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Kurdistan ; but it does not give the beholder an in melody and softness with the unfolding of idea of a
their favourite flowers; verifying the song of “King of the forest;
their poet, who says : “When the charms of the Majestically stern, sublimely great;
bower are passed away, the fond tale of the Laughing to scorn the wind, the flood, the flame; And e'en when withering, proudly desolate."
nightingale no longer animates the scene."
The roses of Persia are of various kinds. It does not even grow to the size of a common
There is the usual rose-coloured flower, white, timber tree. The most cominon trees of Persia red, or deeper red and yellow are mixed, that is, are the plantane, willow, fir, and coruil, called by red on one side, and yellow or white on the the Arabs, seder, and by the Persians, couar. other. Sometimes one tree produces flowers The tree which bears gall nuts, grows abund- of three colours, red, red and yellow, red and antly in Kurdistan; and those which produce white. gums, mastich, and incense, are common in most Besides the rose, most of the varieties of flowparts of Persia; the latter more especially in ers in Europe are also known in Persia. Many, Carmania Deserta. The tree bearing manna, is also, unknown to Europeans, are abundantly also frequent, and so is the tamarisk, a species of scattered abroad. From September to the end which likewise produces manna.
of April, the province of Mazanderan is covered Grain.—The most usual crops in Persia are with flowers as with a rich embroidered carpet. rice, wheat, and barley; but there are also mil- Towards Media, also, and on the southern frunlet, (Holcus sorghum,) maize, tel, or sesamum, a
tiers of Arabia, the fields are adorned with tulips, species of vetch, and several kinds of pease and anemonies, ranunculuses, etc., all growing sponbeans. Rice is the general aliment of the Per- taneously. In other places, as in the neighboursians, for which reason they are very careful in hood of Spauhawn, jonquils grow wild all the its cultivation. It is, indeed, in that country, winter. The province of Hyrcania, however, softer, sooner boiled, and more delicious to the for the beauty, variety, and quantity of its flowtaste, than that grown in any other part of the ers, excels the rest of Persia, in this respect, as world.
much as Persia does the rest of the world ; an Cucumber Plants.—Under this head only two idea of which has been given in the notice of plants occur, namely, the cucumber and the me- that province. ion. The melons of Persia are distinguished for Herbs and Drugs.-As in flowers, so in its their size and flavour. There appears to be herbs, does Persia excel all other countries ; about twenty kinds of them, and, like all other especially such as are aromatic. For drugs, also, orientals, the Persians seem to have a passion it is celebrated, producing as many as any for this fruit. They take great pains to preserve country in Asia. Besides manna, cassia, senna, them in repositories when they are out of season; the nux vomica, gum ammoniac, by the Persians and when the season is in, they live almost en- called ouscic, is found in abundance on the contirely upon thern
fines of Parthia, towards the south. Rhubarb Vegetable Productions. The chief culinary ve- grows commonly in Khorassan, the ancient Soggetables of Persia are turnips, carrots, cabbages, diana ; and the poppy of Persia, which produces lettuces, cauliflowers, celery, radishes, garlic, opium, is esteemed the finest in the world, as parsley, and onions.
well for its beauty, as the strength of its producFlowers.—Conspicuous among this class of tion. In many places saffron is cultivated. One plants in Persia, stands the rose. The size of of the most remarkable vegetable productions of the Persian rose trees, and the number of flowers Persia, is the plant from which assafetida is obon each, far exceeds any thing we are accustomed tained. This plant is called by the Persians to witness. Sir Robert Ker Porter, describing hiltet
, and it is supposed to be the silphium of the rose of Persia, says: “ On first entering this Dioscorides. There are two kinds of it, the hower of fairy-land, I was struck with the ap- white and the black, which latter is the most pearance of two rose trees, full fourteen feet high, esteemed, as possessing greater strength than the laden with thousands of flowers, in every degree white. This drug has a stronger odour than of expansion, and of a bloom and delicacy of any other known. It is said, that places where scent that imbued the whole atmosphere with it has been preserved, will retain this odour for the most exquisite perfume: indeed, I believe, many years. There are two kinds of gum called that in no country of the world does the rose mummy in Persia, which is in great request. grow in such perfection as in Persia; in no This article is found in Carmania the Desert, and country is it so cultivated and prized by the in Khorassan, where it distils from the rocks. natives. Their gardens and courts are crowded It possesses great healing virtues. Its name is with its plants; their rooms ornamented with derived from the Persian word, moum, which vases, filled with its gathered branches; and signifies literally, an unguent.
Galbanum is every bath strewed with the full-blown flowers, likewise common in Persia, together with the plucked from the ever replenished stems. Even vegetable alkali, and many other drugs of minor the humblest individual, who pays a piece of importance. Cotton is common all over Persia, copper money for a few whiffs of a kalioun, feels and there is a tree resembling it, but which is a double enjoyment when he finds it stuck with more rare, producing a fine and soft substance a bud from his dear native tree. But in this like silk, of which many uses are made. delicious garden of Negauvistan, the eye and the Metals and Minerals.-In ancient times there smell were not the only senses regaled by the were silver mines in Persia, but at present there presence of the rose; the ear was enchanted by are none open. The expenses attending the the wild and beautiful notes of the multitude of working of them seems to have equalled their nightingales, whose warblings seemed to increase produce, which is represented as the cause of
their abandonment. Iron is abundant in many Into all lands. From every clime they come places, especially in Hyrcania, but it is not much
To see thy beauty, and to share thy joy,
Oh Sion! An assembly such as earth worked. Chardin represents it as not worth above
Saw never, such as heaven stoops down to see.” sixpence a hundred weight, and he says, that it
COW PER. is so full of sulphur, that if filings of it be cast into the fire, they make a report like powder. Too fierce a fire will also destroy the substance altogether. Copper has been discovered in Azer
CHAPTER II. bigan, and other places; but, like the iron, it is
TOPOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF PERSIA. of little use unless it is mingled with copper from the mines of other countries, as Sweden In the various provinces of the vast empire of and Japan. Rock salt is very abundant in Per- Persia, there were a great number of important sia, and large tracts of the plain are covered with cities and towns; but concerning many of them, salt incrustations. In some places it is said to no detailed information has been handed down be as firm and hard as fire stone, and to be used to us by ancient writers. All, therefore, that can as such in Carmania Deserta, in the erection of be done in these pages, is to notice those of which houses. In Hyrcania, and Mazanderan, naphtha any account, and any remains, have survived of two kinds is met with, black and white." The the wreck of ages, and which were of the greatest richest mine in Persia, however, is the torquoise. note. Among these stands pre-eminently forThere are also two kinds of this precious stone ; ward, the city of one in Khorassan, the other between Hyrcania and Parthia in Mount Phirous, which mountain
PERSEPOLIS, derived its name from an ancient king of Persia. which stood within the province of Persis. Other mines of this precious stone have, at a The city of Persepolis is mentioned by Greek later date, been discovered, but they are by no writers, after
the era of Alexander, as the capital means so valuable, the stone being less beautiful of Persia. The name, however, does not occur in colour, and waning by degrees, till at length in the writings of Herodotus, Ctesias, Xenophon, it is colourless. Marble, free stone, and slate or Nehemiah, who were well acquainted with are found in great quantities about Hamadan. the other principal cities of the Persian empire, This marble is of four colours, white, or sta- and who make frequent mention of Susa, Babytuary, black, red and black, and white and black. lon, and Ecbatana. But this may be accounted The best is discovered about Taurus. This is for by the fact, that Persepolis never appears to almost as transparent as crystal ; its colour is have been a place of residence for the Persian white, mingled with a pale green, but it is so kings, though it was regarded as the capital of soft that some have doubted whether it is a their empire in the remotest ages. stone. In the neighbourhood of Hamadan, azure There has been much dispute respecting the is found, but it is not equal to that of Tartary, Persian name of Persepolis. According to oriand therefore is not held in repute.
ental historians, it was Istakher, or Estekhar; Such was and is Persia. Anciently it pos- and many modern authors suppose that Persesessed the blessings of this life in rich abundance, polis and Pasagardæ, the common burial-places and even now its inhabitants can rejoice in the of the kings of Persia, are only different names gifts of nature. But Persia has ever lacked the for the same place, and that the latter word is richest blessing that can be bestowed on a coun- the Greek translation of the former. Their try, that of the Christian religion. For many views do not seem to be correct: there are an age they were led astray by the Magian strong reasons, indeed, for believing that they faith, and now they bend under the yoke of the are different places. arch impostor Mohammed. But
The city of Persepolis was situated in an ex
tensive plain, near the union of the Araxes “The groans of nature in this nether world,
(Bendemir) and Cyrus (Kur.) In the time of Which Heaven has heard for ages, have an end. Foretold by prophets, and by poets sung,
Alexander, there was at Persepolis a magnifiWhose fire was kindled at the prophet's lamp,
cent palace, full of immense treasures, which had The time of rest, the promised sabbath comes." been accumulating from the time of Cyrus.
Little is known of its history. When Alexander, Then shall
however, subverted the Persian empire, Perse
polis fell a prey to the maddened rage of the “ The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks Shout to each other, and the mountain tops
conqueror. Instigated by a courtezan, he issued From distant mountains catch the flying joy, from a banquet, and accompanied by a band of Till nation after nation, taught the strain,
other bacchanals, as cruel and as mad as himself, Earth rolls the rapturous hosanna round. See Salem built, the labour of a God!
with flaming torches in their hands, like so Bright as a sun, the sacred city shines.
many furies, they fired the palace of the Persian All kingdoms, and all princes of the earth
monarch, after which his army plundered and Flock to that light; the glory of all lands
devastated the city. Flows into her; unbounded is her joy, And endless her increase. Thy rams are there,
But it was not Alexander alone that reduced Nebaioth, and the flocks of Kedar there.
Persepolis to its present mournful state. It exThe looms of Ormus, and the mines of Ind,
isted, but not in its pristine glory, in the days of And Saba's spicy groves pay tribute there. Praise is in all her gates; upon her walls,
Ammianus Marcellinus; and in the Greek chroAnd in her streets, and in her spacious courts,
nicle of Tabri, who flourished in the ninth cenIs heard salvation. Eastern Java, there,
tury, it is said, that Pars, or Persia, composed a Kneels with the native of the furthest west;
number of districts, each governed by a petty And Æthiopia spreads abroad the hand, And worships. Her report has travelled forth king, one of whom ruled in Istakher. The
chronicle further states, that Artaxerxes Babe- of sunk magnificence! A blended scene gan commenced his ambitious career by putting
Of moles, fanes, arches, domes, and palaces,
Where, with his brother Horror, Ruin sits.” to death the king of Istakher, after which he
WARTON. rendered himself master not only of Pars, but of Kirman, and finally became ruler of all Iran, Those who have visited the ruins of Persepolis or Persia, by the defeat and death of Adavan. concur in one unanimous verdict, that the city The same authority states, that Shapoor II., represented by them, must have been the most having recovered Nisibin, in Diyarbekr, he sent magnificent ever on earth; and that 12,000 families from Istakher to reinhabit the the Persian empire, in all its glory, could not deserted city. About A.D. 639, the Arabs made boast of any thing more grand, nor have left an unsuccessful attempt on Istakher, and two to wondering posterity any thing more astonishyears after the decisive battle of Nehavend was ing, than these venerable ruins. The present fought, the result of which was, the future cap- inhabitants of the vale of Merdasht, the plain of ture of Persepolis, or Istakher. This battle, also, Persepolis, ignorant of the glories of their andecided the fate of Persia, and the religion of cestors, deem them the work of demons, or of Zoroaster. The blaze of the eternal fire was the Præadamite sultans, now immured in the extinguished by the superior radiance of the rocky caverns of the mighty Caucasus, or of the crescent; and the sceptre of empire, wielded by great Solomon, the son of David, who, in eastern the successors of Artaxerxes for more than four romance, is said to have had all the demons and centuries, dropped from the hands of the unfor- genii under his control. Unconscious that he is tunate Yasdijerd, while the sun of the house of treading on classic ground, the wandering That Sassan went down to rise no more. Persepolis tends his flock amid the tenantless waste; and underwent another vicissitude in 644, when the the music that once called up the spirit of mirth Arabs, under the command of Abu Musa al in the breast of monarchs, is exchanged for the Ashari, defeated Shahreg, who lost his life and howl of wild beasts. In the halls of a Xerxes, the city of Istakher, which paid a contribution in the palace of Chosroes, the fox takes up his of 200,000 silver dirhems to obtain a respite. abode, and the spider weaves her web; while In 648, the inhabitants of Istakher revolted, and from the towers of Istakher the screech owl slew the Arabian governor, in consequence of nightly takes up its doleful note. Such is the which the khalif Othman sent Abdallah Ebm end of human greatness ! Amer with troops from Basrah to Istakher, The plain where these awful representatives where they encountered the Persians, com- of Persepolis stand, is one of the most extensive manded by Mahek, son of Shahreg, who had in Persia, and the finest in the east. According been slain by Abu Musa al Ashari “from the to Chardin, it extends eighteen leagues from dawn of day till the time of the meridian prayer.” east to west, by a diversified breadth of from Mahek fled, and the city of Istakher was taken six, to twelve, and eighteen miles. It is watered by storm; after which the city declined daily, by the Araxes, and many minor streams. It is so that in 950 it was not above a mile in length, bounded on the north by the western branch of and was finally destroyed in 982 by the Dilemite the Kur-aub; on the south by the south branch prince Samsa'm Ad'doulah. It exists only, says of the Kur-aub; and on the west by the Araxes, Hamdallah Cazvini, who wrote in 1339, under thus describing an oval figure. On the norththe reduced form of a village.
west is the junction of the Parwaub and the It has been well said, in deprecation of the Araxes; and on the north-east is the point where destruction of cities, which history lauds as the the Kur-aub diverges into the two branches work of heroes, “How many monuments of lite which bound its two sides On every side it is rature and science, of taste and genius, of utility, surrounded with mountains, which give as much splendour, and elegance, have been destroyed by natural grandeur to the vale, as the city it conthe ruthless hands of sanguinary heroes, who tained could receive from industry and art; nay, have left nothing but ruins as the monuments of more, for the works of the Creator far surpass their prowess.” The ruins of Persepolis respond those of the creature. to these sentiments, while at the same time, in The principal ruins of Persepolis are those of the ear of reason, they discourse of the muta- the Takht-i-Jemschid, which is identified with bility of all things below the skies.
the palace set on fire by Alexander, and which The ruins of Persepolis, which are usually stands at the base of the abruptly rising rock of called by the inhabitants, “ Tchil-Minar,” (the Istakher. The first object that meets the eye of forty pillars,) and sometimes “Hesa Suture," the traveller is the platform, which is an artificial (the thousand columns) are very grand. plain of a very irregular shape, but facing the
four cardinal points, like the bases of the Egyptian The piles of fallen Persepolis
pyramids. The dimensions of the three faces In deep arrangement hide the darksome plain. of the platform are these ; to the south 802 feet; Unbounded waste! the mouldering obelisk,
to the north 926; and to the west 1425 feet. The Here, like a blasted oak, ascends the clouds. Here Parian domes their vaulted halls disclose,
level of the building at this date is very uneven, Horrid with thorn, where lurks the' unpitying thief, which is occasioned
by the increasing accumulaWhence fits the twilight-loving bat at eve,
tion of falling ruins, and the soil, which, from And the deaf adder wreaths her spotted train, The dwellings once of elegance and art!
various causes, successively collects over these Here temples rise, amid whose hallowed bounds,
heaps. On the north-west, large masses of the Spires the black pine; while through the naked street, native rock show themselves without incumOnce haunt of tradeful merchants, springs the grass. brance, still retaining marks of the original Here columns, heap'd on prostrate columns, torn From their firm base, increase the mouldering mass.
hammers and other instruments by which the Par as the sight can pierce, appear the spoils higher portions of the rock had been cut down to
the required level. Beyond the face of the plat- half feet high: their heads are gone. Round form, the rock protrudes in vast abrupt cliffs ; their necks are beautifully carved collars of roses ; and in deeper cavities the progress of a quarry is and over the chest, back, and ribs, extends a visible, part of the rock being half hewn through, decoration resembling hair, short and curled, the and in other places lying in completed slabs, execution of which is exquisite. Their proporready for removal. This would indicate that the tions are admirable ; and there is a corresponding structure was not considered complete. It was grandeur which is in perfect accordance to the the work of ages, and every succeeding monarch prodigious scale on which all around them is added to its grandeur. What, however, had executed. The broad ornamented chest and the been done could scarcely be exceeded. Its steep position of these animals are full of pondrous faces are formed of dark grey marble, cut into majesty ; and the whole is combined with such huge square blocks, and exquisitely polished. spirit in the attitude and action that the sculpture These are fitted to each other with such closeness seems ready to walk from the mass to which it and precision, that when first completed, the plat- | is attached. It is supposed that these figured form must have appeared as part of the solid animals were symbolical representations of the mountain itself, levelled to become the foundation attribute of power, and that as such they were for a palace. The height of the platform is evi- placed as symbols at the gate of the kings of dently considerably lower than it once was, owing Persia. This is very probable; for throughout to the masses of ruin and vegetative matter at all Pagan mythology the bull is designated the its base. These have raised hillocks against emblem of power, as the lion is the emblem of all the sides, making rough slopes; whereas royalty. The bull was, indeed, a favourite originally they were perpendicular. Ker Porter divinity in Egypt, Syria, and India ; and the lion says he measured them, and that he found, at a and bull, either singly or in compound forms, spot near the group of columns, the perpendicular are found connected with almost all the ancient depth to be thirty feet; but he adds, that were Persian structures. The body of the bull is all the rubbish to be cleared away, an additional | indicative of power, and his horn of force exerted depth of twenty feet would be discovered. The by that instrument. Every symbolical animal of south side does not exceed twenty feet, and to
this kind which Sir Robert Ker Porter saw in the north it varies from sixteen to twenty-six Persian architecture had but one horn; hence he feet. The platform embraces three terraces. conjectures that these animals were thus repreThe first and lowest embraces the southern face, sented originally. by 183 feet broad; the second is more elevated, A little distant from the portal to the east, and the third more elevated still. Along the when Sir John Chardin visited Persepolis, (A.D. edge of the lowest terrace there are masses of 1674,) there were four columns; two of these stone which apparently are fragments of a parapet now only remain, and the base of these is nearly wall; and on the edge of the third, or highest buried by an accumulation of ruins. These terrace, to the south, are decided remains of a columns are of white marble, fluted, and exceedstrong stone railing, or range of palisades. ingly beautiful as to their capitals and other ornaThese cease at the top of the staircase connecting ments. Le Brun says they are fourteen feet this with the lower terrace. At the top of this round. The shaft gradually narrows towards flight of steps, are two large holes cut deeply into the top, and it is varied by thirty-nine flutings, the stone, which received the pivots of the gates each four inches wide. Le Brun makes their that closed this ingress. There is only one way height, exclusive of their bases, to be fifty-four by which this platform can be ascended, and feet, in which Ker Porter nearly agrees. The that is by a staircase situated on its western side. surface of the top is smooth, without the slightest A double flight of stairs rises very gently north remains of any loose fragment; hence the latter and south, the base of which is sixty-seven feet traveller supposes that when the four were united by twenty-two. On ascending these, there is an they sustained the plane or pedestal of some irregular landing-place of thirty-seven feet by sculptured symbolical image. forty-four, whence springs a second flight of About twenty-four feet from these columns steps covering fifty-nine feet by twenty-two. stands another gateway, in all respects similar to Two corresponding staircases terminate on the the first in proportion, except that it is eighteen grand level of the platform, by a landing-place feet in length, instead of twenty-one. The inner occupying sixty-four feet. So easy of ascent is sides of this portal are also sculptured, but the this staircase, and so grand is it likewise, that six animals represented are of extraordinary formhorsemen may ride abreast to the summit of the ation. They have the body and legs of a bull; platform. On reaching the platform, the lofty but an enormous pair of wings project from the sides of a magnificent portal meet the eye of the shoulders, extending high over the back, and traveller. The interior faces of the walls of covering the breast, whence they appear to this portal are sculptured out into the forms of two spring, as the entire chest is cased with their colossal bulls. These animals look westward ; plumage.
The feathers which compose the their heads, chests, and fore legs, occupying wings are exquisitely wrought. The heads of nearly the entire thickness of the wall in that the animals look east to the mountains, and direction; the rest of their bodies being left in exhibit the faces of men, severe in countenance. relief. They stand on a pedestal elevated five A long curled beard adds to the majesty of their feet above the level of the platform. Consider appearance. The ears are like those of the bull, ably above the backs of these animals are three and they are ornamented with large pendant earsmall compartments filled with cunieform in- rings of an elegant form. On the head is a scriptions. Each bull is twenty-two feet long cylindrical diadem, on both sides of which horns from its fore to its hind leg, and fourteen and a are clearly represented, winding upwards from
the brows to the front of the crown, the whole , combats are therefore allegorical representations, being surmounted by a coronet of lotos leaves, of which nothing is known. Of the sculpture, and bound by a fillet of exquisitely carved roses. Sir Robert Ker Porter says: “ The fire, beauty, The hair is ranged over the forehead in the style and truth with which these quadrupeds are drawn, of the ancient Persian kings, and the beard is will hardly appear credible but to one who has also disposed after the fashion of royalty ; but appeared on the spot; for no artist, whether in the hair behind differs essentially from all the Greece or Rome, could have been more faithful bas-reliefs in other parts of the ruins. The to the proportions of nature, or shown more animal measures nineteen feet from the top of knowledge of the anatomy of their forms. But the crown to the hoof, and three compartments it must be observed that animal forms are given of cuneiform inscriptions are cut in the
wall over there with much more nicety in their limbs, his body:
muscles, and actions, than when the sculptor This is the only specimen known to exist in attempts the human form. This holds good in Persia of the human and bestial form combined. the antiquities of Egypt, Syria, and India.” Hence much learned speculation has been put On the inclined planes, corresponding to the forth to the world upon this subject. It is an slope of the stairs, there is a line of dwarf figures, enigma, however, which no one has yet solved answering in number to the steps, each of which satisfactorily; and which, unless the cuneiform appears to form a pedestal for a figure. A similar characters cut over the body could be deciphered, range appears on the opposite side. Both of must ever remain unsolved.
these are ought to represent the Doryphores, or On the south of the portal, there is a capacious body guards of the great king. cistern, eighteen feet long, by sixteen feet broad. Having ascended the second flight of stairs,
This was filled with water by subterraneous the traveller finds a triangular space formed by aqueducts, and it appears to have been hewn out the slope of the steps, which is filled up with the of the solid rock. To the south of this is the combat of the lion and the bull, occupying a magnificent terrace that supports the Hall of length of twenty-three feet. The space is divided Columns. This hall, peculiarly denominated by a tablet, on which are three rows of mutilated Chehilminar, or Palace of forty Čolumns, is ex- figures, covering an expanse of sixty-eight feet, ceedingly magnificent. They are approached by and ending at the top of the stairs of the outward a double staircase, projecting considerably before approach. The upper row of figures begins the northern face of the terrace. The ascent, with a chariot drawn by two bulls; then a like that of the great entrance from the plain, is second; then a horse, with the feet of a man, on very gradual; each flight containing only thirty the opposite side, as its attendant; then two other steps, each four inches high, fourteen broad, and horses; then five figures habited in short vests; sixteen feet long. The whole front of the and then with a succession of forty-four longadvanced range, as soon as the landing-place is robed spearmen. The second row commences gained, is replete with sculptures. The place with a range of thirty-two figures, clothed alterimmediately under the landing-place is divided nately in long and short robes, the former of into three compartments, on which, except the which represents the Median, and the latter the middle one, are inscriptions. To the left of it genuine Persian habit. After these figures, there are four standing figures, five feet six inches high, are twenty-eight robed Persians, armed with habited in long robes, with brogues like buskins spears, each bearing the same attitude, and on their feet, and holding each a short spear in having a fillet round his head, on which are the an upright position. Their heads are covered traces of leaves.
Twelve sculptured cypress with flute flat-topped caps, and a bow and quiver trees complete this bas-relief, and end near the hang from the left shoulder. On the right are stairs. The lowest row of figures is a line of three figures, looking towards these four, in every robed and tiara-capped personages, to the number respect similar, the bow and quiver excepted. of thirty-two. These are alternately arranged Instead of these, they carry a large shield on the with their brethren in tunics, and followed by a left arm, in the form of a Bætian buckler. The train of twenty-one guards, in the same uniform dress of these corresponds to the description as those described. This last row is more perfect which Herodotus gives of the Persians. He than the upper ones, inasmuch as it has been says: “The Persians wore small helmets on their preserved from the hand of the Gothlike deheads, which they call teàræ; their bodies were stroyers, by the heaps of ruin at its base. covered with tunics of different colours, having The wing on the opposite side of this magnifisleeves, and adorned with plates of steel, in imi- cent approach is like the one described, divided tation of the scales of fishes; their thighs were into three lines of bas-relief, each subdivided into defended, and they carried a kind of shield, called compartments by a large cypress tree. These gerra, beneath which was a quiver. They had bas-reliefs are adorned with figures of men with short spears, large bows, and arrows made of offerings, warriors, horses, chariots, colossal reeds; and on their right side a dagger suspended bulls, dromedaries, lions, the ibex, serpents, the from the belt.” This dress is what they called gurkur, or wild ass, etc.; on all which Ker the Median, and it was introduced by Cyrus into Porter remarks, Here, when comparing the Persia. The angular space on each side of these colossal proportions of the structure, and its groups
of spearmen are filled with representations gigantic sculptures, with the delicacy, beauty, of a combat between a lion and a bull. What and perfection of the execution of the ornaments, this represents is unknown; for the Persians I might say with the poet, were not accustomed, like the Romans, to enjoy the combats—if such be enjoyments—in an
Here the loves play on the bosom of Hercules."" arena fitted up for that purpose : these sculptured Like the former bas-reliefs, this latter is also