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that “the calmness and composure of and she died as she had lived, beloved her death, were farther proofs and at- and lamented most by those who knew testations of the goodness of her life; her best."
ANNE, PRINCESS OF ORANGE.
The princess Anne, eldest daughter was attacked by indisposition, and the of George the Second, was born on the marriage was consequently deferred. 22nd of October, 1709. From her Many preparations had been made for childhood, she manifested a very im- the ceremony, and a boarded gallery, perious temper; and, as she grew up, through which the procession was io became remarkably proud and ambi- pass, darkening the windows of the old tious. One day, while yet very young, Duchess of Marlborough, she observed, on being reproved by the queen for “ That she wished the princess would wishing she had no brothers, that she take away her orange-chest." herself might succeed to the crown, she Early in March, 1734, the prince exclaimed, with energy, “I would die having recovered, visited various public to-morrow, to be queen to-day!" places, and on the 14th of that month,
In the year 1725, it is said that propo- was united to the princess royal. On sals for a marriage were made between this occasion, the prince is described, Louis the Fifteenth and this princess, by the writers of the day, as having by the Duke of Bourbon, Regent of been dressed in a cloth of gold suit ; France; who had then recently broken and the bride, in virgin robes of off the intended union of the young king silver tissue, having a train six yards with a Spanish princess. The offer was, long, which was supported by ten however, very properly declined : for dukes' and earls' daughters, all of had it been accepted, the princess must whom where attired in robes of silver have abjured the protestant faith, and tissue. At twelve o'clock, the royal the alliance would, decidedly, have irri- family, supped in public. About two, tated many of the warmest friends to the bride and bridegroom retired, and the house of Brunswick in this country. were afterwards seen by the nobility,
It was subsequently proposed, that sitting up in their bed-chamber, in rich the heir of the house of Orange should undresses. be her husband. On this occasion, The princess died of a quinsey, on George the Second, being perfectly the 11th of October, 1751, after an illaware of that prince's great deformity, ness of only three days. According to could not refrain from apprising her of Walpole, although he was an absolute the hideous ugliness of her intended monster, his consort had been immobridegroom, and offered her permission derately jealous and fond of him. At to refuse his proposals. She replied his decease, she became gouvernante that she would marry him if he were to her son: she received her father's a baboon. “Well, then,” said her fa- letters of condolence and advice on the ther, " there is baboon enough for you.” occasion, in the most haughty and in
The prince's offer having been ac- sulting manner; nor did any part of cepted, about May, 1733, after much her subsequent conduct evince either debate, £80,000 was voted by parlia- good sense or political wisdom. ment, as a marriage portion for the On the death of Queen Caroline, princess; but in a mode which was hoping to succeed to her majesty's influthought very disrespectful, that sum ence, the princess came from Holland, being granted as one of the items in a on pretence of ill health ; but the king, general bill of supply, a clause of which, being aware of her plan, sent her to gave £10,000 to the distressed persons | Bath as soon as she arrived, and peemigrating to Georgia. The prince remptorily ordered her back to Holarrived in the early part of November, land, without suffering her to pass two at Somerset-house; where, however, he nights in the metropolis.
Her death took place on the 12th of before her final struggle, she caused to January, 1759. During her last mo- be laid before her, and signed, a conments, the aggrandisement of her family tract for her daughter's marriage with still occupied her thoughts, and she the Prince of Nassau Walberg, and a died the same ambitious and imperious | letter to the states general, entreating creature that she had lived. Shortly their consent to the match.
PRINCESS AMELIA SOPHIA.
AMELIA SOPHIA ELEONORA, resentment, and insolent, although she the second daughter of George the Se- had lost her beauty and acquired no cond, was born on the 30th of May, 1711. power; but an excellent mistress to her Although highly accomplished, she servants, steady to her favourites, and passed her life in celibacy, but, appar- nobly generous and charitable. ently, not without attachments. The Her manners and dress were exDukes of Grafton and Newcastle, it was ceedingly masculine. It was her cusbelieved, paid her great attention; and, tom to pass much time in her stables, according to Walpole, the wooings of particularly when any of the horses the former were so far from being dis- were ill. She wore a round hat, and a agreeable, that the princess and the riding habit in the German fashion ; duke hunted two or three times a week and if any credit may be attached to the together; and on one occasion staid out following anecdote, her appearance, at unusually late, lost their attendants, one period of her life, must have been exand went together to a private house in traordinary for a person of her sex and Windsor Forest, to the great indignation rank :-George the Fourth, when Prince of the queen, who, had she not been of Wales, in order to illustrate an obser. prevented by Sir Robert Walpole, vation which he had made, that men would have made the king acquainted frequently obtain credit for good deeds with the circumstance.
which they had never even thought of No event of her life excited more in- performing, stated, that one day he was terest than the dispute in which she accompanied, in a drive to Bagshot, by involved herself by shutting Richmond Lord Clermont; who, as it was rather Park, of which she was ranger. An cold, wore a white great coat and a kind action was brought against her by the of Aannel hood, to protect his ears and inhabitants of the neighbourhood on neck; and that, thus arrayed, several this occasion, but the princess was par- persons on the road, mistaking his tially 'successful on the trial of the lordship for the Princess Amelia, ex
Proceedings having been re- claimed, “What a good young man the newed, the princess, by advice of the prince is, thus to be the companion of attorney-general, allowed ladders over his father's deaf old aunt, during her the walls. The people of Richmond morning drives!" It appears that she were not, however, satisfied with this was extremely short-sighted, as well as concession, but persisted in their suit, very deaf; but her conception was so and, at length, succeeded in establishing quick, that she appeared to see and hear their right to gates for passengers. On even better than other people. this, the princess, whose conduct had She rose early, and either stood or been very unconciliating throughout walked about the room while drinking the affair, indignantly abandoned the her coffee or chocolate. Of cards she rangership
was passionately fond, and took an imShe is described by Walpole as having mense quantity of snuff. One evening, been meanly inquisitive into what did a general officer, in the public rooms at not relate to her, and foolishly commu- Bath, perceiving her box lying open on nicative of what was below her to know; | the table at which she sat, presumed to impertinent even where she had no help himself out of it. The princess,
who observed him, instantly signified the remaining contents of the box into her displeasure at his audacity, by the fire. commanding her attendant to throw She died on the 31st of October, 1786.
PRINCESS ELIZABETH CAROLINE.
tomed to say,
This princess, the third daughter of death ; which she appears to have deGeorge the Second, is described as hav- sired, rather than dreaded : for, when ing been one of the most excellent of urged to comply with some request to women: her parents, to whom she was which she was exceedingly averse, she devotedly attached, are said to have said, " I would not do it to die;" and placed such confidence in her veracity, when her last illness ended in a morthat, on any disagreement occurring tification, she exclaimed, " I was afraid among their children, they were accus- I should not have died of this !” For
“ Send for Caroline, and many years she occupied two chambers then we shall know the truth.” Pose | in St. James's palace, which were so sessed, as she was, of high rank, emi- situate, that she could not see any nent virtue, beauty of person, and at- external objects; and very few persons, tractive manners, this princess enjoyed except her own relatives, were perbut a very small portion of worldly mitted to visit her. She was exceedhappiness.
ingly generous and charitable; but, at Lord Hervey, whom Pope severely the same time, so unostentatious, that ridiculed under the appellations of many of the objects of her bounty, “ Sporus," and " Lord Fanny,” suc- among whom were the wretched in ceeded in making a deep impression mates of the metropolitan gaols, did on her heart, apparently for the pur- not know who was their benefactress, pose of forwarding his political views, until the sudden cessation of their supor gratifying his vanity. On the death plies, on the death of the princess, disof that nobleman, to whose children covered the source from which they the princess behaved with great kind- had flowed. She died, after a very ness and generosity, she retired from protracted illness, on the 28th of the world, and prepared herself for | December, 1787.
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, DUKE OF CUMBERLAND. THIS prince, third son of George the Scriptures ?”—“ That part where it is Second and Queen Caroline, was born written, · Woman! what hast thou to on the 15th of April, 1721. The little do with me?"" He was educated in we know of his childhood, is sufficient the same manner as the heir-apparent; to prove that he began, at an early over whom, however, he manifested a age, to manifest considerable decision great superiority, as well in mind as of character. He was a favourite with manners. He had scarcely been emanhis grandfather, George the First, at cipated from the nursery, when his exwhose imperfect English, however, he traordinary predilection for a military frequently laughed, and whose blunders life became apparent: at a somewhat he delighted to ridicule. Having dis- later period, although still in his boypleased his mother one day, she sent hood," he assumed a princely gravity him up to his chamber; and when he of deportment; and listened, with deappeared again, she asked him what liberate attention, to the discussions of he had been doing. “ Reading," re- the senate and the council-chamber. plied the boy.—" Reading what ?". While yet very young, he was created * The Scriptures."—" What part of the Duke of Cumberland; and, in 1743, he made his first campaign, with George defeated Sir John Cope ; and, flushed the Second, in Germany. He received with success, had penetrated far into a severe wound at Dettingen, where the south of England, when the Duke he behaved with great gallantry. of Cumberland assumed the command
In 1745, though scarcely twenty-four of the forces destined to oppose him. years old, and utterly deficient in ex- By a well-concerted manœuvre, the perience, he was imprudently placed at rebels, while the duke's advanced guard the head of a great army. Early in was posted at Newcastle-under-line, that year, Marshal Saxe, accompanied caused him, says Chambers, to remain by the King of France and the Dauphin, where he was, under an idea that they having invested Tournay with an im- were about to meet him, and, thus got mense body of forces, the allies, com- past him, on the road to London, so far manded by the Duke of Cumberland, as Derby; which, however, they speedily assisted by Konigseg and Waldeck, evacuated ; and, followed by the duke, at though far inferior in number to the the head of his dragoons, and a thousand enemy, determined to make an effort mounted foot, commenced their retreat for the relief of the place. On the 11th towards Scotland. In the neighbourof May they accordingly commenced hood of Penrith, the rear-guard was a resolute attack on the besiegers, who overtaken by the royal troops, and a were encamped under cover of the skirmish ensued, in which the latter village of Fontenoy. The enterprise were repulsed, with considerable loss. was deemed a singular instance of mi- Carlisle, which had been garrisoned by litary rashness. Such, however, was the young Chevalier, soon afterward's the 'intrepidity of the English and surrendered ; and the duke, deeming Hanoverian infantry, that the French, his presence in the north no longer being driven beyond their lines, were necessary, resigned his command to in imminent danger of a defeat; but the Wade and Hawley, and on the 5th of Dutch forces, which formed a part of January, 1746, returned to London. the allied army, failing in an attempt In less than a fortnight after his deon Fontenoy, and the duke not making parture, the royal forces were routed by a judicious use of his first success, by the insurgents, at Falkirk; and, on the dividing the column of attack after he 30th of the same month, the duke set out had broken the enemy's centre, Saxe for Scotland, to resume the chief comwas enabled to bring up his reserve ; mand. After various movements of minor and the allies were enclosed, so to speak, importance, a general and decisive enwithin a circle of fire, from some re- gagement took place, at Culloden, on doubts which they had passed, masked the 16th of April. During the preceding batteries on their wings, and artillery night, the rebels had made an attempt which played upon them with fearful to surprise the royal camp; which, after execution in front. Thus situated, it a most harassing march, they were became less an object with them to compelled to abandon, and returned, contend for victory, than to effect a fatigued, disconsolate, and nearly halfretreat; and after the most heroic ex- famished, to their former position; where ertions, they succeeded in extricating the royal troops, who had set out in themselves from their terrific position, pursuit of them before day-break, arbut at a sacrifice of more than ten rived about one o'clock in the afternoon; thousand men. Although the loss of and Charles Edward, who might have the French was supposed to have been retired, with safety, to a more secure equally great, the defeat proved fatal to post, and there refreshed his men, rethe allies, on whom the campaign closed solved at once to hazard an engagein a manner exceedingly disastrous. ment. The Highlanders, on this oc.
The memory of the duke's misfor- casion, rushed to the charge with all the tunes abroad was speedily obliterated courage and impetuosity which they by his success against the rebels at had displayed at Preston. Pans and Falhome. Late in the summer, the young kirk; but, the shock of their attack was Pretender had landed in Scotland, steadily received, and the musquetry obtained possession of Edinburgh, and artillery of their antagonists did and proclaimed his father king of such prodigious execution among them, Great Britain ; at Preston-Pans, he had that they were very soon thrown into
visible disorder ; the cavalry of the thousand spatterdashes, in order to inroyal army then advanced upon their crease the comfort of the troops; for flank; and, in less than thirty minutes, whose benefit the judges contributed the battle was converted into a general £1200; and even the players, glowrout of the rebels, great numbers of ing with patriotism, performed gratuiwhom, in consequence of orders having tously. * The whole amount,' says been issued by the duke to give no the British Chronologist, “of three quarter, were slain in the pursuit. It nights acting the Beggar's Opera, prois even affirmed, that unnecessary and posed by Mrs. Cibber, who acted Polly wanton barbarities were committed on gratis, making £600, was paid by Mr. the persons and families of the Pre Rich into the Chamber of London, for tender's adherents, long after the cessa the encouragement of the soldiers. tion of resistance; and that the Duke Every comedian played gratis, and the of Cumberland sullied the glory of his tallow-chandlers gave the candles.” victory, by displaying a savage ferocity From the same source we learn that, against the vanquished. In extenuation on the 25th of July, when the duke arof his conduct, it has been suggested, rived at Kensington, from Scotland, “all that he probably conceived extreme the bells in London and Westminster severity to have been necessary for the rung, and in the evening were illumiimmediate termination of the rebellion ; | nations and bonfires, with continual and that those who, as it is said, he firing of guns for several hours, and all caused to be recklessly sacrificed on demonstrations of the greatest joy from this occasion, were not the troops of the people of all ranks." The duke soon a foreign state, with which the country afterwards obtained a more substantial was at war, but subjects who were, or reward for his exploits than mere popuvery recently had been, in arms against larity: the parliamentary allowance of their sovereign.
The means, whether £15,000 per annum, which had been just or unjust, which he adopted to granted to him in 1739, being raised to render his victory decisive, were cer £40,000 per annum, by acclamation. tainly successful, and Scotland returned The king appointed him ranger of to its allegiance; or, at least, the royal Windsor great park, and he was forces met with no further serious oppo elected chancellor of the university of sition. The young Pretender with
St. Andrews, the minutes of his election difficulty escaped to the continent, and being presented to him in a splendid several of his best friends were con
gold box. demned to the scaffold.
He continued for a long period to be In proportion to the alarm occasioned the popular idol, and was designated, by the young Pretender's appearance par excellence, as “the duke." In in the field, was the enthusiastic gra 1747, when the royal yacht, in which titude displayed by the people towards he was returning from Germany, was his conqueror; whose courage and con- nearly lost in a storm, the sympathy of duct, when contrasted with the folly all classes rose to such an extraordinary and cowardice of Hawley and Cope, pitch, as if the national safety had his predecessors in command, raised him depended on him alone. In 1751 he at once in public estimation to the pin incurred some odium for his project of nacle of military fame. Six thousand improving the discipline of the army, pounds were collected in the metropolis, by the introduction of German severity and placed at the disposal of the duke, to the military code. Abundance of to be distributed in gratuities to the sol room for improvement, no doubt, exdiers who had fought at Culloden; and isted; but the means he adopted to prohis “elegant letter” to the lord mayor, duce it were the reverse of judicious. acknowledging the gift, was extolled as He became a Draco in legislation; and, a truly noble composition.
in his amended mutiny bill, the penalty A charitable meeting, at Guildhall, of death, says Walpole, came over as subscribed for twelve thousand pairs of often as the curses in the comminabreeches, twelve thousand woollen caps, tion on Ash-Wednesday. Such a systen thousand pairs of worsted stockings, tem was likely neither to be popuone thousand blankets, twelve thou- lar nor efficient in this country; and, sand pairs of woollen gloves, and nine accordingly, while it tended materially