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his charge by his lawful sovereign, unless we the country through which he was to pass.

But except the vain desire of imitating Achilles. it was too late. With his usual rapidity, Alex

There is yet another light in which this action ander had reached and passed that rapid river, in must be viewed. It must be remembered that it about twenty-three hours' travelling, according to was not the act of a half-civilized savage, (for Hadgy Khalifa, above Mousul, and twenty-four the heroes of Homer were no better ;) it was miles below the ridge of Zaco. At this season, committed by a civilized prince, one who was the Tigris was at its lowest ebb. brought up at the feet of Aristotle, the greatest Alexander encamped two days on the banks of philosopher of his day, and who was himself re- the Tigris. On the evening of the second day, nowned for his learning and philosophy. And Sept. 20, there was a remarkable lunar eclipse, yet no action of those barbarous sovereigns, which gave Alexander and his army great unthe Persian kings, could exceed this in refined easiness. The soldiers exclaimed that Heaven cruelty. Alas! civilization without Christianity displayed the marks of its anger; and that they is but another term for barbarism. It is only by were dragged, against the will of the gods, to the the hallowed doctrines of the gospel that man extremities of the earth; that rivers opposed can learn humanity. Already, Christianity has their passage ; that the stars refused to lend their mitigated the feelings of ambition and revenge, usual light, and that they could see nothing but whence so many woes have arisen to the human deserts and solitudes before them. They were up

This is a noble achievement. Hereafter, on the point of an insurrection, when Alexander mankind will be taught by its hallowed doctrines summoned the officers of his army into his tent, and to look upon a hero in his true light, as a de- commanded the Egyptian soothsayers to declare stroyer of his species; hereafter, under its benign what they thought of this phenomenon. These influence, they will weep over the recital of deeds men were well acquainted with the nature and of blood, and mourn over the slaughter of their causes of eclipses ; but without explaining these, species ; hereafter they shall universally “ pass they contented themselves with stating, that the by securely as men averse from war," serving sun ruled in Greece, and the moon in Persia ; under the banner of the Prince of Peace.

whence, as often as the moon suffered an eclipse, As soon as Alexander had ended the siege of some calamity was portended to the country. Gaza, B.C. 332, he left a garrison there, and This answer satisfied the superstitious multitude, turned the whole power of his arms towards and their hopes and courage revived. Egypt, of which country he possessed himself Taking advantage of the ardour of his army, without a single conflict, as related in the History Alexander recommenced his march after midof the Egyptians, to which the reader is referred night. On his right hand lay the Tigris, and on for the details.

his left the mountains called Cordyæi.* At dayHaving settled the affairs of Egypt, Alexander break he received intelligence that the army of set out from thence in the spring of the year, Darius was near ; but it proved only to be the B.C. 331, to march into the east against Darius. detachment sent to prevent his passage across the He first halted at Tyre, where he appointed the Tigris. These retired before him, and rejoined general rendezvous of all his forces. From the army of Darius. thence he marched to the Euphrates, which he About this time, Alexander intercepted some crossed, according to Rennel, at Racca, or Nice- letters written by Darius to the Greeks, soliciting phorium, and continued his march towards the them, with great promises, either to kill or beTigris.

During the absence of Alexander in Egypt, Word was brought to him about the same time some Samaritans, perhaps enraged that they had that Statira, the wife of Darius, was dead. He not obtained the same privileges as the Jews, set caused the funeral obsequies of the deceased fire to the house of Andromachus, whom he had princess to be performed with the utmost magappointed their governor, and he perished in the nificence, and comforted the other royal prisoners flames. The other Samaritans delivered up the with great tenderness. Darius was informed of culprits to Alexander on his return; but the con- this, and being assured of the respect paid to her queror was so enraged, that, not satisfied with by the conqueror in her lifetime, he is said to their punishment, he removed the Samaritans have prayed to the gods, that if the time ordained from their city, and transferred thither a Mace- for the transferring of the Persian empire into donian colony. This event precluded the recon- other hands was arrived, none might sit on the sideration of their previous claim, respecting the throne of Cyrus but Alexander. Overcome by sabbatic year; and thus excluded from Samaria, the tenderness and humanity which Alexander the Samaritans thenceforth made Shechem their had shown his wife, mother, and children, Darius metropolis.

dispatched ten of his relations as ambassadors, In the mean time, Darius, finding that there offering him new conditions of peace, more advanwere no hopes of an accommodation unless he tageous than the former; offering him, indeed, resigned the whole empire, applied himself to all that he had conquered, and returning him make preparations for another engagement. For thanks for his kindness to his royal captives. this purpose, he assembled a very considerable Alexander returned the following haughty anarmy in Babylon, with which he took the field, and

“ Tell your sovereign, that thanks, bemarched towards Nineveh. Advice being brought tween persons who make war against each other, him that the enemy was advancing, he detached Satropates, commander of the cavalry, at the * This proves that Alexander passed the Tigris above head of 1000 chosen horse, and Mazæus, gover

Mousul. From the defile of Zaco to that place the counnor of that province, with 6000, to prevent right hand, and the range of the Zagros at a distance on

tray him.


try is for the most part a plain, having the Tigris on the Alexander from crossing the Tigris, and to waste

the left.

are superfluous; and that in case I have behaved | fully confident of obtaining the empire of the east with clemency towards his family, it was for my on the morrow, and that he should reign without own sake, and not for his; to gratify my own in- a rival. clination, and not to please him. To insult the The morrow came, and both sides prepared unhappy is a thing to me unknown. I do not for battle. Both armies were drawn up in the attack either prisoners or women, and turn my same order, the infantry in the centre, and the rage only against such as are armed for the fight. cavalry on the wings. The front of the Persian If Darius were sincere in his demand for peace, army was covered with two hundred chariots, I then would debate on what was to be done ; armed with scythes, and twenty-five elephants. but since he still continues, by letters and by Besides his guards, which were the flower of money, to spirit up my soldiers to betray me, and his army, Darius had posted the Grecian infantry my friends to murder me, I therefore am deter- near his person, believing this body alone capamined to pursue him with the utmost vigour ; and ble of opposing the Macedonian phalanx. As that not as an enemy, but an assassin. It indeed his army spread over a larger space of ground becomes him to offer to yield up to me what I than that of the enemy, he intended to surround, already possess ! Would he be satisfied with and to charge them at the same time, both in ranking second to me, without pretending to be front and flank. Alexander anticipated this, and my equal, I might possibly then hear him. Tell gave directions accordingly. He had posted, in him that the world will not permit two suns nor the front of his first line, the greatest part of his two sovereigns. Let him therefore either choose bowmen, slingers, and javelin men, in order that to surrender to-day, or meet me to-morrow; and they might counteract the effect of the chariots, not to flatter himself with the hopes of better suc- by discharging their missiles at the horses, to cess than he has had hitherto.”

frighten them. Those who led the wings were By this the reader will perceive that Alexander ordered to extend them as widely as possible, had become intoxicated with his success. Oh, but in such a manner as not to weaken the main how hard it is to bear prosperity with a proper body. Parmenio commanded the left wing, and frame of mind! Truly has it been said, that when Alexander the right. The two armies soon the channels of plenty run high, and every appe- joined issue. The chariots failed in the effect tite is plied with abundance and variety, so that intended, and the Persian cavalry in the left satisfaction is but a mean word to express its wing were repulsed, upon which Darius set his enjoyment, then the inbred corruption of the whole army in motion, in order to overwhelm human heart shows itself pampered and insolent, the Macedonians. Upon seeing this, Alexander too unruly for discipline, and too big for correc- employed a stratagem to encourage his soldiers. tion.

When the strife was at the height, and fury perThe ambassadors of Darius returned, and in- vaded every breast, Aristander, the soothsayer, formed him that he must now prepare for battle. clothed in his white robes, and holding a branch Accordingly, he pitched his camp near a village of laurel in his hand, advanced among the called Gaugamela,* and the river Bumellus, the troops, crying that he saw an eagle (a sure modern Hazir Su, in a plain at a considerable omen of victory) hovering over the head of distance from Arbela, where he had before level- Alexander, to which pretended bird he pointed led the ground, that his cavalry and chariots with his finger. The soldiers relying upon his might move and act with more ease. At the word, and imagining that they also saw the same time he had prepared caltrops † to annoy eagle, renewed the attack with greater resoluthe enemy's borse.

tion than ever. The battle was obstinate and Alexander hearing that Darius was so near, bloody ; but the Macedonians prevailed. Alexcontinued four days in his camp to rest the army. ander having wounded the equerry of Darius During this time, he was engaged in surrounding with a javelin, the Persians, as well as the it with deep trenches and palisades, being deter- Macedonians, imagined that the king was mined to leave bis baggage there, and such of killed ; upon which the former were seized with his troops as were unable to join in the conflict. the greatest consternation. The relations of On the fifth morning, he set out about the second Darius, who were at his left hand, fled away watch, designing to engage the enemy at break with the guards ; but those who were at his right of day. Arriving at some mountains from whence surrounded him, in order to rescue him from he could descry the enemy's army, he halted ; death. Historians relate, that he drew his scimiand having assembled his officers, he debated tar, and reflected whether he ought not to lay whether he should attack them immediately, or violent hands upon himself, rather than flee in an encamp in that place. The latter opinion being ignominious manner ; but the love of life preadopted, he encamped there in the same order in vailed, and he fled to Arbela, where he arrived which the army had marched, and, after having the same night. consulted with his soothsayer, as was his usual

After Darius had passed the Lycus, some of wont on the eve of a battle, he retired to repose, his attendants advised him to break down the

bridge, in order to stop the pursuit of the enemy; * The camp of Darius was about ten miles to the but he, reflecting how many of his own men north of the Lycus or Zab. According to Niebuhr and were hastening to pass over, generously replied, Rennel, the ancient Gaugamela is to be recognized in the

that he had rather leave an open road to a purmodern village of Kamalis. The ground around here offers little or no impediment to the evolutions and move- suing enemy, than close it to a fleeing friend. ments of the largest armies.

When he reached Arbela, he informed those who + These were instruments composed of spikes, several

had escaped with him, that he designed to leave of which were anciently laid in the field through which the cavalry was to march, in order that they might pierce all for the present to Alexander, and flee into the feet of the horses.

Media, from whence, and from the rest of the northern provinces, he could draw together new | during which time the people abandoned themforces, to try once more his fortune in battle. selves to pleasures of the grossest nature, Alex

Historians differ as to the number of the Per- ander marched towards Susa, passing through sians slain on this fatal day. Curtius says 40,000; the fertile province of Sitacene. He arrived at Arrian, 30,000; and Diodorus, 90,000. The Susa in twenty days. As he approached the first of these authorities states that the Mace- city, Abulites, governor of the place, sent his donians lost only 300 men, while Arrian does son to meet him, with a promise to surrender not allow a third of that number ; but this can- the city into his hands, with all the treasures of not be true : if the battle was so obstinate, and Darius. The young nobleman conducted Alexthe Persian army so numerous as they make it, ander to the river Choaspes, where Abulites (600,000, 700,000, or 800,000 men,) they could himself met him, and performed his promise. not have bought the empire thus cheaply. There The treasures of Susa were added to the coffers is, doubtless, on the one side exaggeration, and of Alexander. Surely he was a mighty robber! on the other extenuation, with reference to the He found in this place the brazen statues of numbers stated. The battle was fought on the Harmodius and Aristogiton, which Xerxes had first of October, B.C. 331.

brought out of Greece, and Alexander now reAlexander, after offering magnificent sacrifices stored them to Athens. to the gods, for the victory, and rewarding those Leaving a strong garrison in the city of Susa, who had signalized themselves in the battle, pur- Alexander, after having appointed Archelaus sued Darius as far as Arbela; but before his ar- governor of the city, Mezarus, governor of the rival there, the fallen monarch had fled over the citadel, and Abulites, governor of the promountains of Armenia, attended by some of his vince of Susiana, marched into Persis. Having relatives, and a small body of guards called crossed the river Pasi Tigris (the modern Jerahi) Melophori, because each of them wore a golden he entered the country of the Uxii. This proapple on the top of his spear. In Armenia, he vince extends from Susiana to the frontiers of was joined by 2000 Greek mercenaries who Persis, and it was governed by Madetes, who had escaped the slaughter.

was not a follower of fortune. Faithful to his Alexander took the city of Arbela, where he sovereign, he resolved to hold out to the last seized on immense sums of money, with all the extremity; for which purpose he retired into a rich furniture and equipage of Darius, and then stronghold, in the midst of craggy mountains, returned to his camp.

and surrounded by steep precipices. Having The conqueror rested but a few days. Some been chased from thence, he retired into the cities yet remained untaken, and some pro- citadel, whence the besieged sent thirty deputies vinces unsubdued, and he was uneasy till they to Alexander, to sue for quarter. Alexander were in his possession. He first proceeded to would not at first listen to the petition; but reBabylon. Mazæus was governor of that city ceiving letters from Sisigambis, whom he had and province, and he had, after the late battle, left at Susa, and to whom Madetes was related, retired thither, with the remains of the body he he not only pardoned him, but restored him to commanded. He was almost powerless ; upon his former dignity, set all the prisoners free, left

Alexander's arrival, therefore, he delivered the the city untouched, and the citizens in the full city, himself, and his children, into the conquer- enjoyment of their ancient liberty and privileges. or's hands. His example was followed by Having subdued the Uxii, Alexander ordered Bagaphanes, governor of the fortress, wherein all Parmenio to march with part of his army the treasures of Darius were deposited ; and through the plain, while he himself, at the head Alexander entered the city at the head of his of his light armed troops, crossed the mountains, whole army, as though he had been marching which extend as far as Persia. On the fifth day, against the enemy, and received the riches of he arrived at the pass of Susa. Ariobarzanes, Babylon.

with 4000 foot, and 700 horse, had possessed During his stay in Babylon, Alexander held himself of this pass, and he had so posted his many conferences with the magi, and acting little band, that they were out of the reach of upon their advice, he gave directions for

As soon as Alexander advanced in rebuilding the temples which Xerxes had de- order to attack them, they rolled from the top of molished; and, among others, that of Belus. the mountains stones of a prodigious size, which, He frequently conversed, also, with the Chal- rebounding from rock to rock, smote down deans, who were famous for their knowledge in whole ranks. The conqueror was astounded, astronomy, and who presented him with astro- and gave orders for a retreat. He withdrew nomical observations, taken by their predeces- about thirty furlongs, where he lay encamped sors during the space of 1903 years, which were some time, afraid to proceed, and ashamed to resent by Callisthenes, who accompanied Alex- turn. His pride was about to be humbled, and ander, to Aristotle. Before he departed, he gave his career of victory checked, when a Greek dethe government of the province to Mazæus, and serter coming to his camp, offered to conduct the command of the forces he left there to Apol- him through by-paths to the top of the mounlodorus of Amphipolis.

tains, whence he might compel the Persians to About this time, Alexander received recruits retreat. Accordingly, Alexander, at the head of to the number of 2000 horse, and 13,500 foot, some chosen troops, having followed his guide under the command of Amyntas. These he in- by night over rocks and precipices, arrived a corporated into his veteran army ; himself being little before day-break, at the top of a mountain present at the reviews as often as they were which commanded all the hills where the enemy exercised.

was posted. A charge was made, and they fled; After a stay of about thirty days in Babylon, / and Craterus, who had been left in the camp be


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low, advancing with the troops, possessed him- crushed under the ruins of an empire already self of the pass. Ariobarzanes, with part of the shaken to its foundation; while at the same cavalry, breaking through the Macedonians, (by time Bactriana was open to them, and offered which act many were slaughtered on both sides,) | them immense riches. These intrigues were made his escape over the mountains, designing carried on with great secrecy; but, nevertheless, to throw himself into Persepolis; but he was they came to the ears of Darius, and he would not chased back again by the enemy below, and he, believe them. In vain did Patron, who comwith most of his valiant band, perished on the manded the Greeks, entreat him to pitch his mountains.

tent among them, and to trust the guard of his Alexander now pursued his march into Persis, person with men on whose fidelity he might deor Persia. When he was at some distance from pend. He replied, that it would be a less afflicPersepolis, the metropolis of that province, he tion to him to be deceived by, than to condemn received letters from Tiridates, governor of that the Persians; that he would suffer the worst of city, urging his speedy arrival, lest the inhabit- evils amidst those of his own nation, rather than ants of the city should seize the treasures of seek for security among strangers, how faithful Darius, to which act they were inclined. Alex- and affectionate soever he might believe them; ander, upon this news, left his infantry behind, and that he could not die too soon, if the Permarched the whole night at the head of his ca- sian soldiers considered him unworthy of life. valry, and passing the Araxes by a bridge he Darius was soon undeceived ; the traitors seized had previously ordered to be made, came to Per- him, bound him in chains of gold, by way of sepolis.

honour, and putting him in a covered chariot, Diodorus tells us, that Alexander, having as- they marched towards Bactriana. sembled his troops, made a speech, wherein he In the mean time, Alexander advanced rapidly charged this city with having caused innumer- towards Media. He reached that province in able mischiefs to Greece, with implacable hatred twelve days, moving nearly forty miles each day. towards her, and with growing rich by her In three days more, he reached Ecbatana, where spoils. To avenge these injuries, he gave it up he was informed that Darius had retired from to them, to do with the inhabitants and their thence five days before, with intent to pass into estates whatever they thought proper. The li- the remotest provinces of his empire. He then censed soldiery rushed into the place, and put to commanded Parmenio to lay up all the treasures the sword, without mercy, all they could find. of Persia (which, according to Strabo and JusThe cruelties they committed were revolting to tin, amounted to about 30,000,000l. sterling, exhuman nature: they show to what a dreadful clusive of the rich gifts Alexander had muniextent the demoniacal spirit of revenge will ficently given at various periods to his followers) carry a man when left to himself, or when li- in the castle of Ecbatana, under a strong guard, censed by a superior.

which he left there. Alexander, with the rest After this cruel act, leaving Craterus and Par- of his army, pursued Darius, and arrived the menio in the place, Alexander proceeded with a eleventh day at Rhages, which is about a day's small body to reduce the neighbouring cities and journey from the Caspian Straits. He was instrongholds, which submitted at the approach of formed that Darius had passed those straits some his troops. He returned to Persepolis, and there time before, which information leaving him took up his winter quarters. It was during this again without hopes of overtaking his prey, he stay that he destroyed the palace, as related in halted for five days, during which time he settled the account of “ Persepolis ;” an act worthy of a the affairs of Media. Goth. The season was spent in feasting and From Rhages, Alexander marched into Parrevelling, regardless of the havoc he had made thia, and encamped the first day at a small disamong his species, and of the devastation of the tance from the Caspian Straits. He passed those countries over which his ambitious feet had passed. straits the next day, and he had scarcely entered

The spring found Alexander again on his Parthia, when he was informed of the conspiracy march in quest of Darius. That unhappy prince against Darius. had still an army of 30,000 foot, among whom This was a fresh motive for Alexander to were 4000 Greeks who continued faithful to his hasten his march. At length he overtook them; cause. Besides these, he had 4000 slingers, and and the barbarians, on his arrival, were seized upwards of 3000 cavalry, most of them Bactrians, with consternation. The name and reputation of commanded by Bessus, governor of the province Alexander, a motive all powerful in war, filled of Bactriana. All these declared that they them with such terror, that they universally bewere ready to follow him whithersoever he took themselves to flight, notwithstanding their should go, and would shed the last drop of blood number exceeded that of the pursuer. Bessus in his defence. But there were traitors in the and his accomplices requested Darius to mount camp. Nabarzanes, one of the greatest lords of his horse, and flee from the enemy; but he rePersia, and general of the horse, conspired with plied that the gods were ready to avenge the Bessus to seize upon the person of the king, and evils he had suffered, and invoking Alexander put him in chains. Their design was, if Alex- to do him justice, he refused to follow them. At ander should pursue them, to secure themselves these words, full of rage, they discharged their by giving up Darius alive into his hands; and, darts at the unhappy monarch, and left him in the event of their escape from the conqueror, wounded to the mercy of the Macedonians. This to murder Darius, usurp his crown, and begin a done, they separated, Bessus fleeing towards new war. The traitors soon won over the troops Hyrcania, and Nabarzanes into Bactria, hoping by representing to them that they were going to thereby to elude the pursuit of the enemy, or certain destruction; that they would soon be oblige bim to divide his forces. Their hosts





dispersed themselves up and down, as fear or first Cyrus, under thirteen kings, from B.C. 536 hope directed their steps, and many thousands to B.C. 331 ; dating from the time of the annexawere slain.

tion of the Babylonian empire to that of the In the mean time, the horses that drew the Medes and Persians. But the dissolution of the cart in which the once mighty Darius was seated, empire was not owing to the maladministration halted, for the drivers had been killed by Bessus, of Darius Codomannus ; it sprung from causes near a village about half a mile from the high- over which he had little or no control. The way. Polystratus, a Macedonian, being pressed seeds of its ruin had been sown in its very origin with thirst in the pursuit of the enemy, was soon and primitive institution. It had been formed after conducted by the inhabitants to refresh by the union of two nations, of different manhimself at an adjacent fountain. As he was fill- ners and inclinations. The Persians were a ing his helmet with water, he heard the groans sober, laborious, modest people; the Medes were of a dying man, and looking round, discovered devoted to pomp, luxury, softness, and voluptua cart, in which, on drawing near, he found the ousness. The example of frugality and simplicity unhappy monarch. The hunters had long pur- which the truly great Cyrus had set them, and sued him, and they found him at length in the their being obliged to be always under arms to agonies of death. He had yet strength suffi- gain so many victories, and support themselves cient to call for a little water, which, when he in the midst of so many enemies, prevented had taken, he turned to the Macedonian, and, those vices from spreading for some time; but with a faint voice, said, that in the deplorable when their arms had prevailed, and all were state to which he was reduced, it was no small subdued before them, the fonduess which the consolation to him that his last words would not Medes had for pleasure and magnificence soon be lost. He, therefore, charged him to tell Alex- lessened the temperance of the Persians, and beander that he died in his debt, without having came the prevailing taste of the two nations. had the power of returning his obligations; that The conquest of Babylon added to the declenhe thanked him for the kindness he had shown sion. That “mother of harlots” intoxicated her to his mother, wife, and children; that he be-victors with her poisoned cup, and enchanted sought the gods to give victory to his arms, and them with her pleasures. She furnished them make him master of the universe; and that he with ministers and instruments adapted to prothought he need not entreat him to revenge the mote luxury, and to foment and cherish voluptraitorous death he suffered, as this was the com- tuousness with art and delicacy; and the wealth mon cause of kings. Then taking Polystratus of the richest provinces in the world being at by the hand, he added : “Give Alexander your the disposal of their sovereigns, they were enahand, as I give you mine; and carry him, in my bled to satiate their desires. Cyrus himself conname, the only pledge I am able to give, in this tributed to this, without foreseeing the consecondition, of my gratitude and affection.” Having quences. After his victories, he inspired his uttered these words, Darius expired in the arms subjects with an admiration for pomp and show, of Polystratus.

which, hitherto, they had been taught to deAlexander, it is said, coming up a few minutes spise as airy trifles. He suggested that magniafter, and beholding the dead body of the fallen ficence and riches should crown glorious exploits, monarch, burst into tears, and bewailed the cruel and be the end and fruit of them; thereby aulot of a prince, who, he observed, was worthy of thorizing them to indulge themselves in their a better end. Vain tears, and mock bewailings naturally corrupt inclinations. He spread the were these. He had pursued him through life, evil farther by compelling the various officers of the only season we have for showing real kind- | the empire to appear with splendour before the ness to our fellow-man, and now he weeps and multitude, the better to represent his own greatbewails over his lifeless and unregardless corse. The consequence of this was, that these They might have been, however, tears of joy ; officials mistook their ornaments and trappings for now he had gained the height of his ambition, for the essentials of their employments, while now he owned the empire of the east without a the wealthy proposed them as patterns for imitarival. Alas! what a miserable creature is man tion, and were soon followed by the different by nature! Tormented with the evil passions of grades of society. a corrupt nature, he fritters his life away in These acts undermined the ancient virtues of “ seeking rest, and finding none.”

the Persians. Scarcely was Cyrus dead, when After having wept over the body, (whether there arose up as it were another nation, and for joy or sorrow, who can say ?) Alexander monarchs of a different genius and character. pulled off his military cloak, and threw it over Instead of the severe education anciently bestowe the loathed object; then causing it to be em- ed on the Persian youth, their young men were balmed, and the coffin to be adorned with regal brought up in splendour and effeminacy; whence magnificence, he sent it to Sisigambis, that it they learned to despise the happy simplicity of might be interred with the ancient Persian mo- their forefathers, and the nation became corruptnarchs.

ed. In one generation, under this enervating Such was the end of Darius Codomannus. He tuition, the Persian character became haughty, died in the fiftieth year of his age, and sixth of vain, effeminate, inhuman, and perfidious; and his reign. He was a mild and pacific prince, they, of all people under the sun, were the most his reign having been unsullied with injustice, abandoned to splendour, luxury, feasting, and cruelty, or any of those vices to which some of drunkenness; so that it may be affirmed that the his predecessors had been greatly addicted. empire of the Persians was almost from its very

In Darius Codomannus the Persian empire birth what other empires became through length ended, after having existed from the reign of the of ages. Rome sunk under her corruptions, but



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