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absence of the Navy chaplain, he ministered to the sick and dying and “followed soldiers and sailors to thier resting places, in all hours of the night and day.” For his loyalty and his ministry to the Union forces, Key West was made a chaplain post, and he was appointed as its first post chaplain."

Following his appointment his ministry was much like that outlined in the Federal statutes and Army regulations, except that he was particularly noted for his ministrations during the yellow fever seasons. Contrary to the advice of his commanding officer and physician, he insisted on staying at his post and continuing his ministry throughout each season,. As a result, he was twice prostrated with the disease, and his wife was stricken once.

His ministry was also unique in that he served as post chaplain to both Key West and Fort Jefferson from November 1867 until September 1869. In June 1867 he received orders to Fort Jefferson, which was located 70 miles west of Key West at Dry Tortugas, and attempted to get the orders revoked. He wanted to stay in Key West, where his personal influence extended beyond the garrison and into the city, and where the troops were subjected to more temptations and a "greater tendency to demoralization”; but he was informed that Army chaplains are intended for troops at isolated posts, not for the communities in which they are stationed. When he reported to Fort Jefferson, however, Major George P. Andrews, its commanding officer, could not offer him living quarters or a suitable room for a chapel. Then, too, there were not many troops stationed there, because one company had just transferred to Key West. Major Andrews therefore proposed to his commander that Herrick be the chaplain to the posts of Key West and Fort Jefferson, that he live at Key West, and that he visit Fort Jefferson at least once each month. The Assistant Adjutant General of the Army ultimately approved those proposals.

When Chaplain Herrick was about to depart for Fort Warren, Massachusetts, in September 1869, both he and his wife were commended for “their sympathies and their kind and constant attentions” during the yellow fever epidemics, and Chaplain Herrick especially for showing “how well the great military virtue of self-sacrifice combines with the higher virtues of religion.” 92

One other post chaplain, George P. Van Wyck, was stationed at McPhearson Barracks in Atlanta, Georgia, from 1871 until his retirement in 1879. Unfortunately, his chaplaincy was an enigma, because he was

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frequently on a long leave of absence due to illness. 93 His state of health may explain the terseness of his monthly reports, which usually contained no information except that he was "on duty at his post this past month.” ” He would occasionally list the units stationed on the post and report that the moral condition of the post was good, or he would say that "no material change either in the moral condition or general history has occurred since my last report.” 95 But beyond those brief comments he apparently left nothing to describe his ministry.

When Reconstruction ended on 24 April 1877, there were only two chaplains and two chaplain posts in the Southern States outside of Texas, but as a result of Chaplain Van Wyck's continuous illness, McPherson Barracks was a chaplain post in name only. Fort Monroe was in reality the only chaplain post, and Osgood E. Herrick was its chaplain. Most of the other chaplains were at their posts with the Indian-fighting army.

NOTES

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* Harold M. Hyman, “The Army as a Force in Reconstruction,” Charles Crowe, ed., The Age of Civil War and Reconstruction, 1830-1900, (Homewood Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1966), p. 186; Jaines E. Sefton, The U.S. Army and Reconstruction, 1865-1877, (Baton Rouge, Louisiana: L.S.U. Press, 1967), p. 252.

* Bell I. Wiley, “Civil War In America,” Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 7, (New York: Americana Corporation, 1967) p. 7; Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, Vol. 2, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1903), pp. 602–603, 608–609, 612–613; Russell F. Weigley, History of the United States Army, (New York: Macmillan Company, 1967), pp. 266-267; Marvin A. Kreidberg and Merton G. Henry, History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army, 1775–1945, (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1955), p. 141.

Herman A. Norton to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Hamilton, New York, 11 March 1974, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

Act of Congress, Statute II, 7 July 1838; Roy J. Honeywell, Chaplains of the United States Army, (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army), 1958, p. 152.

• Act of 28 July 1866, Chapter 299, Section 30.

Act of 2 March 1867, Chapter 145, Section 7; Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary, pp. 606-607.

? Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1 June 168, (New York: Presbyterian Publication Committee, 16), pp.8 52–53; Journal of the General Conference of the Methodist Church, North, 2 June 1868, (New York: Carlton and Lanahan, 1868), pp. 335–336, 630-632.

• John Mortimer Smith, "The Military Ordinariate of the United States of America,” (J.C.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1966), p. 85.

• Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary, pp. 606-607.

10 General Order No. 15, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, 3 April 1896.

11 Honeywell, Chaplains of the U.S. Army, p. 152.

Assistant Adjutant General's Report to the Adjutant General, 12 July 1867, attached to E. C. Ross and others to Secretary of War E. M. Stanton, 5 July 1867, Selected Appointment, Commission and Personal Branch Records (hereafter abbreviated ACP), Charles Reynolds, Record Group 94, National Archives (hereafter abbreviated RG and NA).

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General Orders No. 80, War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, 16 July 1862.

General Orders No. 47, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, 26 May 1884; “David Wills, D.D., 1822–1915," Library, Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, Georgia, p. 2; Oath of Office, 14 June 1879, Selected ACP, David Wills, RG 94, NA.

Act of 17 June 1862, Chapter 200, Section 8; Revised Army Regulations 1873, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873), p. 46.

18 William T. Sherman to C. D. McDougall, Newport, Rhode Island, 26 July 1882, Records of the Headquarters of the Army, Letters Sent, No. 467–1882, RG 108, NA; Macomber to Secretary of War Russell A. Alger, 2 September 1897, Selected ACP, John H. Macomber, RG 94, NA.

17 Act of 9 April 1864, Chapter 53, Section 4; Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47.

Act of 28 July 1866, Chapter 299, Section 30; Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47. 19 Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47.

Act of 9 April 1864, Chapter 53, Section 3; Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47. 21 Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47. Act of 28 July 1866, Chapter 299, Section 27; Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47.

Act of 28 July 1866, Chapter 299, Section 27; Act of 9 April 1864, Chapter 53, Section 3; Revised Army Regulations 1873, p. 47.

24 Army-Navy Journal, 18 January 1868, p. 343; Winthrop Still Hudson, Religion in America, (New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1965), p. 214; Paul M. Angle, ed., The Lincoln Reader, (New York: Dial Press, 1970), pp. 493–514.

* John G. Nicolay and John Hay (ed.) Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 11, (New York: Tandy Place, 1905), p. 84; Martin E. Marty, Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America, (New York: Dial Press, 1970), p. 134; Sefton, U.S. Army and Reconstruction, p. ix, 252.

Sefton, U.S. Army and Reconstruction, pp. 41-42; Robert Leckie, The Wars of America, (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), pp. 530-531.

** Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), p. 690; Hudson, Religion in America, p. 215; John A. Carpenter, “Southern Violence and Reconstruction," Crow, Age of Civil War and Reconstruction, p. 384.

Sefton, U.S. Army and Reconstruction, p. 253; Leckie, Wars of America, p. 533.

Though there are other sources that deal with "Jim Crowism,” one of the most complete and concise is: C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), pp. 3–109.

Marty, Righteous Empire, pp. 134-135; Ahlstrom, Religious History, pp. 677; Hudson, Religion in America, pp. 210-211.

“Thanksgiving in Prescott,The Arizona Miner, 15 December 1866.

George W. Pepper, Under Three Flags, (Cincinnati: Curts and Jennings, 1899), pp. 444_445.

* Ibid., pp. 460–461.

Hudson, Religion In America, p. 220; Ahlstrom, Religious History, pp. 691-692.

*5 A comparison of a roster of Union Army chaplains with John A. Carpenter's research file on agents of the Freedmen's Bureau shows that Chaplain Pepper and Hiram Stone were the only active duty chaplains to have served as agents of the Freedmen's Bureau. Stone was an agent from 21 July to 12 December 1865, apparently in the general area of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, but little else is known about his work. There was, however, the case of hospital chaplain George O. Glavis. On 6 October 1865 the War Department revoked the orders that mustered him out of the Army on 23 September 1865, and restored him to duty as the Superintendent of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands at Goldsborough, North Carolina. He served in that position for several months and, apparently, did not function as a chaplain. On 7 June 1866 he was tried before a general court-martial, found guilty, and sentenced to dismissal from the Army for selling Army blankets and failing to account for them, and for using freed labor for his own benefit. In 1893 his dismissal was declared “illegal and of no effect on the grounds that the revocation of his mustering out orders was illegal and of no effect, and the Secretary of War ordered his military record terminated by the order that mustered him out of the service on 23 September 1865. Mary Wallace to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Amy Chaplain Center and Sch ol, Fort

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10 Ibid.,

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Hamilton, New York, 20 February 1974, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York; General Court-Martial Orders No. 213, War Department, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, 17 November 1866; Note regarding the courtmartial of hospital chaplain George O. Glavis, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, 3 May 1893, Selected ACP, G. O. Glavis, RG 94, NA; George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen's Bureau, (New York: Octagon Books, 1970), pp. 128, 132–133, 243–244.

A. L. Fowler, The Black Infantry in the West, 1869–1891, (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Corporation, 1971), p. 18; T. F. Rodenbough and W. L. Haskin, The Army of the United States, (New York): Argonaut Press LTD, 1966), pp. 282–283.

Marty, Righteous Empire, p. 134.
Pepper, Under Three Flags, p. 117.
pp.

116–117.
Ibid., p. 461.
“Sefton, U.S. Army and Reconstruction, pp. 261–262.

Pepper, Under Three Flags, p. 117.
Ibid.

Nelson A. Miles to Secretary of War John A. Rawlins, 20 May 1869, Selected ACP, G. W.
Pepper, RG 94, NA.
Pepper, Under Three Flags, pp. 117–118.

pp. 439–464. " Ibid., p. 465. * Ibid., p. 118.

** Senator John Sherman to Secretary of War John Rawlins, Washington, D.C., 16 August 1869, including attached report by Assistant Adjutant General John C. Kelton to the Secretary of War, 10 September 1869, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA; Pepper to General William T. Sherman, Washington, D.C., 7 January 1871 including attached report by Adjutant General E. D. Townsend, 20 March 1871, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA.

Miles to Bishop E. S. Janes, Norwalk, Ohio, 9 August 1869, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA; Miles to Secretary of War Rawlins, Washington, D.C., 20 May 1869, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA; Raleigh Standard, undated 1869 article by Governor W. W. Holden, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA; Miles testimonial for Pepper, Fort Harker, Kansas, 5 July 1870, no addressee or address, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA.

Pepper to Sherman, Washington, D.C., 7 January 1871, including attached report by Adjutant General Townsend, 20 March 1871, Selected ACP, G. W. Pepper, RG 94, NA.

6 Pepper to President William H. Harrison, Washington, D.C., 8 May 1889, Selected ACP, RG 94, NA.

Chaplain Schultz was forced to resign his commission because of indiscretions with an enlisted man's wife. Fowler, Black Infantry, pp. 93, 109.

** Ahlstrom, Religious History, p. 670.

Elijah Guion to President Abraham Lincoln, Washington, D.C., 12 October 1864, with endorsements by Major General E. R. S. Canby, 12 October 1864. Major General S. A. Hurlbut, 13 October 1864 and Brigadier General B. S. Roberts, 7 January 1865, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA; Guion to Brevet Brigadier General C. A. Hartwell, New Orleans, Louisiana, 28 May 1866, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA; Norman Badger to Secretary of War E. M. Stanton, Washington, D.C., 3 July 1866, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA.

** Barr to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 23 December 1865, Selected ACP, D. E. Barr, RG 94, NA; Barr to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 24 April 1866, Selected ACP, D. E. Barr, RG, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Elijah Guion from New Orleans, Louisiana, 31 May 1866, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA.

68 Guion to Secretary of War John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 8 June 1868, Selected ACP, E. Guion, RG 94, NA.

Major General J. J. Reynolds to Adjutant General E. D. Townsend, Washington, D.C., 3 December 1869, with endorsements by Assistant Adjutant General J. C. Kelton and Adjutant

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Monthly Reports of D. Eglinton Barr from New Orleans, Louisiana, 8 February 1866 (for 16–30 September 1865), 8 February 1866 (for 1 October-31 December 1865), Selected ACP, D. E. Barr, RG 94, NA.

& Barr to Assistant Adjutant General Townsend, Washington, D.C., 5 October 1866, Selected ACP, D. E. Barr, RG 94, NA.

Although Chaplain Barr claimed that he was ill with a high fever, he was charged with being drunk and unable to conduct a funeral. The regimental commander, Colonel George L. Andrews, then gave him the option to resign or be court-martialed, and Barr chose to resign. Fowler, Black Infantry, pp. 93–94, 109–110.

* Norman Badger to Assistant Adjutant General S. F. Chalfin, Washington, D.C., 25 July 1864, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA; Badger to Assistant Adjutant General L. Thomas, Washington, D.C., 30 April 1867, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA; Badger to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 10 April 1871, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA.

** Monthly Reports of Chaplain Norman Badger from Fort Concho, Texas, 30 April 1871, 30 September 1871, 30 June 1873, 31 October 1873, 30 June 1874, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NĄ.

* Ibid., 31 July 1871, 30 April 1872, 31 January 1874, 31 February 1874, 30 April 1874. 6s Ibid., 30 September 1874. 67 Ibid., 30 September 1871, 30 June 1873, 31 October 1873.

Ibid., 31 December 1871.

* William M. Notson, Fort Concho Medical History 1869 to 1872 (San Angelo, Texas: Fort Concho Preservation and Museum, 1974), p. 38.

70 Monthly Reports of Chaplain Norman Badger from Fort Concho, Texas, 30 April 1871, 31 January 1872, 30 September 1875, 31 October 1875, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA.

* Ibid., 30 September 1872, 28 February 1873, 31 March 1873.

Ibid., 30 April 1871, 30 September 1872, 30 November 1873.

Ibid, 31 May 1871, 30 May 1872, 30 April 1872, 31 May 1875, 29 February 1876.

** Frank M. Temple, “Colonel Grierson in the Southwest,Panhandle Plains Historical Review, Vol. 30, 1957, p. 44.

** Frank M. Temple to Earl F. Stover, 30 June 1974, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

Notson, Fort Concho Medical History, p. 44.

77 Mrs. Carol Schmidt to Earl F. Stover, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Hamilton, New York, 21 August 1974, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York.

Badger to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 10 April 1876, Second Endorsement, 24 April 1876, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA.

70 The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series II-Vol. 8, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899), p. 647; Dunbar Rowland, ed., Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, His Letters, Papers and Speeches, Vol. 7, (New York: J. J. Little Ives Co., 1923), pp. 39–40. 80 War of the Rebellion, Series II-Vol. 8,

pp. 559–560. Rowland, Jefferson Davis, Vol. 7, pp. 39–40, 135-136.

* Fletcher Pratt, A Short History of the Civil War, (New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1952), pp. 382–383; War of the Rebellion, Series II-Vol. 8, pp. 818-819, 821, 833–836.

* War of the Rebellion, Series II-Vol. 8, pp. 835–836; Rowland, Jefferson Davis, p. 135. * War of the Rebellion, Series II-Vol. 8, pp. 818–819, 871–872, 874–975. * Ibid., p. 872.

** Monthly Reports of Chaplain Mark L. Chevers from Fort Monroe, Virginia, 31 March 1871, 28 February 1873, 30 November 1874, Selected ACP, M. L. Chevers, RG 94, NA.

General Orders No. 36, Headquarters Artillery School, U.S.A., Fort Monroe, Virginia, 14 September 1875, Selected ACP, M. L. Chevers, RG, NA.

KS W. Willard Smith to General U. S. Grant, Washington, D.C., 28 October 1867, Selected ACP, O. E. Herrick, RG 94, NA; William G. Temple to Herrick, Cold Spring, New York, 16 October 1864, Selected ACP, O. E. Herrick, RG 94 NA; N. B. Hitchcock to Herrick, Cold Spring, New York, 17 October 1864, Selected ACP, O. E. Herrick, RG 94, NA; Theodoris Bailey to 0. E. Herrick, Key West, Florida, undated, Selected ACP, O. E. Herrick, RG 94, NA.

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