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OUTLINE OF CONTENTS
STITUTION AND GOVERNMENT......
CHAPTER I-Introductory and summary..
CHAPTER II-STANDARDS FOR THE APPRAISEMENT OF THE PRESENT CON-
Government established for the governed..
Requirements of a representative system..
Expedients adopted to make private management "responsive" and
Relations of the board of "representatives to administration..
Means for keeping "representatives" and "members" informed...
An independent auditor.....
The right of interpellation and personal inquiry...
Access of "representatives" and "members" to records.
Provisions for publicity and discussion..
Positive provision for making management effective..
Adoption of means of obtaining and retaining a faithful and efficient
Prompt retirement of officers who do not represent a majority....
Absence of "irresponsible boss" in the administration of private
Responsibility for leadership.
Definition of the electorate.
Composition in England after magna charta..
Who constituted electorate in 1777.....
Subsequent enlargement of electorate..
Controversy over present provisions.
Public charges not disfranchised..
The question of woman suffrage..
Conditions governing effectiveness of electorate...
Necessity for development of a procedure.
The whole subject left to private initiative.
Conditions under which private management becomes irresponsible...
Expedients adopted to make control over public business effective....
Similar to those employed in private undertakings..
Responsiveness and responsibility of executive.....
The mechanism of popular control...
CHAPTER III-THE ELECTORATE
Initially, electorate a small fraction of the citizenship.
Provision for the definition and discussion of political issues..
The party platform as an attempt to define issues.
Method not adapted to responsible government.
Provisions safeguarding the exercise of the franchise..
Successful development of safeguards in the United States..
CHAPTER IV-THE OFFICIAL PERSONNEL.
Provisions of law governing the qualifications, methods of selection,
tenure, compensation, and welfare of persons employed in the public
Subdivisions of subject.
Importance of separate consideration...
Methods of selecting public agents-election or appointment..
Election of members of the legislature and the governor.
Election of other officers.....
Assuming Electorate" adapted to choosing, not consistent with
Limitations of electorate..
Requirements of administration..
Appointment of subordinates an essential of executive responsibility
Key to Chart I..
Present legal provisions governing..
Constitutional provisions determining qualifications and fitness.
Methods of appointment...
Purpose-to prevent responsible leadership..
Requirements of elective officers fortuitous.....
Requirements of appointed officers and employees inadequate.
Key to Chart II.
Prescription of merit system defective...
Limited to "Examinations" as a test for promotion...
Gives soldiers and sailors preference without regard to standing.
Makes for official irresponsibility..
Methods of removal
Not consistent with provisions governing appointments.
Provisions relative to the tenure of public agents...
Chart III. . . . . .
Key to Chart III.
Longer tenure and provision for reference of issues to electorate..
Present tenures not consistent with requirements of responsive, re-
Lack of business-like basis for fixing of compensation and work re-
Conditions of public employment-Continued
Summary of principal defects in employment conditions..
Summary of related defects...
Causes for present conditions..
Steps taken to improve present conditions; the senate committee on
CHAPTER V-THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT AND THE POWERS, DUTIES AND
LIMITATIONS OF OFFICERS....
Need for preconception of structural plan..
Common structural essential of a representative system.
Types of organization for administration..
The committee or commission type.....
Revolutionary expedients-English and American..
American committees of safety...
The failure of committee systems.
The commission form of government..
Administration under a responsible chief executive.
Distinguishing characteristics of type.....
All responsible, but differing degrees of success in development of
An independently organized administration without leadership......
The mechanism for making management responsible recent in its de-
The English rule limiting the cabinet personnel to responsible officers
not adopted till 1801 ...
A single responsible head not recognized in England till after the
The mechanism for carrying issues before the electorate not per-
fected until after 1832
Means for making control through representatives effective, not
generally adopted in Europe till after 1848.....
The isolated development of the American type of representative
All real gains in American government have been in the direction of
the second type
The fundamental question for the convention..
CHAPTER VI-ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE OF THE Legislature..
Indictments of the present organization and procedure of the legislature
The organization and procedure have worked badly.
Experience in other governments similarly organized..
Not adapted to the work to be done...
The bicameral organization originally founded on class interests..
Number of members of the legislature not determined by standards
of responsiveness and efficiency.
The relation of members to constituencies..
The relation of members to committee work and debate..
Legislature not complementary to other working parts...
Rules governing legislature in session out of harmony with purpose.
Rules governing not adapted to enforcing responsibility...
Legislature in conflict with authority and jurisdiction of the executive..
Standing committees not adapted to the proper consideration of measures
either of legislation or administration..
Legislative staff agencies
CHAPTER VII-CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS DEFINING THE RELATIONS OF
LEGISLATURE AND EXECUTIVE.
Responsibility for use of executive power implies leadership...
Need for executive leadership understood at time of first constitution....
Two important ways in which governor is recognized as leader..
His duty to recommend measures...
His power to call representatives together in extra session..
Lacking in means for making leadership effective.....
Right to introduce and defend measures necessary to effective leader-
Argument opposed to the principle not well founded..
Executive leadership essential to preservation of separation of powers.
Executive leadership essential to safe use of veto power..
An alternative to invisible government.....
No provision for leadership in matters of economy.
Executive veto to items in money measures only a palliative..
Uncertainty of operation of negative power....
Positive requirements under present system ineffective..
Constitutional requirement of executive to frame, submit and defend
Constitution lacking in means for enforcing executive responsibility.
No provision for making the “opposition” effective..........
No provision for the prompt retirement of officers who are not supported
by a majority....
No power of executive dissolution....
Historic reasons for failure to adopt constitutional plan that provides for
responsive and responsible government....
Provision made to prevent a misuse of the powers of government..
Use of the governor as a negative force against the legislature..
The use of the courts as a negative force..
New York practice a perversion of the principle of representative gov-
Defects of the constitution and statute law providing for current review
and approval of financial transactions..