« ПретходнаНастави »
carried off, and concealed in a miserable distinction; all the cattle and provisions hut, until he regained sufficient strength were carried off. The men were either to undergo the fatigues of a difficult shot upon the mountains, like wild and dangerous journey to the coast. beasts, or put to death in cold blood, After passing through many perils, he without form of trial. The women, after was, at length, fortunate enough to having seen their husbands and fathers effect his escape to the continent, murdered, were subjected to brutal where he spent the remainder of his violation, and then turned out naked, days, a hopeless, heart-broken wan- with their children, to starve on the derer, and died towards the close of 1758. barren heath. One whole family was
His unfortunate clan was visited enclosed in a barn, and consumed to with remorseless vengeance by the ashes. Those ministers of vengeance royal troops. “In the month of May," were so alert in the execution of their says Smollett, “ the Duke of Cumber- office, that, in a few days, there was land advanced with the army into the neither house, cottage, man, nor beast, Highlands, as far as Fort Augustus; to be seen in the compass of fifty miles: where he encamped, and sent off de- all was ruin, silence, and desolation !" tachments, on all hands, to hunt down To justify such execrable atrocities as the fugitives, and lay waste the country these, even on the score of expediency, with fire and sword. The castles of would be utterly impossible: they were Glengary and Lochiel were plundered / planned in a spirit of cold blooded and burned: every hut, house, or habi- brutality, and perpetrated by ruffians tation, met with the same fate, without | under the command of a savage.
DOCTOR ARCHIBALD CAMERON. DR. ARCHIBALD CAMERON, a France, for the purpose of surrendering brother of the celebrated Lochiel, was himself, and that he was only prevented born in 1698. From a very early pe- by an accident happening in his family, riod of his life, he appears to have from throwing himself upon the hing's entertained feelings of strong attach- clemency. He had seven children, he ment to the exiled family; and on the said, at Lisle, in Flanders, who, with rebel standard being set up by Charles their mother, were totally dependent Edward, in 1745, he joined the insur- on him for support, and he respectfully gents with his brother, with whom he entreated, that he might be permitted acted during the whole of the campaign. to send for the latter, as he felt a very After the battle of Culloden, he escaped natural desire to see her again before he to the continent: but in 1753, although died. This request was humanely comhe had been attainted of high treason plied with; but no further indulgence during his absence, he rashly returned was shewn him; his sentence, contrary to Scotland, with a view, as it was re- to the expectations of the public, being ported, of recovering a sum of money, carried into effect in less than a month belonging to the Pretender, which had after his arraignment. been embezzled by some of his ad- About ten o'clock on the morning of herents.
his execution, (June 7th, 1753,) he was Soon after his arrival in Scotland, he drawn on a sledge, from the Tower to was discovered, and taken. His ar- Tyburn, amid a vast concourse of specraignment at the bar of the court of tators. He was dressed, on this occasion, king's bench, on the act of attainder in a light coloured coat, red waistcoat previously passed against him, speedily and breeches, and a new bag-wig. followed ; and his identity being clearly During the dreadful procession, which established, the lord chief justice sen- lasted upwards of two hours, he was tenced him to be executed as a traitor. perfectly calm, and his fortitude never He behaved with great firmness and forsook him up to the moment of his decorum in court; and took occasion execution. After having been susto observe, that, in 1746, he had quitted pended for nearly half an hour, his
body was cut down and decapitated.unblemished, and his deportment on His heart was then taken from his this occasion, which they could not body, and burnt to ashes in the pre- help admiring as the standard of manly sence of the assembled multitude. fortitude and decorum.
“ The terror and resentment of the lace, though not very subject to tender people," says Smollett, “occasioned by emotions, were moved to compassion, the rebellion, having by this time sub and even to tears, by his behaviour sided, their humane passions did not fail at the place of execution; and many to operate in favour of this unfortunate sincere well-wishers to the house of gentleman. Their pity was mingled Hanover thought that the sacrifice of with esteem, arising from his per- this victim, at such a juncture, could not sonal character, which was altogether redound either to its honour or security."
WILLIAM, LORD WIDDRINGTON. WILLIAM, the fourth Lord Wid. had assured them of mercy: he, drington, was born in 1701, and, during therefore, expressed a hope that his his minority, married a daughter of Sir unhappy case, and the deplorable conThomas Teinpest, of Stella, in the dition of his unfortunate children, alcounty of Durham, by whom he had ready deprived of their mother, would five children. He was among the induce the two houses of parliament foremost of those who engaged in to intercede with the king on his beForster's attempt on behalf of James half. Frederick, in 1715, and surrendered, Sentence of death was pronounced with the other insurgents, to the royal upon him, but his execution was restroops, at Preston. On being impeached píted, from time to time, until 1717, for high treason, he pleaded guilty; and, when he received his discharge under when brought up to receive sentence, the act of grace. He died at Bath, in he asserted that the royal generals, to poverty and affliction, about the year whom he and his associates capitulated, i 1743.
WILLIAM MAXWELL, EARL OF NITHISDALE. William, the fifth Earl of Nithis- / stratagem, obtained an interview with dale, was born in 1702. Loyalty for the George the Second, and pathetically house of Stuart had been instilled into entreated him to save the life of her unhim from his childhood; and on the fortunate husband, but without effect. standard of the Chevalier being set The intercession of many noblemen in up in 1715, he joined the insurgents, his behalf met with no better success; at Moffat, in Annandale.
a warrant was issued for his execution, He surrendered, at Preston, with and his doom appeared inevitable. The the other companions of Forster; and Dowager Countess of Nithisdale, howhaving been sent to London, was com ever, in the noble enthusiasm of mamitted to the Tower, to abide his trial ternal affection, determined on making for high treason. On being impeached, a desperate effort to procure his escape. he pleaded guilty, and when brought She had then reached the forty-sixth up for judgment, he declared that, year of her age : like her son, she was when he surrendered at Preston, he remarkably tall; and she strikingly was led to hope much from the royal resembled him, not only in her features mercy, and still depended on the king's and the dignified expression of her coungoodness.
tenance, but also in the tone of her voice. His young countess afterwards, by Having frequently visited the earl
during his confinement in the Tower, the black veil, which his mother had worn, sentinels had become so well acquainted and taking the arm of her confederate, with her figure, that, at length, they he knocked to apprise the guard outsuffered her to pass to and from his side that the dowager wished to withapartment without challenge or in draw. On the door being opened, the quiry. On the evening before the day earl came forth with his companion, appointed for his execution, she went and, keeping a handkerchief close to to the Tower, in a hackney coach, ac his face, proceeded along the passages, companied by a lady, whom she had towards the outer entrance, at a slow previously made acquainted with the and tottering pace, and seeming to sob particulars of her project. As they incessantly ; the confederate, during passed the sentinels, the countess their progress, repeatedly adjuring dowager held a handkerchief to her “ her ladyship, to make haste and quit face, and sobbed audibly. On enter that horrid place!" They passed the ing her son's apartment, she proposed whole of the sentinels without exciting that he should disguise himself in a suspicion, and in a few minutes reached portion of her dress, and endeavour to the hackney coach, which had been orquit the Tower. The earl, however, dered to wait for the countess dowager. refused to do so, alleging, that he The earl succeeded in making his would rather die than expose her to escape beyond seas, and died at Rome, the slightest danger. But she charged in 1744. His mother was closely conhim on his duty to obey her; and fined for several months, but, at length, urging that the government would be government thought fit to set her at liashamed to keep her in confinement berty. Suspicions have been enterlonger than a few days, he, at length, tained that the sentinels on duty were consented to make the proposed at
bribed to connive at the earl's escape; tempt. Accordingly, putting on the but no proof has been adduced that hat, long mourning cloak, and deep such was the fact.
WILLIAM BOYD, EARL OF KILMARNOCH. This nobleman was born in 1702. rebellion of 1745. While the insurgents His person is described as having been were successful, he displayed much galremarkably fine; his manners engag- lantry and confidence; but after their ing; but his intellect feeble rather than retrograde movement from Derby, he Otherwise. In 1725, he married Lady became inactive and desponding. Being Anne Livingstone, daughter of the Earl | captured after the battle of Culloden, in of Linlithgow, by whom he had several which, although present, he had taken children. Brought up, as he had been, no part, he was sent to London, for trial, in the strong Whig principles of his with other prisoners of quality. On the family, and having no settled income 23d of June, 1746, a true bill for high to depend on for the support of his treason was found against him by the large family, but a pension from govern- grand jury of Surrey, and his trial was ment, it was, for a long time, supposed appointed to take place before the that the house of Hanover did not lords, in Westminster hall, on the 28th possess a more staunch adherent in of July. When placed at the bar, he Scotland than Kilmarnoch.
pleaded guilty to his indictment, and Temptations, however, which he had on being brought up to receive sentence not sufficient energy to resist, involved of death, pathetically entreated, on achim with the Jacobite party: his pen count of his children, and because he sion was consequently stopped; and, had never entertained, as he protested, with a view, perhaps, to obtain, under the slightest malice against the existing a new order of things, at least that government, that he might be recomdecent competence which he had lost, mended as a proper object of clemency rather than from any sincere devo to the king. tion to the Stuarts, he joined in the “I am assured," observes Horace
Walpole, “that the old Countess of an hour in devotion, at the house on Errol made her son, Lord Kilmarnoch, Tower hill, which had been prepared go into the rebellion on pain of disin- for the reception of Balmerino and heriting him. The man at the tennis himself, on the morning of their execucourt protests that he has known him tion. After refreshing himself with a dine with the man that sells pamphlets morsel of bread and a glass of wine, he at Storey's gate; 'and, says he, he expressed a desire that Balmerino, with would often have been glad if I would whom he had a short interview, should have taken him home to dinner.' He precede him to the scaffold; but on was certainly so poor, that in one of his being told that his request could not wife's intercepted letters, she tells him be complied with, his own name being she has plagued their steward for a fort- mentioned first in the warrant, he prenight for money, and can get but three pared, with more calmness and courage shillings!" " The Duke of Cumber- than he had been expected to display, land," says the same writer, in another for his immediate execution. part of his correspondence, “ declared On mounting the scaffold, and bepublicly, at his levee, that Lord Kil- holding the immense multitude of specmarnoch proposed murdering the tators, the executioner, the block, and English prisoners ; and when Duke his own coffin, his spirits failed him for Hamilton begged his intercession for a moment, and he said to one of the the earl, he coldly replied, that the ministers who attended him, “Hume, affair was in the king's hands, and that this is dreadful !” Having taken off he had nothing to do with it."
his coat, and the bag from his hair, Various applications were made to which was then tucked up under a obtain a remission of his sentence, but napkin-cap, he knelt down, and, after they proved ineffectual, and he was a short delay, dropped his handkerordered for execution with Lord Bal- chief as a signal to the executioner, merino, on the 18th of August. He who performed the duty assigned to him was attended, in his last moments, by with merciful despatch. The earl's the Rev. Mr. Hume, and a dissenting remains were_buried at St. Peter's clergyman. With the latter he spent church in the Tower.
LORD GEORGE MURRAY. The father of this celebrated noble- | displayed considerable military skill and man was rewarded, by William the great personal intrepidity. The royal Third, with the dukedom of Athol, for troops, under the command of Cope, the distinguished part which he had occupied so strong a position, that for taken in the revolution of 1668. Lord some time it was difficult to discover George was the duke's fourth son. His in what manner they could be attacked birth took place in 1705. He entered with any probability of success. Lord the army at an early age, and served | George at length determined, if poswith the British forces in Flanders. In sible, to lead his troops across a marsh, 1727, he married Lady Jane Murray, on the left of the royal camp, which he by whom he had several children, the found totally unprotected, in conseeldest of whom eventually became ! quence of its being considered impasthird Duke of Athol.
sable. He carried his project into effect On the 5th of September, 1745, Lord without much difficulty, during the George joined the young Pretender's night; and early on the morning of the army, ai Perth, with a number of men battle, to the astonishment and dismay from the estates of his brother, the Duke of the royal forces, drew up his army of Athol, and was almost immediately within a short distance of their camp. nominated lieutenant-general of the in- " Lord George," says Johnstone, " at surgent forces. At the battle of Preston the head of the first line, did not give Pans, which was fought on the 21st the enemy time to recover from their of September, (1745,) Lord George panic. He advanced with such rapidity,
that General Cope had hardly time to of the royal cavalry, under the immeform his troops in order of battle, when diate conimand of the duke, endeathe Highlanders rushed upon themvoured to prevent the artillery from sword in hand. They had frequently passing the bridge of Clifton; but Lord been enjoined to aim ai the noses of the George attacked them with such spirit, horses with their swords, without mind that they were compelled to abandon ing the riders; as the natural move their object, and effect a precipitate ment of a horse, wounded in the face, retreat. On this occasion, he fought is to wheel round: and a few horses sword in hand, and on foot, at the wounded in that manner, are sufficient head of the Macphersons. to throw a whole squadron into disorder, At the battle of Falkirk, which took without the possibility of their being place in January, 1746, Lord George, afterwards rallied. They followed this according to Home, marched at the head advice most implicitly, and the English of the Macdonalds of keppoch, with his cavalry was instantly thrown into con drawn sword in his hand, and his target fusion.” The rebel forces achieved a on his arm. He let the English dracomplete victory over their opponents, goons come within ten or twelve paces in less than five minutes, entirely with of him, and then gave orders to fire. out the aid of their second line, which “ The cavalry closing their ranks, which came up only in time to join in the were opened by this discharge,” says pursuit.
put spurs to their horses, Lord George is said to have distin and rushed upon the Highlanders at a guished himself, so far as circumstances hard trot, breaking their ranks, and would permit, during the march to throwing down everything before them. Derby; where, in opposition to Charles A most extraordinary combat followed. Edward, and many of the chiefs, he | The Highlanders, stretched on the strenuously recommended a retrograde ground, thrust their dirks into the movement. With much difficulty, the bellies of the horses : some seized the prince was brought to adopt his advice: riders by their clothes, dragged them and the insurgents immediately began down, and stabbed them with their to retrace their steps towards the north. dirks; several of them again used pistols; On reaching Kendal, Lord George, but few of them had sufficient space to with a detachment of horse, personally handle their swords.” reconnoitred the position of Marshal With the victory of Falkirk termiWade, who was encamped in the neigh- nated the successes of the insurgents; bourhood. On his return, he said to who were soon afterwards compelled, by Charles Edward, who had often re the near approach of the Duke of Cumproached him, for avoiding the enemy, berland, to retreat into the Highlands. " As your royal highness is always for At Inverness, where the prince evenbattles, be the circumstances what they tually fixed his head-quarters, Lord may, I now offer you one, in three George was informed that a party of hours from this time, with the army of the king's troops had, by the command Marshal Wade, which is only about two of their vindictive and blood-thirsty miles distant from us." The prince general, committed the most wanton made no reply: and the rebels con barbarities on the families of his own tinued their retreat; during the whole immediate followers. “ As all the male of which, Lord George, as it appears, vassals of the Duke of Athol were with cheerfully undertook the command of us," says Johnstone, “the Duke of the rear, a post of extraordinary dif- Cumberland sent a detachment of his ficulty and danger. In consequence troops into their country, who comof the badness of the roads, and the mitted the most savage cruelties: burnslow progress made by the artillery, he | ing the houses, turning out the women was frequently compelled to march for and children in the midst of winter, to several hours after dark, in order to perish on the mountains with cold and keep up with the main body of the hunger; after subjecting them to every insurgents. The Duke of Cumber- species of brutal and infamous treatland's advanced parties of horse re ment. These proceedings being known peatedly annoyed him; and, at length, at Inverness, Lord George set off inon the 29th of December, the whole stantly, with the clan of Athol, to take