Слике страница
PDF
ePub

structure at Fort Robinson, he revealed his own perception of his place, as chaplain and a black, in that structure:

1. Commissioned officers and families to themselves.
2. Chaplains and families to themselves, with a few exceptions.
3. Enlisted men and families to themselves, with a few exceptions.

4. White civilian employees and families to themselves. He also claimed that the white and black enlisted men drew "no social line of distinction.” 147

Theophilus G. Steward was initially apprehensive about becoming a chaplain, and he accepted his appointment only after receiving assurances that he would enjoy “perfect freedom in preaching the gospel.” He was also concerned about the reception he would receive, because someone had warned him that Army officers “were not generally kind to chaplains,” especially black chaplains. But when he arrived at Fort Missoula, Montana, in August 1891 to join the 25th Infantry Regiment, he was welcomed by the regimental commander and his wife, Colonel and Mrs. George L. Andrews; in addition, they invited him to live in their home until his quarters were ready. Pleasantly surprised, Steward told Mrs. Andrews that he had not hoped for such treatment and had merely expected to be shown to some quarters, but she replied, "Well, that would not have been very Christ-like.” She also took him to Missoula and introduced him to the merchants as the regimental chaplain. When his quarters were ready and his family arrived, the Andrews invited them to dinner. Other officers and their families also extended to him all the civilities and courtesies” to which he was entitled.148

Though some of the officers and their wives attended Sunday morning denominational services in Missoula, they supported Steward's religious program. Many, including Colonel and Mrs. Andrews, attended his Sunday evening services. Mrs. Andrews, whose father was hymn tune composer Henry K. Oliver, led the singing, directed the choir, and played the organ so that the services did not “drag at all.” When Colonel Andrews retired in 1892, Steward showed appreciation for his support by writing an article for Harper's Weekly about the colonel's Army career and retirement ceremony."

Chaplain Steward's religious program resembled that of other chaplains, but he was reputed to be an accomplished speaker who handled his subjects in a masterly manner, and a "faithful preacher of the Old

Gospel.” He was also noted as a scholar and author. As superintendent of the post schools, he once held special summer classes for selected students. When Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman visited Fort Missoula, Steward persuaded him to address the students. Once he invited a Missoula high school teacher to speak to the enlisted men on “The History of American Protective Policy.” When the ladies of the post invited him to address them, he presented three lectures about Queen Elizabeth, one on Empress Catherine II of Russia, and three about distinguished women in France during the Revolution. He also presented two lectures to the officers on “The Historical Importance of Queen Elizabeth's Reign” and “The Siege of Savannah.” 150

Prior to the Spanish-American War, Steward's most significant writings were Active Service: or Religious Work Among US Soldiers, and four articles: “The Canteen in the Army”; “The Colored American as a Soldier”; “A Colored Crack Rifle Shot” and “Starving Laborers and the Hired Soldiers.” Active Service consisted of 16 articles, including one by Major General Oliver O. Howard and 12 by chaplains; Steward edited and prefaced the volume. In his preface he described the chaplain's work as that of an evangelist rather than a denominational pastor. One of his articles traced the history of the Army canteen and stated his hope that beer and wine sales be discontinued in the canteen. The others exalted the U.S. soldier, particularly the black soldier, and dealt quite candidly with both the achievements of black troops and discrimination against them within the Army. In one of them he envisioned a day “when there will be no more colored soldiers in the army of the United States, but ... simply Americans-all.” 151

The other black chaplain, William T. Anderson, joined the 10th Cavalry Regiment in November 1897 at Fort Assinniboine, Montana, and enjoyed the “hearty cooperation of the commander and adjutant, and the people in general.” 152 Aside from his religious program, which resembled that of other chaplains and was well attended, he organized a weekly Thursday evening lyceum for the “intellectual, moral and social improvement of the noncommissioned officers”; he reported that the attendance ranged from 53 to 66, and that “some very good papers” were “produced and discussed.” 153 His ministry at Fort Assinniboine ended in April 1898, when the Tenth departed for Camp Chickamauga, Georgia, to prepare for the invasion of Cuba.

NOTES

6

* Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), pp. 544–545, 742–748, 826-827, 864–865; Winthrop S. Hudson, Religion in America, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1965), pp. 237-259, 320–322; Martin E. Marty, Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in Anlerica, (New York: Dial Press, 1970), pp. 146–176.

* The records of the proceedings of the churches' national bodies substantiate Edward A. Simon's contention that the churches displayed an attitude of indifference toward the chaplaincy during 1775 to 1913. That indifference, matched only by their indifference to the moral and religious welfare of soldiers and sailors, was the raison d'etere behind Chaplain Orville J. Nave's "Chaplains' Movement.” Edward A. Simon, "The Influence of the American Protestant Churches on the Development of the Structure and Duties of the Army Chaplaincy, 1914–1962.” (M. Th. thesis, Princeton University, 1963), p. 5.

* Richard C. Lancaster, "The History of the YMCA," (Manuscript, Library, National Headquarters of the Young Men's Christian Association, New York, New York, undated), p. 15.

* Monthly Report of Chaplain Jeremiah Porter from Fort Sill, Indian Territory, 8 August 1874, Selected ACP, J. Porter, RG 94, NA.

Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People, pp. 867–872; Hudson, Religion in America, pp. 316-317; John A. Krout, “Prohibition,” and Donald R. McCoy, “Prohibition Party,” The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 15, (Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1969), p. 718.

• Theophilus G. Steward, Active Service, (New York: U.S. Army Aid Association, 1897–?), p. 14; The Weekly Arizona Miner, 7 November 1868.

* Alexander Gilmore, “Semi-Centennial Sermon delivered by Rev. Alexander Gilmore at the Annual Session of the New Jersey Conference held in Trenton, March 10, 1887,” (Camden, New Jersey: Temperance Gazette Printing House, 1887), p. 29; Chaplain Winfield Scott to the Adjutant General, U.S.A., Washington, D.C., 1 January 1884, Selected ACP, W. Scott, RG 94, NA; Wilburn W. Dick, “The History of the Scottsdale School System at Scottsdale, Arizona, 1896–1944,” (Master's thesis, Arizona State University, 1945), pp. 19–20.

R Kelly, Edward J. and Bradley, Cyprian, History of the Diocese of Boise, 1863–1952, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, Ltd, 1954), pp. 95, 97, 105–110.

Chaplain Eli W. J. Lindesmith to the Adjutant General's Office, U.S. Army, undated 1909, second endorsement, Selected ACP, E. W. J. Lindesmith, RG 94, NA: Commanding Officer's Report on Chaplain E. W. J. Lindesmith, Fort Keogh, Montana, 1 May 1890, Selected ACP, E. W. J. Lindesmith, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Cephas C. Bateman from Fort Assinniboine, Montana, 1 March 1892, Selected ACP, C. C. Bateman, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Reports of Chaplain E. W. J. Lindesmith from Fort Keogh, Montana, 31 December 1880, 31 May 1882, Selected ACP, E. W. J. Lindesmith, RG 94, NA.

Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 1 August 1893, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

13 J. Dreyfus to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 21 March 1893, fourth endorsement, 1 April 1893, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

** Junction City Tribune, 23 March 1893, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

* Junction City Sentinel and Junction City Republican newspaper clippings, undated March 1893, but both obviously subsequent to 19 March 1893, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

J. Dreyfus to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 21 March 1893, third endorseinent, 31 March 1892, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

Ibid., fourth endorsement, 1 April 1893.
Ibid., fifth endorsement, 28 April 1893.

19 J. Dreyfus to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 21 March 1893, fifth endorsement, 28 April 1893; Congressman John Davis to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 1 May 1893, and inclosure, petition from citizens of Junction City, Kansas, to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 28 April 1893, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

20 J. Dreyfus to the Secretary of War, Washington, D.C., 21 March 1893, attached note from Schofield to the Secretary of War, 6 May 1893, Selected ACP, D. R. Lowell, RG 94, NA.

10

12

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

17

18

21 Ibid.

22

24

Proceedings of the Thirty-first International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Association of North America held in Springfield, Massachusetts, May 8–12, 1895, (New York: International Committee, 1895), p. 115.

"Minutes of the Thirty-first International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Associations of North America,” held in Springfield, Massachusetts, May 12, 1895, (Library, National Headquarters of the Young Men's Christian Association, New York, New York, File X 147.11), pp. 116-117.

Proceedings of the Thirty-first International Convention of the Young Men's Christian Associalion, 1895, pp. 116-117.

Orville J. Nave, “The Status of Army Chaplains,” Steward, Active Service, p. 42; Chaplain Norman Badger to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 17 April 1876, attached note to the General of the Army, 27 April 1876, Selected ACP, N. Badger, RG 94, NA.

Brigadier General John R. Brooke to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1894, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

21 Diary of Chaplain David White, 24 November 1867, (Stover Collection, Archives, U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School Fort Wadsworth, N.Y.).

44th Congress, 1st Session, “House of Representatives Report No. 354," 9 March 1876,

28

pp. 51-52.

31

* Monthly Report of Chaplain David White from Camp Verde, Arizona Territory, 31 March 1872, Selected ACP, D. White, RG 94, NA; O. L. Hein to David White, Camp Verde, Arizona, 17 April 1872, Selected ACP, D. White, RG 94, NA.

30 Don J. Rickey, Forty Miles A Day on Beans and Hay, (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p. 193.

Chaplain George Robinson to the Adjustant General, Washington, D.C., 1 August 1881, second endorsement, 13 August 1881, Selected ACP, G. Robinson, RG 94, NA.

32 Monthly Report of Chaplain Henry V. Plummer from Fort Riley, Kansas, 30 September 1887, third endorsement, 10 October 1887, Selected ACP, H. V. Plummer, RG 94, NA; Adjutant General, United States Army, Washington, D.C., to the Commanding General, Division of the Missouri, Chicago, Illinois, 14 October 1887, Selected ACP, H. V. Plummer, RG 94, NA.

44th Congress, 1st Session, "HR Report No. 354," 9 March 1876, p. 188.

83

34 Ibid.,

Ibid.,

pp. 45–46.

p. 203.

37

39

40

Ibid., pp. 20, 117.
George Pepper, Under Three Flags, (Cincinnati: Curts and Jennings, 1899), p. 119.
Army-Navy Journal, 27 April 1878, pp. 608-609; 21 February 1880, p. 579.

General W. T. Sherman to C. D. McDougall, Newport, Rhode Island, 26 July 1882, Records of the Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D.C., Letters Sent, No. 467–1882, RG 108, NA,

Don J. Rickey, Forty Miles A Day, pp. 192–193. 41 Dairy of Chaplain David White, 15 April 1866. 42 44th Congress, 1st Session, “HR Report No. 354,” 9 March 1876, p. 188.

44th Congress, 1st Session, "HR Report No. 354," 9 March 1876, p. 188; Monthly Report of Chaplain Edward J. Vattmann from Fort Meade, South Dakota, 30 June 1891, Selected ACP, E. J. Vattmann, RG 94, NA.

44 "Military History in Part of Chaplain Orville J. Nave," undated, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; Minutes of the Nebraska Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, North, 1917 Session, (Lincoln, Nebraska: Clasland Printing Company, 1917), pp. 269-270; Orville J. Nave, Nave's Handbook on the Army Chaplaincy, (Los Angeles, California: Publisher unknown, 1917), p. 8.

45 Colonel D. E. Gordon to the Assistant Adjutant General Headquarters Department of the Platte, Omaha, Nebraska, 26 February 1894, Selected ACP, A. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

4o General John R. Brooke to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1894, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

47 Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., to General John R. Brooke, Commanding General, Department of the Platte, Omaha, Nebraska, 12 March 1894, and attached note, 16 March 1894, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

49

18 "Memorandum Report, Subject: Claims of Chaplain Orville J. Nave, 3rd Infantry, for promotion to the grade of Major,” First Division General Staff, Washington, D.C., 29 April 1905, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; Frederick S. Nave to Secretary of War William H. Taft, Washington, D.C., 17 June 1905, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

General John R. Brooke to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1894, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; J. Fawcett to Reverend James H. Twichell, Hartford, Connecticut, 3 May 1890, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

6 Monthly Report of Chaplain Orville J. Nave from Fort Lyon, Colorado, 1 February 1885, 1 March 1885, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

51 The volume became a best seller almost immediately, and it was reported in 1904 that 90,000 copies had been sold. Nave's original intent was to contribute the royalties to Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, Nebraska, but the author has been unable to ascertain if he ever did so. After advising teen-agers in 1958 to "get a Nave's Topical Bible," evangelist Billy Graham claimed that no book had helped him more in his study and that he had bought and given “scores of copies” to “many outstanding leaders.” The Bible is still being published by Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois. News clipping from the Commercial Tribune, 20 June 1904, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; O. J. Nave, Nave's Topical Bible, (Nashville, Tennessee: Southwestern Company, 1932), p. 5; Billy Graham, Billy Graham Talks to Teen-Agers, (New York: Pyramid Books, 1958), pp. 19–20.

Medical Statement regarding Chaplain O. J. Nave, signed by Post Surgeon J. L. Powell, 29 November 1885, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; “Military History of Orville J. Nave,” Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 9 November 1899, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA

** 50th Annual Report of Association of Graduates of U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, 10 June 1919 (Saginaw, Michigan: Seamann and Peters, 1919), p. 48; Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1887 (Philadelphia: McCalla and Company Printers, 1887), p. 26; “An Appeal in Behalf of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Army and Navy and National Guard of the United States,” undated, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 1.

** News clipping from the Commercial Tribune, 20 June 1904, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

News clipping from the Commercial Tribune, 20 June 1904, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA; J. Fawcett to Reverend James H. Twichell, Hartford, Connecticut, 3 May 1890, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA: "Minutes of the Conference of Army Chaplains," held at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 13–18, 1891, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 8; General John R. Brooke to the Adjutant General, Washington, D.C., 16 March 1894, Selected ACP, 0. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

56 Journal of the General Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, North, 1888 (New York: Phillips and Hunt, 1888), pp. 475-476.

An Address on the Moral and Religious Needs of the Regular Army (printed booklet), pp. 3-4, 6–7, 14, 18-12; News clipping from the Commercial Tribune, 20 June 1904, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA.

5$ News clipping from the Commercial Tribune, 20 June 1904, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA

5* "An Appeal in Behalf of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Army and Navy and National Guard of the United States," undated 1913, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 2.

so General Order No. 50, Adjutant General's Office, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D.C., 12 June 1889; "An Appeal in Behalf of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Army and Navy and National Guard of the United States," undated 1913, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 3; "The United Christian Commission, Its Late Meeting," undated 1890 pamphlet, Selected ACP, O. J. Nave, RG 94, NA, p. 2.

61 Annual Report of the War Department, 1889 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1889), p. 25.

02 “The United Christian Commission, Its Late Meeting,” undated 1890 pamphlet, p. 2. * Annual Report of the War Department, 1889, pp. 234-235.

Ibid., 1890, p. 775. * Ibid., 1891, pp. 312-313; 1892, p. 18.

57

« ПретходнаНастави »