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138

of the Army for adoption throughout the Army. Some officers and chaplains who supervised education at their posts adopted his program in their schools.

Much of Allensworth's success was due to his use of teaching aids, and when no other funds were available to purchase the aids he needed, he bought them with his own funds. He was determined to let nothing stand in the way of a successful program.

136 In this connection he drew upon his background as a slave-houseboy and the owner of two restaurants, and opened a cooking school in his kitchen. There he explained the “chemistry of food,” taught cooking as a science and art, and gave practical demonstrations of his instructions.137 He also sought to persuade his students to continue the educational process outside the classroom, and to this end he organized and sponsored a literary and debating society which met weekly, after duty hours. He even organized one at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, when he went there once to give a series of religious instructions and educational lectures to other companies in the Twenty-fourth.

Chaplain Allensworth continued to receive recognition for his expertise in the education field, and in 1891 he was invited by the National Education Association to present a paper at its annual convention in Toronto on the topic "The History and Progress of Education in the US Army.” The Army-Navy Journal announced the invitation and said that the "reverend gentleman is, to our knowledge, fully capable of handling the matter satisfactorily”; but the War Department said that regulations precluded issuing him official orders to attend. Only by taking leave and paying his own expenses was he able to go to Canada, the place he had attempted to reach on three other occasions as a fugitive slave. 139

The Toronto Globe reported that Allensworth was “a fluent and forceful speaker as well as a graceful writer” and quoted extracts from his speech which allowed that he viewed education in the Army “as a way to provide the soldier's life with a new and greater dimension and as a means for making soldiers more responsible and useful citizens.” 140

In earlier history of the army it was considered sufficient for a soldier
to be able to march and handle his gun .... it is now a recognized
fact that to be a good soldier a man must be a good citizen, there-
fore the government aims at giving its soldiers a fair english (sic)
education .... It does this not only with a view of utilizing their
increased knowledge in its defense but with a further view of return-
ing him to civil life a more intelligent citizen and well disciplined
for the business of life. To accomplish this purpose common schools
are established at each garrisoned post. 141

143

One cartoon in a Toronto newspaper showed the reception of a great host of U.S. teachers by city officials and Canadian educators, and it contained the likeness of only one black—that of Chaplain Allensworth."*2

When his regiment transferred in 1896 to Fort Douglas, Utah, Allensworth established an education program similar to the one at Fort Bayard. He trained his instructors in the “art and science” of teaching and offered his 120 students classes in grammar, arithmetic, history, printing, telegraphy, and clerkship. The graduates of the clerkship class were immediately assigned to the offices of the commanding officer, adjutant, commissary officer, and quartermaster. The Army-Navy Journal reported that his school was very useful and that similar ones should be encouraged on every post.

There were other effective and equally committed chaplains, officers, and enlisted teachers who contributed significantly to the development of the Army's education system. Despite the obstacles and limitations they encountered, they showed that a properly conducted post educational program could enrich the lives of their students and bring discipline to the garrison. It was only an incidental and curious fact that Chaplains Mullins and Allensworth, who both served in black regiments, received the widest recognition for their achievements. Furthermore, it was remarkable that they and other dedicated chaplains found the time to function as religious leaders.

NOTES

3

* John W. Tebbel, The Compact History of the Indian Wars, (New York: Hawthorne Books, Inc., 1966), p. 10.

Cornelia F. Bedell, “Fifty Years With America's First Families,” (New York: Women's Board of Domestic Missions of the Reformed Church of America, 1944), p. 3.

* Dee Brown, Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee, (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970), pp. 170–172.

* Roy P. Basler, Ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 7 (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1953), pp. 47–48.

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P. 55.

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• Sioux Yankton dialect.

General Order No. 28, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 9 March 1891; Robert M. Utley, Frontier Regulars, The United States Army and the Indian, 1866–1890, (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1973),

* Winthrop Still Hudson, Religion in America, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1965), p. 55, p. 226; Tebbel, Indian Wars, p. 226; Robert M. Utley, Frontier Regulars, p. 55.

® Fairfax Downey, Indian-Fighting Army, (New York: Bantam Books, 1963), pp. 19–22; Utley, Frontier Regulars, pp. 23, 25-26, 53, 55; Tebbel, Indian Wars, pp. 168–223.

19 Downey, Indian-Fighting Army, p. 190.

11 Tebbel, Indian Wars, pp. 168–171; David Nevin, The Soldiers, (New York: Time-Life Books, 1973), p. 58.

12 Hudson, Religion in America, pp. 226–227.

13 Florence B. Yount, "A Centennial of Methodists, Prescott, Arizona, 1870–1970,(Prescott, Arizona: Centennial Committee of the United Methodist Church, Prescott, Arizona, 1970), pp.

8–11; “Boots and Bibles, The Spiritual Heritage of Fort Riley, Kansas,” (A booklet without page numbers and publication data). Information on the tenth page indicates that Chaplain Charles Reynolds assisted in Junction City's Covenant Protestant Episcopal Church and other neighboring churches; C. C. Goddard to Secretary of War D. S. Lamont, Washington, D.C., 19 April 1895, Selected ACP, Charles C. rce, RG 94, NA; Norman Badger to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 19 April 1871, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA.

14 The minutes of denominational assemblies, conferences, and conventions document this quite well. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. 1865 show that resolutions were made against card playing, theatre attendance, profanity, intemperance, sabbath breaking, and promiscuous dancing, and many similar resolutions were made at almost every succeeding general assembly meeting. The Journal of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, North, from 1868 forward, also contains many similar resolutions, Hudson, Religion In America, p. 263.

25 Thomas W. Barry “Hints on Methods of Work,” Theophilus G. Steward, Editor, Active Service (New York: U.S. Army Aid Association, Leader and Bookstover Press, 1916), p. 61; George W. Simpson, Manual for U.S. Army Chaplains, (no publication data) p. 15.

Cephas C. Bateman “The Army and Education,” The Army Magazine, April 1894, pp. 11-12.

Cephas C. Bateman “A Group of Army Authors,The Army Magazine November 1894,

16

17

p. 9.

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19

Bateman “Army and Education,The Army Magazine, p. 15.
J. Armstrong, "Moral Views of Armies," Steward, Active Service, p. 90.

» Theophilus G. Steward “The Army As a Trained Force,” (Cincinnati: Printed for the author by Jennings and Graham, 1904), pp. 6-7, 9-10, 13–14.

21 Weekly Arizona Miner, 15 December 1866. * Army-Navy Journal, 22 May 1869, p. 631.

Wilson 0. Clough “Mini-Aku, Daughter of Spotted Tail," Annals of Wyoming, October 1967, p. 189.

Ibid., pp. 214–215.
% Ibid., pp. 189, 190, 215.

Ibid., p. 189.
Ibid., p. 191.
28 Ibid., pp. 189–190.
Ibid., p. 191.
Ibid., p. 190.

Ibid., p. 216.
Prescott, Arizona Courier, 8 April 1973, p. 10.

Diary of David White, Chaplain USA, a copy, Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, Fort Wadsworth, New York, 2 April 1866.

34 John F. Finerty, War-Path and Bivouac, or the Conquest of the Sioux, (Chicago: M. A. Donohue and Co., 1890), p. 309.

31

3 Ibid.

Parts of the story of Chaplain White at Crazy Woman's Creek are told in Frances C. Carrington's My Army Life and Finerty's War-Path and Bivouac, but Dee Brown corrected S. S. Peters' error of confusing Chaplain Alpha Wright, who was stationed at Forts Laramie and D. A. Russell, with White and which Frances C. Carrington included in her book. Roy J. Honeywell (Chaplains of the United States Army) Burton S. Hill ("The Crazy Woman Creck Indian Battle,” Annals of Wyoming, April 1964), and David H. Stratton ("The Army and the Gospel In the West,” Western Humanities Review, Vol. 8, pp. 153–154, 253), did not catch and correct this error. Frances C. Carrington, My Army Life, (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1910), pp. 73-81; Finerty's, War-Path and Bivouac, pp. 208–308; Dee Brown's, Fort Phil Kearny, (Lincoln, Nebraska; University of Nebraska Press, 1962) pp. 84–90.

Monthly Report of Chaplain David White from Fort Phil Kearny, Dakota Territory, 8 August 1866, Selected ACP, David White, RG 94, NA.

Ibid., 31 December 1866.

** Monthly Report of Chaplain David White from Fort Phil Kearny, Dakota Territory, 31 December 1866, Selected ACP, David White, RG 94, NA; Brown, Fort Phil Kearny, p. 201.

37

40

15

47 Ibid.,

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60

52

Margaret Irvin Carrington, Absaraka, Home of the Crows (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1879), pp. 160-163; Brown, Fort Phil Kearny, pp. 125–128.

"Board of Indian Commissioners, Peace with the Apaches of New Mexico and Arizona, Report of Vincent Colyer,” (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1871) p. 3.

Ibid., p. 28.
* Utley, Frontier Regulars, p. 193.

“ Monthly Report of Chaplain David White from Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, 31 March 1872, with first endorsement, 31 March 1872, Selected ACP, David White, RG 94, NA; Otto Louis Hein to White, Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, 17 April 1872, Selected ACP, David White, RG 94, NA; White to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 20 April 1872, with three endorsements, 1 May 1872, 7 May 1872, and 22, May 1872, and a note by someone in the Adjutant General's Office, undated, Selected ACP, David White, RG 94, NA; White to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 12 August 1872, with three endorsements, 12 August 1872, 14 August 1872, and 29 August 1872, and notes that were circulated in the War Departinent and Adjutant General's Office, 13 September and 18 November 1872.

Weekly Arizona Miner, 1 June 1872.

** Kelly, Edward Joseph and Bradley, Cyprian, History of the Diocese of Boise, 1863–1952 (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, LTD, 1954), pp. 87, 98, 101, 104–105.

pp. 107–108. Ibid., p. 109.

" Officer's Individual Report submitted by Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 15 December 1872, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Monthly Report of Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 31 October 1891, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 30 November 1891, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

61 Ibid., 31 December 1891.

Ibid., 1 July 1892.

63 Officer's Individual Report submitted by Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 1 July 1897, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 1 June 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Ibid., 1 August 1892. * Tebbel, Indian Wars, p. 310.

Monthly Report of Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 1 August 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Officer's Individual Report submitted by Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 July 1897, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Officers Individual Report submitted by Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 30 June 1898, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 1 October 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA; Vattmann to Major General John M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1 October 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

& Vattmann to J. M. Schofield, Washington, D.C., 1 October 1892, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA 47.

41 Charles C. Pierce “Roughing It,” Steward, Active Service, pp. 76–77.

Monthly Reports of George P. Robinson from Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory, 30 April 1892, 1 September 1892, Selected ACP, G. P. Robinson, RG 94, NA.

Ibid., 31 May 1892.
Ibid., 1 November 1892.
Ibid., 1 Febraury 1893.

Richrad H. Harper, “The Missionary Work of the Reformed (Dutch) Church in America, In Oklahoma,” Chronicles of Oklahoma, December 1940, p.334.

* Jason Betzinez and Wilber S. Nye, I Fought With Geronimo, (New York: Bonanza Books, 1959) pp. 170–171; Harper, "Missionary Work in Oklahoma," Chronicles of Oklahoma, December 1940, pp. 329–330; Cornelia F. Bedell, “Fifty Years with America's First Families” (Booklet), p. 12.

** Colonel A. S. Burt to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 13 February 1899, Selected ACP, T. G. Steward, RG 94, NA.

64

55

67

87

70

" John H. Macomber, “The Army and the Chaplaincy,” Steward, Active Service, p. 24.

Richard K. Smith, “For God . . . For Country For the Territory,” Arizona Highways, April 1973, p. 10.

* John H. Macomber to Secretary of War Russell A. Alger, Washington, D.C., 2 September 1897, Selected ACP, J. H. Macomber, RG 94, NA.

" Susan Miles, “A Fort Concho Wedding,” West Texas Historical Association Year Book, October 1960, p. 70.

" David White to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 13 April 1867, Selected ACP, D. White, RG 94, NA.

" Macomber, “The Army and the Chaplaincy,” Steward, Active Service, p. 21. 75 US Army Visitor, April 1893, p. 4.

76 Ibid.

78

80

William M. Notson, Fort Concho Medical History 1869 to 1872, (San Angelo, Texas: Fort Concho Preservation and Museum, 1974), p. 44.

Chaplain Alpha Wright to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 10 April 1878, Selected ACP, A. Wright, RG 94, NA.

* Monthly Report of Alpha Wright from D. A. Russell, Wyoming Territory, 6 February 1871, Selected ACP, A. Wright, RG 94, NA.

Wright to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 19 Sept 1875, with first endorsement, 19 September 1875, Selected ACP, A. Wright, RG 94, NA.

Ibid., attached reply from the Adjutant General, 29 September 1875.

Chaplain Henry V. Plummer, 9th Cavalry, Trial by General Court Martial at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, 29 August to 7 September 1894, RG 153, NA, pp. 106, 114-115, 141.

** Cephas C. Bateman, "The Army Chaplain: His Work and Worth,” Journal of the Military Service Institution, March-April 1905, p. 297; Cephas C. Bateman, “The Army Chaplain Among U.S. Soldiers," Steward, Active Service, pp. 32–33.

84 Revised Army Regulations 1873 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873),

81

p. 47.

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89

* T. F. Rodenbough and W. L. Haskin, The Army of the United States, (New York: Argonaut Press LTD, 1966), pp. 282–283.

Ibid.

87 Arlen L. Fowler, The Black Infantry in the West 1869-1891, (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Corporation, 1971), p. 8.

Fowler, Black Infantry, p. 94; Monthly Report of George P. Robinson from Fort Buford, Dakota Territory, 30 November 1885, Selected ACP, G. P. Robinson, RG 94, NA.

** Monthly Report of John H. Macomber from Fort Custer, Montana Territory, 31 January 1881, 1 April 1881, 1 September 1881, Selected ACP, J. H. Macomber, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of George P. Robinson from Fort Buford, Dakota Territory, 31 July 1883, 20 June 1893, Selected ACP, G. P. Robinson, RG 94, NA; Fowler, Black Infantry, p. 98.

o Colonel Edward Hatch to Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 3 December 1880, Selected ACP, M. J. Gonzales, RG 94, NA.

Das Patricia Yeary Stallard, “Glittering Misery: Lives of Army Dependents in the TransMississippi West, 1865–1898,” (MA diss., East Tennessee State University, 1972), p. 111.

General Order No. 24, Headquarters of the Army, 1878.

93

* Ibid.

95

97

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Army-Navy Journal, 19 October 1878, p. 171.

** Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1880, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880), pp. ix, 295–297.

Fowler, Black Infantry, p. 95.

Ibid. Ibid., pp. 95, 97–98. 100 Ibid., pp. 96-97. 101 Army-Navy Journal, 9 September 1876, p. 74. 102 Fowler, Black Infantry, p. 96.

PP.

98-100. Ibid., 102.

Fowler, Black Infantry, p. 103; Army-Navy Journal, 19 March 1881, p. 685, and 19

103

Ibid.,

104

105

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