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tinian expostulated by his ambassadors upon this that went abroad of my death, has, without waitbreach of the first peace. The wily Persian ing for its confirmation, taken up arms : he has received the ambassadors with civility, and with released many prisoners ; he has expended treatears in his eyes deprecated the miseries of this sure which I meant to employ against the enemies war, into which he was reluctantly driven, he of my kingdom; and he has taken the field said, by the Persian nobility, to resist the aggres- without reflection on the consequences which sions of Justinian, who stirred up enemies may result from such a number of Christians against him on every side, and tampered with his acquiring power. If, however, Nouschizad will Christian subjects to shake their fidelity. At return to his allegiance, send back the prisoners the same time, he intimated that he might be in- he has released to their places of confinement, duced, hy a sum of money in hand, and an annual put to death some particular officers and nobles subsidy, to return home and make a lasting peace. who have espoused his cause, and allow the rest A peace was concluded very advantageous to of his followers to disperse and go where they himself, and ignominious to the Romans; but choose, I will consent to pardon him; but should Chosroes did not hold it sacred. With a fond he continue in rebellion, and not submit when he desire of accumulating wealth, he went on taking receives this assurance of mercy, Ram-Burzeen city after city, and raising contributions wherever is directed not to lose an instant in attacking him. he came. Covetousness was his besetting sin ; A man of illustrious descent, whose disposition and to fill his coffers he long kept the Romans inclines him to evil, should be treated according in alarm.

to his conduct, not his birth. It is a good action Nor was it by his own arms only that Chosroes to slay a wicked man in arms against the king, terrified the Romans. He encouraged the Sara- who is the sovereign of the earth. Let no fear cens and Goths to invade the Roman territories; prevent your cutting the thread of his days; it and when Justinian remonstrated, Chosroes re- will be by himself, not by you, that his blood is plied that his brother, the Roman emperor, had shed. He flies with ardour to the religion of no right to complain, since it could be proved, by Christ, and turns away his head from our crown. his own letters, that he had practised the same But should Nouschizad be made prisoner in acarts with the Saracens and Huns, to induce them tion, hurt not a hair of his head ; shut him up in to invade Persia.

the same place where he was before confined, After all his successes, the empire of Chosroes along with the slaves who attended him. Let extended from Syria and the Mediterranean Sea, him be furnished with all he wants, and allow to the river Indus, eastwards; and from the none of our military officers to use expressions Sihon and Jaxartes, to the frontiers of Egypt, that can in any degree insult or wound the feelsouthwards. He erected his capital, Madain,* ings of a son whom we still hold dear. If any on the Tigris, about a day's journey from Bagdad. should abuse Nouschizad, let him lose his life ; for He adorned this city with a stately palace called although that prince has dishonoured his birth Thak Khosrou, “the dome of Khosru,” from its still it is from us that he derives his existence, magnificent cupola, in the vault of which he de- and our affection continues his security." posited his treasures. This building was so dura- The mandate of Chosroes was obeyed. Ramble in construction, that the caliph Almanzor was Burzeen brought the prince to action, in which forced to desist from an attempt to pull it down, Nouschizad was slain. Before he died, he reon account of the greatness of the expense and quested that his body might be sent to his molabour. Most of the palace remained unde- ther, that he might have the burial of a Chrismolished, upon which a Persian poet wrote the tian. Thus was the house of Chosroes divided following distich :

against itself: the father was “divided against

the son,” because he had relinquished the wor“ See here the reward of an excellent work;

ship of his forefathers, thereby verifying the All-consuming time still spares the palace of Chosru.”

words of our Saviour, Luke xii. 53. It were to The only insurrection which disturbed the be wished, however, that Nouschizad had suffered reign of Chosroes, was that of his son Nous- these persecutions with Christian resignation. chizad. The mother of this prince was a Chris

Historians have dwelt on the magnificence of tian, and he was brought up by her in her faith, the courts which sought the friendship of Choscontrary to the wish of Chosroes. The profes- roes. Among these, the emperors of China and sion which this youth made of his belief in the India are the most distinguished. Their predoctrines of Christ was a bold one, and he poured sents to him are described as magnificent, as contempt on the rites of the magi. This en- exceeding in curiosity and richness any that were raged Chosroes, who, to punish what he deemed before seen. This may, however, be oriental heresy, placed him in confinement. Nouschizad, hyperbole ; for Mirkhond and other Persian hishowever, deceived by a rumour of the death of torians dwell with delight on the subject, because his father, effected his escape, released other pri- the act tended to exalt the character of Chossoners, collected a number of followers, of whom many were Christians, and attempted to establish The internal regulations of the kingdom of himself in Fars and Ahwaz. Chosroes sent an Chosroes, says Malcolm, were excellent. He army to quell this revolt, and gave a letter of established and fixed a moderate land tax over instruction to Ram-Burzeen, the general, to this all his dominions. He also imposed a capitation effect: “ My son Nouschizad, hearing a rumour

tax on Jews and Christians. All persons under

twenty and above fifty were exempted from ser• By some writers, Madain is supposed to have been vice. The regulations for preserving the discithe same with Ctesiphon. If this be correct, the city pline of his army were even more stringent was erected during the Parthian domination, and Chosroes would therefore only improve it, or add thereto. than those of the civil government. But all the



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vigilance and justice of Chosroes could not pre- tented till he had gained the possession, though vent corruption and tyranny among the officers of its price was blood, this action is well calculated the government. The knowledge of this came to to raise the character of Chosroes in the reader's the monarch's ears, and he appointed a secret estimation. He may, indeed, be considered as commission of thirteen persons, in whom he one of the greatest of Asiatic monarchs. Had placed implicit confidence, to inquire into and he been a Christian, how had he blessed manbring him a true report on the conduct of the in- kind! And how many nominal Christians are ferior officers of the state. The result of this shamed by his conduct! commission was, the discovery of great abuses, This great king, as we have seen, was generand the execution of twenty-four petty governors, ally successful in his wars, (of which he was too convicted of injustice and tyranny.

fond,) by his arts or his arms. Towards the The manner in which this intelligence was latter end of his reign, however, a campaign conveyed to the monarch, aptly illustrates the against Cappadocia proved disastrous. Justin, despotic principles of ancient oriental states, the emperor of Rome, had in his last years been where able and good ministers could only hint incapable of directing the affairs of the empire. at abuses through the medium of incident. Per- Under these circumstances, his wife Sophia sent sian writers say, that during the latter years of letters to Chosroes pathetically describing the the reign of Chosroes, an immense number of miseries of the Roman empire; beseeching him jackals came from the fields of Tartary into the to remember the kindness of former emperors, provinces of Persia, the inhabitants of which particularly the sending him physicians ; and rewere greatly alarmed at the horrid shrieks and presenting the uncertainty of all worldly greatscreams of their new visitors. Intelligence of ness, and the small glory that would result to this was sent to court, and Chosroes partaking him from conquests made over a headless nation in the superstition of the age, demanded of the and a helpless woman. Chosroes, on reading chief mobud, or high-priest, what it portended. these letters, immediately withdrew his troops The officer gave a reply which, while it shows from the Roman empire, and consented to a truce his own uprightness, denotes that Chosroes was for three years, Armenia excluded. This truce a true oriental despot, to whose ear truth could was favourable to the Romans, and their affairs only be spoken indirectly. “By what I have were quickly re-established by the diligence and learned from the history of former times,” said the success of Tiberius, the successor of Justin, who mobud, “it is when injustice prevails, that beasts was an active and vigilant prince, and a warrior of prey spread over a kingdom.” Chosroes took of great experience. Chosroes, who had no idea the hint, and appointed the commission described. of these changes, prepared early the next spring

That Chosroes was a lover of justice in the to enter Armenia, resolving to penetrate Capstrictest sense of the word, cannot be doubted. padocia, and to make himself master of Cesarea, A Persian manuscript relates the following cu- and other cities in that quarter. Tiberius, forerious account, which he used to give, of the sense seeing the consequences of this invasion, sent of justice first springing up in his mind. “I one ambassadors to dissuade Chosroes from this exday, when a youth, saw a man on foot throw a pedition, and to engage him to make a solid and stone at a dog, and break the animal's leg; a mo- lasting peace; but at the same time he sent these ment afterwards a horse passed, and with a kick ambassadors, he directed Justinian to assemble all broke the man's leg; and this animal had only the forces in the eastern provinces, in order, if galloped a short distance, when its foot slipped in necessary, to repel force by force. Chosroes re a hole, and its leg was broken. I gazed with ceived the ambassadors haughtily, commanding wonder and awe, and have since feared to commit them to follow him to Cesarea, where he should injustice.” Though this anecdote may partake be at leisure to hear them. Not long after, he of oriental exaggeration, yet it shows that in all met with the Roman army, which, contrary to ages of the world, a sense of retributive justice his expectations, was extremely numerous, and pervaded the minds of men.

eager to engage his forces. It is thought by

some historians that he would have retired to “There is a time, and justice marks the date, For long forbearing clemency to wait;

a convenient camp, instead of enduring a conflict, That hour elapsed, the incurable revolt

had not Curtius, a Scythian, who commanded the Is punished, and down comes the thunderbolt."

right wing of the Roman army, charged the left

of the Persians, where Chosroes was in person. An interesting anecdote is related illustrative The combat was severe, but at length the Perof Chosroes' love of justice. A Roman ambas- sians were defeated, and the royal treasure, and sador, sent to Ctesiphon with rich presents, when the sacred fire, before which the king worshipped, admiring the noble prospect from the windows taken in his sight. The next night, under the of the royal palace, remarked an uneven spot of cover of darkness, Chosroes retaliated upon one ground, and asked the reason why it was not detachment of the Roman army, routing them rendered uniform. “It is the property of an with great slaughter, after which he marched to aged woman,” said a Persian noble, “who has the Euphrates, in order to winter in his own doobjections to sell it, though often requested to do minions. Justinian, the Roman general, howso by our king; and he is more willing to have ever, penetrating his design, followed him so his prospect spoiled, than to commit violence.” closely, that he was forced to pass the river on

That irregular spot,” replied the Roman, an elephant, with great risk of being drowned, “consecrated as it is by justice, appears more a death which was the lot of many of his folbeautiful than all the surrounding scenery.” Con- lowers. The Romans pursued them across the trasted with the conduct of Ahab, who coveted river, and for the first time wintered in the Perthe field of Naboth, and who could not rest con- sian provinces.



The Greek writers say, that Chosroes died What is long life, or what a glorious reign, almost immediately after this loss of a broken

If our successors follow in our train ?

My fathers left this crown, and I the trust heart. It is certain that the effects of it brought

Must soon resign, and mingle with the dust. him to the grave; but it would appear that he lingered on till the following spring, and that

Such was the mighty Chosroes! His name before he died, he made peace with the Romans, ranks high in the pages of history, and perhaps and enacted a decree that none of his successors

he approached nearer to the character of a good should risk their persons in a general engage

and just prince than any human being placed in ment; thereby conveying a tacit censure on his such a situation, and in such an age. His own own rashness. The disasters which oppressed country had cause to regret his loss; others, him most, were, the loss of the sacred fire, the however, doubtless rejoiced in his death. Copymutinous behaviour of his soldiers, and the dis- ing some of his predecessors, he toiled ardently content of his subjects in general, who, like other

to raise a monumental pile that might record the communities, were ever ready to murmur when

mischiefs he had done. But this was in part adversity cast its dark shadows over their rulers. owing to the despotic nature of the Persian

Chosroes died A.D. 580, after he had reigned government. The monarchs of Persia, whatever forty-eight years. His last instructions to his may have been their dispositions, were compelled son and successor were admirable for patriarchal by their constitution to repress rebellion, retaliate wisdom and piety, resembling those of Cyrus to

attack, and to attain power over foreign nations his offspring. They read thus :

in order to preserve their own in peace, which “I, Nouschirvan, sovereign of Persia and led them to commit many actions at variance India, address these my last words to Hormouz, with humanity and justice. Such was their state my son, that they may serve him as a lamp policy. Nor theirs alone. The four great monin the day of darkness, a path in his journey archies of antiquity stood mostly upon a foundathrough the wilderness, a pole star in his na

tion of injustice. They grew up by unreasonable vigation through the tempestuous ocean of this quarrels and excessive revenge, by ravage and world.

bloodshed, by depopulating countries, and by “Let him remember, in the midst of his great-laying, cities and villages into ruinous heaps. ness, that kings rule not for themselves, but for Tully justly observed, that if the Romans would their people; respecting whom they are like the have been exactly, just, redeundun erat ad casas, heavens to the earth. How can the earth be they must have given the conquered nations their fruitful, unless it be watered, unless it be fostered country again ; they must have resigned their by the heavens ? My son, let your subjects all empire and wealth, shrunk into peasantry, and feel your beneficence: the nearest to you first, retired to their old cottages. The same may be and so on by degrees, to the remotest. If I durst,

said of some modern states. Their power has been I would propose to you my own example; but I | also reared upon the ruin of other nations. choose rather to remind you of that glorious “ Lands intersected by a narrow firth luminary which has been an example to me.

Abhor each other. Mountains interposed Behold the sun: it visits all parts of the world ;

Make enemies of nations who had else

Like kindred drops been mingled into one. and if sometimes visible, at other times with

Thus man devotes his brother, and destroys; drawn from view, it is because the universe is And worse than all, and most to be deplored successively gilded and cherished by its splendid

As human nature's broadest, foulest blot,

Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts his sweat beams. Enter not into any province but with a

With stripes, that mercy with a bleeding heart prospect of doing good to the inhabitants ; quit

Weeps, when she sees infiicted on a beast. it not but with the intention of doing good else

Then what is man? And what man seeing this, where. Bad men must needs be punished : to

And having human feelings, does not blush them the sun of majesty is necessarily eclipsed;

And hang his head, to think himself a man?" but the good deserve encouragement, and require to be cheered with its beams.

Alas! that it should be the maxim of the “My son, often present thyself before Heaven world, that he that is strong enough, may do to implore its aid ; but approach not with an

what he pleases; One stronger than they will impure mind. Do thy dogs enter the temple ? bring them to judgment. Should evil lusts be admitted into the temple of

Chosroes was succeeded in his kingdom by his thy soul ? If thou carefully observe this rule,

son, thy prayers shall be heard, thy enemies shall be confounded, thy friends shall be faithful. Thou

HORMISDAS II., OR HORMOUZ BEN NOUSCHIRVAN. shalt be a delight to thy subjects, and shalt have Hormisdas II. ascended the throne of Persia cause to delight in them. Do justice, abase the under very auspicious circumstances. His emproud, comfort the distressed, love your children, pire was not only extensive, but he had for his protect learning, be advised by your ancient counsellor the celebrated Buzurge Mihir, the counsellors, suffer not the young to meddle in wisest man in Persia, and the first minister of state affairs, and let your people's good be your Chosroes. Buzurge had been the preceptor of sole and supreme object. Farewell, I leave you a. Hormisdas, and had faithfully performed that mighty empire; you will keep it if you follow arduous trust. The natural dispositions of the my counsels ; but it will be impossible for you to royal pupil were indolence, luxury, pride, and do SO, if you follow strange counsel.”

cruelty; and these sad features in his character, That Chosroes took Cyrus the Great for his though not corrected, were so far restrained example, may be gathered from the fact, that he while Buzurge frequented the court, that in the caused a similar inscription to be engraved on beginning of his reign, Hormisdas promised to surhis tiara.

pass even Chosroes himself. He treated Buzurge


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with so much deference, that he would not wear a complete victory over their numerous but unthe tiara in his presence; and when some of his disciplined hosts. The khakan was slain ; and courtiers thought this extraordinary, and asserted his son, who re-assembled his defeated army, that it was more than due even to a father, he was also killed in a second action. The spoils answered, “You say right, my friends, I owe of the Tartars, which were immense, were sent to more to him than to my father : the life and king- Madain to Hormisdas. dom I received from Nouschirvan, will expire in Baharam was now sent against the Romans. a few years; but the fame I shall acquire by Orders were given bim to pass the river Araxes, following the instructions of Buzurge, will sur- and to ravage the Roman territories on that side. vive to the latest ages.”

To oppose him, the Roman emperor sent RoHere was a fine prospect of a happy reign; but manus with a powerful army, who entirely deit soon vanished. When the venerable Buzurge feated the Persian conqueror, and thereby gave retired from the court, Hormisdas fell a prey a fatal blow to the Persian affairs. to the adulation and sycophancy of younger

When Hormisdas received advice of this disaster, and false counsellors. His character became he sent Baharam a woman's garment, in conchanged. Released from the wholesome restraint tempt, and threatened to decimate his troops. The which the example of his father, and the lessons rough soldier put on the dress he had received, of his tutor had imposed, he plunged into every and presented himself to his soldiers. “Behold,” excess, and involved himself and his empire in said he, “the reward with which the monarch I the greatest calamities. His most faithful judges serve has deigned to crown my services." A and counsellors were either removed, or put to revolt was the consequence. The soldiers hailed death, and multitudes of his best subjects fell a Baharam as their sovereign, and demanded to be prey to his violence for imputed disaffection or led against the reckless monarch who had dared, treason. It is even said that he put to death the from the midst of his luxurious court, to cast wise Buzurge himself!

such an insult on the defender of their country. The early consequences of this change of rule, Baharam was too indignant to repress the viowere foreign wars and internal rebellions. He lence of his troops, but veiling his ambition, he first quarrelled with the emperor Tiberius. When forbade the overthrow of the house of Sassan ; that monarch sent ambassadors to renew the last and commanded that money should be struck in peace made with Chosroes, he treated them dis- the name of Chosru Parviz, the son of Hormisdainfully, and required a sum of money as a das. This measure caused dissensions in the tribute, before he granted it, which involved him royal family. Chosru fled, to escape the danger in a war with the Romans.

to which he saw himself exposed ; and the king, In the first campaign, no decisive engagement after his son's flight, imprisoned two of his matook place. The Romans, under the command of ternal uncles, Bundawee and Botham, which act Philippicus, captured many Persian towns, plun- precipitated his ruin. The friends of these nodered several provinces, and took many prisoners, bles not only liberated them from prison, but while the Persian army withdrew into the moun- were sufficiently powerful to confine Hormisdas, tains for fear. The next year, however, Philippicus whose eyes they put out, to disqualify him from defeated the Persians, under the command of Car- reigning in future. Determined to do as they dariganus, with great slaughter, and the Romans, pleased, they also put to death his younger son at the close of the campaign, again made incur- Hormisdas, whom he recommended as fitter to sions into Persia, burned the villages, and plun- reign over them than Chosru, who was a prince dered the people. The next spring, the tide of prone to vice of every kind, and regardless of success was turned. The Persians gained some the public good. Such was the end of the reign advantages, upon which Philippicus was removed, of the wicked prince Hormisdas II. and Commentiolus sent to command in his place. heed to flattery, and was ruined. But matters wore no better aspect, and Philip- As soon as Chosru learned the fate of his fapicus was again sent into the field, and his want ther, he returned, and ascended the throne of of success again restored Commentiolus. He Persia, A. D. 588. now engaged the Persians, but he fled at the

CHOSROES II., OR CHOSRU PARVIZ. onset; and Heraclius taking the command, entirely defeated the Persians, with the loss of Aphraates When Chosru, or, as we shall now call him, and Nabades, two of their best generals.

after the Greek writers, Chosroes, ascended the In the mean time, about A.D. 585, the hordes of throne, he received the homage of the principal the great khakan of Tartary crossed the Oxus, persons present, amid loud acclamations and arand demanded a free passage through Persia, on dent prayers for his felicity. Then supposing the pretext of making war with the emperor of himself firmly seated on the throne, he gave Constantinople. The alarmed Hormisdas at first sumptuous entertainments, and distributed the consented ; but their conduct soon satisfied him royal treasures amongst those he thought most that he had admitted into his kingdom the most capable of rendering him assistance ; largesses dangerous of all enemies. Baharam, one of the were also bestowed upon the people, and the prison chiefs in the Persian army, was selected to head doors opened-except to his own father t-that the troops against the ferocious invaders. Baha- the fame of his lenity and liberality might secure ram selected twelve thousand of the bravest of the hearts of his subjects. the forces, and marched against them, and was

+ Some ancient writers say, that he caused his father successful. In the strong mountainous country,* to be put to death soon afterwards. Mirkhond, howwhere he opposed the Tartars, his veterans gained ever, relates, that after his restoration to the throne, he

put to death his two uncles, to whom he owed his life * Soine authors say it was in Khorassan that Baharam and throne, on the specious but cruel pretext that they had engaged the Tartars; others say, Mazanderan

dared to lay violent hands upon the person of his father. • By the Byzantine writers, Irene is said to have been the lords who had declared for Chosroes, was

He gave


But there was one heart proof against his defeated and put to death. Soon after, Anathonus generosity. Baharam had affected great regard was also slain. . The next year, A. D. 593, Chosfor the house of Sassan, but he now threw off the roes marched into Persia with intent to decide mask, and exhibited to the world that he had a the war. Many of the forces of Baharam greater regard for his own honours. Chosroes quitted his service and went over to Chosroes ; sent him magnificent presents, and promised him and Seleucia, and most of the great cities near the second seat in his kingdom, if he came and the river Euphrates, submitted to him. In the acknowledged him for his sovereign. Baharam mean time, several skirmishes had taken place, all rejected his overtures with scorn, and ordered advantageous to Chosroes. At length, he defeated him to lay down his crown, and come and pay the main army of Baharam with great slaughter, his respects to him, on which condition he should by which act he was enabled to reascend the be made governor of a province. Chosroes again throne. Baharam fled to Tartary, where, though entreated him to be his friend, but, deaf to all he had formerly put their forces to shame, he remonstrances, Baharam prepared for war, and was kindly treated by the khakan, under whom Chosroes was compelled to meet him in the field, he attained the highest distinctions; but his Jays to contest with him the crown of Persia.

were shortened by poison, which was given him, The opposing armies met near Nisibis, Chos- according to Persian authors, by the queen of roes keeping within the city, while Baharam en- the khakan, who dreaded his future designs. camped before it. A negotiation was commenced, On gaining this victory, Chosroes gave a rebut it proved ineffectual. At the same time, markable instance of superstitious credulity, in Chosroes, suspecting some of his nobles, put a letter to Gregory, bishop of Antioch, as prethem to death. This was fatal to his cause. Dis- served by Theophylact. It reads thus: affection spread through his ranks, and when “ I, Chosroes, son of Hormisdas, king of kings, Baharam attacked the suburbs, many of them etc., having heard that the famous martyr Serjoined his standard, and Chosroes was compelled gius granted to every one who sought his aid to take refuge in flight.

their petitions, did, on the seventh day of January, Baharam now entered the city of Ctesiphon in the first year of my reign, invoke him to grant with the full purpose of ascending the throne of me victory against Zadespras; promising, that if Persia. With this design he threw Bundawee that rebel was either killed or taken by my troops, into prison, and treated all such as had shown that I would give to his church a golden cross any affection to the royal family with great se- enriched with jewels : and accordingly, on the verity ; while towards the rest of the Persians ninth day of February, the head of Žadespras he affetced the greatest humanity and condescen- was brought to me by a party of horse, which I sion. But the people in general could not be despatched against him. depended upon. The house of Sassan was still “To give, therefore, the most public testimony regarded with general favour, and when he as- of my gratitude and thankfulness to the saint for sumed the regal ornaments and furniture, as a granting my petition, I send to his church that preliminary step to taking the title, the Persian cross, and also another, formerly given by the nobility, disdaining to become the subjects of one emperor Justinian, and taken away by my grandborn their equal, concerted measures for eman- father Chosroes, the son of Cavades, which I cipating themselves and their country, and re- found deposited among my treasures.” storing the ancient lustre of the Persian empire. Chosroes married a Christian, called by the

They commenced the reformation by releasing Roman writers Irene,* and by the Persian Schirin, Bundawee from prison, and acknowledging him “soft,” or “ agreeable;" for whose sake he for for their chief. By the advice of this prince, they a long time treated the Christians kindly. It attacked Baharam in the palace in the dead of the was thought by many that he was “almost a night, which they did with great courage. Ba- Christian” himself; but in a few years after, he haram, however, and his attendants vanquished gave unequivocal proof of his attachment to the the assailants, so that many of them were slain. religion of his ancestors, and of that aversion Bundawee and a few others only escaped, and which the unregenerate heart of man bears to these marched towards Media, and endeavoured the faith of Christ. He conceived an implacable to raise forces for Chosroes.

hatred against the Christians, and persecuted Baharam had now a fair prospect of building them even unto death. In this line of conduct up his glory on the ruins of the house of Sassan. he may have been actuated by the counsels of He placed the crown upon his head, and resolved the magi; for they bore an implacable hatred to to wear it. But Chosroes again appeared in the the religion of the cross, feeling, like Demetrius field against him. He had fled to the emperor of old, that their gains were likely to be affected Maurice of Rome, with whom he had made a by its extension. Many bitter persecutions have treaty, and who ordered the governors of his fron- arisen from this unhallowed source, and yet, nottier provinces to furnish him with whatever withstanding, Christianity has flourished-a proof might be necessary for his restoration. These that God is its Author. supplies had the wished-for effect. The Persians, From the moment Chosroes felt himself estabseeing Chosroes in a condition to defend them, lished on the throne, he changed the tone of his universally acknowledged him, and opened their conduct both towards the Romans and the Pergates to his forces.

sians, his subjects. Forgetful of the debt of Baharam prepared to meet him, determined gratitude he owed the former, he insulted their at all hazards to maintain the dignity he had usurped. Zadespras, one of his commanders, having attempted to enter the district of one of

the daughter of Maurice, the emperor of Rome; the Roman accounts say that she was a public dancer.

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