 15, pp. 423-424; Diary of Bishop Brent, 22 December 1917, 23 March, 30 April, 5 May, and 7 May 1918, Container No. 3, “Brent Papers."

Dairy of Bishop Brent, 17 July 1918, Container No. 3 "Brent Papers.”
Coffman, The War to End All Wars, p. 133.
Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 195.

Major General William S. Graves to General Peyton C. March, Chief of Staff, War Department, Washington, D.C., 14 September 1918, Historical File of the A.E.F. in Siberia, RG 395, NA; Major General William S. Graves to The Adjutant General of the Army, War Department, Washington, D.C., Report of Operations, 1 July 1919 to 31 March 1920, paragraph 12, RG 395, NA.

Chaplain Joseph S. Loughran to Earl F. Stover, 1 April 1975, Stover Collection; Monthly Report of Chaplain Zachary T. Vincent, 31st Infantry, Vladivostok, August 1919, RG 247, NA.

** Jacques N. Jacobsen, Jr., Regulations and Notes for the Uniform of the Army of the United States, 1882, (Staten Island, New York: Manor Publishing, 1971), paragraph 2674; Jacques N. Jacobsen, Jr., Regulations and Notes for the Uniform of the Army of the United States, 1888, (Staten Island, New York: Manor Publishing, 1972), paragraph 2674; Army-Navy Journal, 20 July 1918, p. 1788.

Army-Navy Journal, 29 June 1918, p. 1673.

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67 Ibid.,

68 Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 179.

Chaplain A. A. Pruden to the Adjutant General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C., 20 July 1911, AGODF No. 1305659, A. A. Pruden, RG 94, NA; 66th Congress, 1st and 2nd Sessions, "Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives on H.R. 8287, from 3 September to 12 November 1919,” Vol. 2, pp. 1947, 1949; Army-Navy Journal, 24 August 1912, pp. 1622, 1624–1625, 7 September 1912, p. 12, 28 September 1912, pp. 108–109, 8 June 1918, p. 1553, 29 June 1918, p. 1673, 20 July 1918, p. 1788, 7 September 1918, p. 12, and 10 October 1918, p. 244; Circular No. 5, War Department, Office of the Chief of the Quartermaster Corps, Washington, D.C., 9 April 1914, paragraph 529/2; Special Regulations No. 41, War Department, Washington, D.C., 15 August 1917, Change No. 4, 22 May 1918, paragraphs 92–94.

& Dairy of Bishop Brent, 27 February and 1 July 1918, Container No. 3, “Brent Papers”; Charles H. Brent to Colonel J. B. Bellinger, Headquarters Philippine Department, Manila, Philippine Islands, 12 October 1918, Container No. 16, "Brent Papers."

* Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 178.

62 Special Regulations No. 41, War Department, Washington, D.C., 15 August 1917, Change No. 4, 22 May 1918, paragraphs 92–94; Special Regulations No. 42, War Department, Washington, D.C., 15 August 1917, Change No. 4, 7 May 1918, paragraphs 37, 40; Dairy of Bishop Brent, 16 June 1918, Container No. 3, “Brent Papers.”

“Report of investigation of complaints made to The Adjutant General of the Army on the removal of the insignia of rank from the uniform of chaplains," 14 October 1918, AGODF No. 211.21, RG 407, NA.

* Dairy of Bishop Brent, 1 August 1918, Container No. 3, "Brent Papers."

* Chaplain John T. Axton to The Adjutant General of the Army, War Department, Washington, D.C., 11 August 1919, AGODF No. 211.21, RG 407, NA; Circular No. 33, War Department, Washington, D.C., 2 June 1926.

Margaret Renton, War-Time Agencies of the Chuches, (New York: General War-Time Commission of the Churches, 1919), p. 61.

pp. 154–155. 68 Ibid., pp. 118–119.

** “Report of the General War-Time Commission of the Churches,” (Cincinnati: Executive Committee of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1917), p. 230: Report of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1924-1928 (6th Quadrennial Report), (New York: Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, 1929), p. 141.

10 John Franklin Piper, Jr., “The Social Policy of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America during World War I,” (Ph. D. diss., Duke University, 1964), p. 307.

Renton, War-Time Agencies, pp. 191-192.

* John Mortimer Smith, “The Military Ordinariate of the United States of America," (J.C.D. diss., The Catholic University of America, 1966), pp. 107, 109–110.

13 Lee J. Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain In France, p. 93.

"Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains,” 25-26 April 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” p. 309.
Ibid.
Ibid., pp. 309–310.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 170-171; Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” pp. 318–320; "Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains," 13 August 1917, 21 September 1917, 29 October 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” pp. 321-3233.

65th Congress, 2nd Session, "House of Representatives Report No. 313,” 14 February 1918, pp. 1-2.

p.

2. Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” pp. 323-326. & Ibid., p. 326.

** Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council," p. 326; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 171.

The "Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains," 19 July 1917, indicate that Dr. Forest R. Prettyman was to “make inquiry" into the proposed legislation for

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61 Ibid.,

20 additional chaplains and to act for the Committee in relation to its success or defeat. Then, too, when the General War-Time Commission was organized on 20 September 1917, its membership expressed a desire to cooperate with the National Catholic War Council and the Jewish Welfare Board. In the limited amount of time that the author spent researching the matter, he was unable to ascertain if any committee or commission related to either the Federal Council or National Catholic War Council attempted to promote or defeat the bill. Louis Barish, Rabbis In Uniform, (New York: Johnathan David, 1962), pp. 8–9; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 171; 65th Congress, 1st Session, “House of Representatives Report No. 134,” 5 September 1917, pp. 1-2, and “House of Representatives Report No. 170,” 28 September 1917, p. 1; 65th Congress, 1st Session, "Senate Report No. 90,” 24 July 1917, pp. 1-2.

United States Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 15, p. 420.

Report of the General War-Time Commission of the Churches presented to the Executive Committee of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ, (Cincinnati: Publisher unknown,

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** Clarence A. Barbour, Chairman, Committee on Camp Neighborhoods, General War-Time Commission of the Churches, to all Camp Pastors, 24 December 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

"Minutes of a Conference with Assistant Secretary of War Keppel Concerning Camp Pastors,” 23 September 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY; Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council," pp. 340–343.

Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council," p. 343. 12 U.S. Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 15, p. 420.

03 "Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains," 25–26 April 1917 and 19 July, Archives, NCCCA, NY; Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council," p. 327; Edward A. Simon, "The Influence of the American Protestant Churches on the Development of the Structure and Duties of the Army Chaplaincy, 1914–1962," (M. Th. thesis, Princeton, New Jersey, 1963), p. 43.

"Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains,” 19 July 1917 and 13 August 1917, Archives, NCCCĂ, NY; Simon, “The Influence of the Protestant Churches," p. 43; Minutes of the Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, North, 1917 Session, (Lincoln, Nebraska: Clasland Printing Company, 1917), pp. 269–270.

Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” pp. 328–330; Simon, "The Influence of the American Protestant Churches,” pp. 43–44; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 173-174.

* Arthur C. Piepkorn, “A Chronicle of the Training School for Newly-Appointed Chaplains and Chaplain Candidates during the First World War,” (Ms., n.d., Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, NY), pp. 9-12; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 174.

Piepkorn, "A Chronicle of the Training School,” p. 7; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 174–175.

Piepkorn, “A Chronicle of the Training School,” p. 8.

38 “Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission of the Churches," 17 April 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 175–176; Ovid R. Sellers to Chaplain James H. Young, 19 November 1974, Stover Collection.

100 "Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission," 4 September 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

Piepkorn, "A Chronicle of the Training School,” pp. 30–31.

102 U.S. Army in the World War, 1917–1919, Vol. 15, p. 421; Honeywell, Chaplains, of the U.S. Army, pp. 180-181; Ovid R. Sellers to Chaplain James H. Young, 19 November 1974, Stover Collection; Tetreau, “Diary of a World War I Chaplain,” p. 3.

Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” pp. 254–256, 317.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 185; Levinger, A Jewish Chaplain in France, pp. 61, 66; Piper, “The Social Policy of the Federal Council,” p. 318; "Minutes of the Joint Committee on Chaplains,” 10 November 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

Elijah Guion wrote to Chaplain Norman W. Camp: “I inferred from a news-paper (sic) paragraph which I saw, that the Revd. Doct. Pyne had been, or was to be, appointed 'Chaplain General under a new organization of the Chaplains' department. Is this likely to be so?” Elijah

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Guion to Chaplain Norman W. Camp, Augur General Hospital, Virginia, 20 January 1865, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA.

108 “Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission,” 5 December 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

107 “Minutes of the Joint Committee on Chaplains of the General War-Time Commission,” 28 January 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY; "Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission,” 6 March 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

108 “Minutes of the Joint Committee on Chaplains of the General War-Time Commission," 3 June 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY; “Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission,” 20 March, 17 April, and 1 May 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

100 Diary of Bishop Charles Henry Brent, 22 December 1917; 7–8, 10 January 1918; 20, 26–27 February 1918; 19 March 1918; Container No. 3, “Brent Papers”; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 199; “Minutes of the Conference of Representatives of Welfare Agencies and an A.E.F. Chaplain,” u.d. but probably January 1918, Container No. 16, “Brent Papers.”

110 Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 199; Diary of Bishop Brent, 20 February, 25 March, 30 April, 31 May, and 1 July 1918, Container No. 3, “Brent Papers."

111 Diary of Bishop Brent, 23 March and 4 June 1918, Container No. 3, “Brent Papers”; Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 177; U.S. Army in the World War, 1917-1919, Vol. 15, p. 424; Decorations United States Army, 1862–1926, p. 681; The Stars and Stripes, France, 10 May 1918, p. 2, and 30 August 1918, p. 6.

Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, pp. 199–200; “Minutes of the Executive Committee of the General War-Time Commission,” 5 December 1917, 4 September 1918, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

113 "Memo for the Chief of Staff from the War Plans Division,” War Department, Washington, D.C., 11 September 1918, File No. 8265–36, RG 165, NA.

Diary of Bishop Brent, 31 August and 23 September 1918, Container No. 3, "Brent Papers.”

115 “Memo for the Chief of Staff from the War Plans Division,” War Department, Washington, D.C., 11 September 1918, First endorsement, 1 October 1918, Second endorsement 15 October 1918, File No. 8265-36, RG 165, NA; Copy of unsigned letter to Bishop James De W. Perry, Paris, France, 4 November 1918, Container No. 16, “Brent Papers”; Bishop John N. McCormick to Bishop Charles H. Brent, Chaplain's Office, G.H.Q., A.E.F., France, 14 November 1918, Container No. 16, “Brent Papers.”

Army-Navy Journal, 28 June 1919, p. 1499.

117 66th Congress, 1st Session, "Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives on H.R. 8287, from 3 September to 12 November 1919," Vol. 1, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919), p. 188; 66th Congress, 1st and 2nd Sessions, “Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives on H.R. 8287, from 29 September to 5 February 1920,” Vol. 2, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, pp. 19391959); “Entry on Personnel File Card titled 'Applicant for Appointment as Chaplain, United States Army,'” for John T. Axton, 1 November 1919, Office of the Chief of Chaplains, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.

“The National Defense Act of 4 June 1920,” (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1921), p. 15.

116 Army-Navy Journal, 3 July 1920, p. 1357; "Minutes of the General Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains," 20 October 1919, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

120 “Minutes of the Washington Committee of the Federal Council,” 27 November 1917, Archives, NCCCA, NY.

121 Charles S. Macfarland, Across the Years, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936), p. 177; Army-Navy Journal, 3 July 1920, p. 1365, 24 July 1920, p. 1447.

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