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WILLIAM MURRAY, LORD NAIRN. This favourite of the Jacobite histo- Lord Nairn, at length, had the misrians was born in 1657. He distin- fortune to be taken prisoner. On being guished himself at an early age, in impeached, he pleaded guilty, at the several naval actions with the Ďutch, urgent entreaty of his friends, who enagainst whom he served as a volunteer. tertained strong hopes of obtaining his While yet a minor, he married the pardon. Having received sentence of heiress of Nairn; and in 1683, when death, on the 9th of February, 1716, he she succeeded to her father's dignities, immediately afterwards, sent a petition he assumed the title of Lord Nairn, for mercy to the king, which, howaccording to the custom of Scotland. ever, was not honoured with the least

The Earl of Mar having raised the notice. On the 14th, Lady Nairn, by Pretender's standard, in 1715, Lord a stratagem, procured an interview Nairn was summoned, as a suspected with his majesty, and earnestly imJacobite, to appear and surrender him- plored him to save her 'husband's life; self at Edinburgh, under pain of being but the king gave her a rough and declared a traitor. He, however, pro- positive refusal. At the intercession, ceeded at once to arm a number of his however, of some influential English followers, at whose head he marched peers, Lord Nairn was respited until to join the Earl of Mar, in spite of the the 7th of March, and ultimately obmelancholy forebodings of his wife, to tained his liberty. It is said that he whom, on departing for the field, he never after ceased to regret what he said, “ I hope shortly to see you a deemed his disgraceful meanness, in countess."

suing for and accepting the clemency After having distinguished himself of a prince, whom he considered an by several acts of gallantry, as a soldier, , usurper. He died in 1725.

JAMES BUTLER, DUKE OF ORMOND. JAMES, the son of Thomas, Earl he lost none of his influence at court: of Ossory, and grandson of James, the in 1702, he was appointed, jointly with twelfth Earl and first Duke of Or- Admiral Rooke, to the command of mond, was born on the 29th of April, the forces, sent out against Cadiz and 1665. He succeeded to the dukedom Vigo. Notwithstanding the reluctance on the death of his grandfather, in with which the admiral acted in this 1688. He was actively concerned in expedition, and his repeated declarabringing about the revolution ; and tions that it would end disastrously, fought, with great gallantry, at the and although he would not cordially battle of the Boyne. He subsequently co-operate with the duke, the armaobtained the command of a body of ment was so decidedly fortunate, that, troops, destined to secure the quiet of on its return, the queen, attended by Dublin; and, during the campaign of Ormond, as chief staff officer, went in 1693, he served, as one of the king's great state to St. Paul's cathedral, to aid-de-camps, at the battle of Landen, return solemn thanks for the success where he was severely wounded. He with which her arms had been crowned; had now become a great favourite with and, on the following day, the duke reWilliam the Third, whose confidence ceived the thanks of both houses of he continued to enjoy during the re- parliament for his services. He soon mainder of that monarch's life.

afterwards called for a public inquiry On the accession of Queen Anne, into the conduct of Rooke; who, as he asserted, had obviously endeavoured to was sent out to succeed the hero of render the expedition unsuccessful. In Blenheim, as captain-general of the consequence, however, of the admiral's

army in Flanders. influence, the duke failed to procure Although he had received positive the investigation he sought.

orders from the queen not to hazard By this time he had become the idol a battle, he assured the Dutch authoof the public, in whose applauses he rities, that it was his intention to proappeared to take a very undignified secute the war with all the vigour in delight. He had soon to experience his power; but, on a favourable opporthe fickleness of those, to whose ap- tunity to attack the enemy occurring, probation he attached so much im- he not only refused to march towards portance. Being appointed lord-lieu-them, but declared that he would tenant of Ireland, in 1703, and having abandon the allies, unless they conadopted the views of his predecessor, sented to a cessation of arms. This his measures soon rendered him gene- unexpected and hypocritical conduct rally unpopular. The Irish parliament, while it greatly incensed the confe. with which he was on very bad terms, derates, proved highly agreeable to severely annoyed him, by ordering an Queen Anne ; by whom, on his return inspection of the public accounts:"for," to England, the duke was received in says Burnet," though he was generous, a very flattering manner. and above all sordid practices himself, He continued to be a great favourite yet, being a man of pleasure, he was with the multitude, and, about this much in ihe power of those who acted period, increased the sphere of his pounder him, and whose integrity was not pularity, by zealously encouraging liteso clear."

rature and the arts. In June, 1713, In 1705, he is said to have fomented he was appointed governor of Dover the divisions between the protestants castle, and warden of the cinque ports; and catholics, and to have rendered and, in addition to these valuable sinehimself deservedly obnoxious to both. cures, he obtained a grant of £5000 During the latter part of his vicegerency, per annum, for fifteen years, out of the which continued until 1711, he appears

Irish revenue. to have not only favoured the high The more auspicious part of the church party, but to have laid himself duke's career, terminated on the death open to a suspicion of encouraging the of Queen Anne. The new monarch adherents of James Frederick. It is, refused to admit him to the privy however, altogether uncertain whether, chamber, and dismissed him from his at this period, he had so far abandoned post as captain-general of the forces; his Whig principles, as to be zealously but a pitiful attempt was subsequently inclined towards the exiled prince, or made, to allay his resentment, by apaimed at acquiring increase of favour pointing him a member of the Irish with the queen, by affording some coun- privy council, and giving him an intenance towards the avowed friends of vitation to make his appearance at her brother, whose pretensions to suc- court. He was still the darling of the ceed her, she was apparently disposed mob. On his birth-day, in 1715, the to support.

streets of the metropolis were thronged At the termination of his vicegerency, by large bodies of his admirers, who in which, notwithstanding the general severely assaulted all such as refused obnoxious character of his measures, to join in their shouts of “ Ormond he had displayed some redeeming good for ever!" On the 28th of May, in qualities, that rendered him occa- the same year, riots of a more alarmsionally, or rather, locally popular, he ing character took place; the populace, joined in the parliamentary clamour on this occasion, mixing religion with against the conduct of the Duke of politics, vociferated “High church and Marlborough; who, he declared, had | Ormond !" It was supposed that these evidently prolonged the war, to gratify disorderly acts were secretly encouhis own sordid inclinations. Ormond raged by the duke; threats of an imwas soon afterwards appointed com- peachment were, consequently, held mander-in-chief of all the forces in out to him by ministers : but, blind to Great Britain ; and, in April, 1712, he the probable consequences of his folly,

he continued to render himself offen- | Flanders, &c. Being subsequently atsive to government, until, at length, tainted of high treason, his name was the menaces which he had despised, erased from the list of peers, an invenwere actually carried into effect.

tory was taken of his personal estate, The turbulence of his spirit, and his and his achievement, as a knight of the greediness for applause, 'led him to Garter, was removed from St. George's commit a number of absurdities, for chapel, at Windsor. On the 12th of which, the moderate portion of his November, in the same year, the Irish friends in vain endeavoured to excuse parliament not only attainted him, but him. He displayed considerable plea-offered a reward of £10,000 for his sure in hearing his name shouted by head. the mob: he became generous to pro It appears that he felt desirous of fusion, in order to keep up his popu- personally engaging in the rebellion larity among the lower classes; he held of 1715: having actually embarked for levees on stated days, at which he England, on receiving intelligence of received his more distinguished parti- the insurrection, and hovered, for sesans, with princely ostentation; and at veral days, about the coast; but withtempted to justify his conduct, in a out being able to effect a landing. In pamphlet which was remarkable at 1716-17, he made an unsuccessful atonce for the boldness of its sentiments, tempt to induce the King of Sweden, and the pomposity of its language. who had affected great consideration About the middle of June, the follow for the Pretender, to invade England ing advertisement was artfully pub with an army of Swedes. In 1718-19, lished, and without the least founda the Spanish government determined tion, as it is suspected, for the purpose on making an attempt to place James of exciting the feelings of the populace Frederick on the British throne: an in his favour:-“ On Tuesday, the 7th armament, consisting of ten sail of the instant, her grace, the Duchess of line, and numerous transports, with six Ormond, on her return from Richmond, thousand regular troops, and twelve was stopped, in her coach, by three thousand stand of arms for the Prepersons in disguise, well-armed and tender's English and Scotch adherents, mounted, who asked if the duke was was accordingly fitted out at Cadiz, and in the coach, and seemed to have a placed under the Duke of Ormond's design on his life; and it has been command. Rumours of the intended observed, that many armed persons invasion having reached this country, lurk about in the Richmond road, both the house of commons addressed the day and night, no doubt with a view king to offer a reward of £5,000 for the to assassinate him."

duke's apprehension. The Jacobites On the 21st of June, after a debate eagerly prepared for his landing; and of nine hours' duration, in which several great alarm appears to have prevailed of his friends spoke warmly in his among the more loyal classes of his favour, he was impeached by a majo- | majesty's subjects. But the expedition, rity of forty-seven. He might still which had occasioned such sanguine have been treated with more lenity, | hopes on the one hand, and such conperhaps, than he merited, had his temptible fears on the other, was altoconduct become moderate ; but he gether unsuccessful. Many of the thought proper to persevere in his ob transports drifted ashore, and went to noxious course, and even after arrange- pieces; most of the troops were ren. ments had been made for his obtaining dered unserviceable; and the duke, a private interview with the king, from after having narrowly escaped shipwhom he had good reason to expect wreck, was compelled to return to a kind reception, he abruptly quitted Cadiz, without having seen an enemy, the kingdom, and entered into the but utterly discomfited by the eleservice of the Pretender.

ments. On the 5th of August, articles of im In 1722, a Jacobite, named Layer, peachment were exhibited against him, was executed for having, partly, it is for having treacherously neglected to said, at the instigation of Ormond, atfight the enemies of England, while tempted to enlist a body of recruits for he was captain-general of the forces in the service of the Pretender, in Essex.

In 1726, the duke appears to have but very little affection. He was prinmade some fruitless efforts to engage the cipally indebted for that importance, Spanish government in a new project which he so long enjoyed, to his rank for the invasion of this country. From and connexions. His abilities were this period, he gradually dwindled in good, but not splendid; his morals in importance, and spent the remainder private life, and his principles as a of his life, chiefly at Avignon, in me- public character, were equally lax; his lancholy indolence; wholly subsisting judgment was evidently weak, and his on a pension, from Spain, of 2,000 vanity contemptible. He was neither pistoles per annum. His death took “ great in his glory, nor grand in his place on the 16th of November, in the fall." He has been praised for his memorable year 1745.

fidelity to the Pretender ; but it does The duke married at rather an early not appear that he ever received any period of his public career: but he left temptation to be treacherous to James no children by his wife, for whom, Frederick, or that he could have betalthough they lived upon tolerable tered himself by abandoning the Jacoterms, he appears to have entertained | bite cause.

SIMON FRASER, LORD LOVAT. SIMON, the eldest son of Thomas marriage ceremony between them in Fraser, of Beaufort, was born in 1668. her presence. He then cut open her While yet a mere boy, he acquired a stays with his dirk ; his confederates disgraceful notoriety by his vices; and tore off her clothes; and, with their became, in his manhood, one of the assistance, he forced her to his bed. most dissolute and daring ruffians of Fearing that the consequences of the age in which he lived. His rela- this daring outrage might be fatal to tive, Hugh, the tenth Lord Lovat, himself, its abandoned and execrable dying without male issue, in 1692, perpetrator thought proper to quit the Simon, who then held a commission in country. While abroad, proceedings Lord Tullibardine's regiment, imme were instituted against him, not only diately entered into a contest for the for rape, but for treason, in having succession, with Amelia, the deceased violated the laws at the head of an nobleman's eldest daughter. In order armed retinue; and he was outlawed to devote himself wholly to the prose- for not appearing. King Wiliam parcution of his claim, he resigned his doned him for the treason, but his military appointment; but feeling im- conviction for rape still remaining in patient at the tardy progress of the force, he could not with safety return legal measures which he had instituted, to Scotland. He therefore continued and fearing that they might not be to reside for some time on the conultimately successful, he determined tinent; but having at length ingration achieving his object, by a compulated himself with the Pretender, and sory marriage with his rival claimant prevailed on Louis the Fourteenth Having waylaid Lord Saltoun and to advance him some money, for the his son, the latter of whom was about avowed purpose of raising a Jacobite to be united to the heiress of Lovat, force in the Highlands, he ventured to he erected a gibbet, and induced them, revisit his native country. On his way by threats of instant death, in case of thither, he had an interview, in London, their refusal, solemnly to renounce the with some of the English ministers, intended alliance. He next endea- and being consequently suspected of voured to obtain possession of Lady treachery, the French government, on Amelia; but being foiled in the at his return to France, immured him in tempt, he seized the Dowager Lady the Bastile. In order to obtain favour Lovat' in her own house, and, against with the Pretender, he had previously her will, caused a priest to read the become a Roman catholic ; and after

VOL. I.

having remained for some time in con- by Charles Edward, and admitted into finement, he at length succeeded in the most secret counsels of the Jacobite procuring his liberty, by taking holy chiefs. His great age and infirmities orders.

prevented him from taking any active Entering into a seminary of jesuits, part in the campaign ; but he exercised he secured the confidence of those an important influence on the moveabout him, by that hypocritical de- ments of the insurgents, whose leaders meanour of which he was so consum- paid considerable deference to his mate a master, and officiated in his opinions. clerical capacity at Saint Omer, until Soon after the decisive battle of Cul1715; when he suddenly re-appeared loden, he began to feel the effects of his in Scotland, as a furious partisan of treachery and ingratitude to the house the house of Hanover. For his ser- of Hanover : his castle was destroyed, vices in securing Inverness from the his cattle were driven away, his lands rebels, he was rewarded with the com- ravaged, and he found himself not mand of a Highland company, the title only reduced from affluence to comof Lovat, and, as it was generally parative poverty, but compelled to believed, with a large gratuity in cash. exert the whole of his great ingenuity

The unhappy Dowager Lady Lovat, to avoid a capture, which he knew having died some time previously to would, in all probability, lead to his 1718, in that year he married a lady, by execution. whom he had several children; and it An apparently favourable opportuwas hoped that his conduct would have nity at length occurring for his escape been ameliorated. But his disposition to France, he endeavoured to make was so utterly depraved, that he con- his way to the coast, with two aid-detinued to indulge in the lowest and most camps and about sixty of his clan; but revolting propensities; and for some a detachment of the Duke of Cumberyears before the insurrection of 1745, land's dragoons surprised and captured he had not only intrigued with the exiled him. As he could neither walk, nor family, but had become the general go- ride on horseback, the commanding between of the various Jacobite parties officer of the royal troops was comin the Highlands.

pelled to carry him to head quarters in It is related of him, that having heard a sort of litter resembling a cage. On a gentleman divulge a scheme for the the 15th of August, 1746, he arrived prevention of any future rebellion, by at the Tower in an open landau, drawn transporting the discontented to Ame by six horses; and, although he had rica, he procured a written statement previously displayed extraordinary inof the proposition, which he forthwith difference, it is said that, when he came translated into Gaelic, disseminated it in sight of the platforms which had amongst the Highlanders, and by as- been erected for the accommodation of suring them that the Duke of Cumber- those who were desirous of witnessing land was speedily coming to carry it the approaching execution of Balmerino into execution, produced a feeling of and Kilmarnoch, he lifted up his hands exasperation among the clans, which and exclaimed, “ A few days, and it proved highly favourable to the project will be my unhappy fate!" of Charles Edward, in 1745.

During his trial he evinced the most His conduct had for some time past consummate skill and assurance; but, been so suspicious, that when the young in spite of all his subterfuges and proPretender raised his standard in Scot- testations of innocence, he was found land, Lord Lovat was placed under guilty; and, notwithstanding the exrestraint; but he contrived to dissem-ertions of his friends, who endeavoured ble his real intentions so effectually, to procure a remission of his sentence, that he was soon set at liberty. The on account of his great age, and the first use which he made of his freedom, services which he had previously renwas to join the rebel standard, with his dered the house of Hanover, he was eldest son, and such of his retainers as executed on the 9th of April, 1746. he could induce to follow him to the His conduct, during his last hours, field. Nothwithstanding his notorious was so remarkably calm, firm, revillany, he was received with open arms signed, and decorous, that it may truly

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