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destroyed by time, combined with the destructive these pillars is approached from the west by a mallet : thus does man destroy the works of his double flight of stairs in ruins, which have been brother man. Revenge, envy, and the lust of decorated with sculptured guards and other power have no regard for art and industry; and figures. This building is 170 feet by ninety-five. their mighty and beautiful works perish under | The eastern side is covered with fallen remains their evil influences.
and earth, so that it is impossible to discover a This last bas-relief is supposed to represent corresponding flight of stairs in that quarter. the feast at the vernal equinox, or feast of Nau- On the south, the entire face of the terrace suproose, when the Persians presented their annual porting this building is occupied with another gratuities to the monarch, and the governors of staircase, whose landing-place is forty-eight feet their provinces, with their delegates, brought in by ten wide. Its front is divided by a tablet with the annually collected tax from each, with a due a cuneiform inscription, on each side of which proportion of other offerings. Such a practice is stand spearmen of gigantic heights. North of still prevalent in Persia at the feast of Nauroose. this is an open space of sixty-five feet, on which
The traveller now gains the platform itself. appear the foundations of some narrow walls. And here nothing can be more sublime than the On each side of this, forty feet to the south, are view of its ruins ; so vast, magnificent, mutilated, two lofty entrances composed of four solid upright and silent. Every object is beautiful in desola- blocks of marble, nearly black. Within these tion! This pile is in length, from east to west, portals are bas-reliefs of two guards, each habited about 308 feet, and from north to south 350 feet. in the Median robe, and armed with a long spear. The greater part of it is covered with broken On the verge of the landing-place from the capitals, shafts of pillars, and fragments of build- western staircase, there is a portal of these long ing. The distribution of the pillars stood in four shielded guards; and a little onwards there is divisions, and consisted of a centre phalanx of another leading into a room of forty-eight feet six deep every way, with an advanced body of square. This room had formerly seven doors twelve in two ranks, and the same number flanking leading into it, but of these five only now remain. the centre. One only is now standing, and the These have all on their several sides duplicate shattered bases of nine only now remain, but the bas-reliefs of a royal personage, attended by two places of the others which completed the colon- men, one of whom holds an umbrella. Compartnade may still be traced. To the westward of ments of inscriptions are over the heads of these these appear another double range of columns, groups. To the south is another division of the five of which are still erect. From hence to the same edifice, forty-eight by thirty feet, and tereastern rang
of a similar number, is 268 feet. minating on each side, southward, on the landFour of these columns are still standing, and the ing-place, by a couple of square pillars of one enpedestals of four more are yet entire ; but the tire piece of marble, twenty-two feet high, and rest lie buried under masses of ruin. On the covered in different ranges with inscriptions in appearance of these three colonnades, Ker Porter different languages, Cufic, Arabic, and Persic. writes: “I gazed at them with wonder and The traces of a double colonnade are visible delight. Besides the admiration which the along the open space, between the western face of general elegance of their form, and the exquisite the greater terrace and the western face of this workmanship of their parts excited, I was never edifice. Thus there are three terraces from the made so sensible of the impression of perfect level of the plain. A fourth lies ninety-six feet symmetry, comprising that of perfect beauty south of the third, their summits being on a level also. The columns are each sixty feet high, the with each other. Three of the sides of the fourth circumference of their shaft sixteen feet, and in terrace are obscured by rubbish.
Along the length from the capital to the tor forty-four feet. northern verge, however, rises the heads of a line The shaft is finely fluted in fifty-two divisions : of figures, equal in size to those on the stairs of at its lower extremity begin a cincture and a the terrace of the double chamber. They are torus, the first two inches deep, the latter one armed with the bow and quiver. A flight of foot ; whence devolves the pedestal in the form ruined steps is found at the north-west angle, on of the cup, and leaves of a lotos, or lily. This which are the remains of fine bas-relief decorarests on a plinth of eight inches, and in circum- tion. The plane of this terrace is a square of ference twenty-four and a half feet; the whole, ninety-six feet, thirty-eight of which on the from the cincture to the plinth, being five feet ten western side are occupied by the depth of the inches in height. The capitals, which yet remain, approach. In this latter space there are the bases though much injured, are yet sufficient to show of ten columns, three feet three inches in diameter, that they were surmounted by the demi-bull. and standing ten feet equi-distant from each The heads of the bulls forming the capitals look other. Fifty-eight feet of this terrace, at its to the various fronts of the terrace.”
south-west angle, is surmounted by an additional About sixty feet from the eastern and western square elevation, the whole depth of which, from colonnades stood the central phalanx of pillars, summit to base, is sixty-two feet. Along its in number thirty-six. Five of these now only lower surface are the lower parts of twelve pillars remain. They are similar to those described, of the same diameter and distance from each except that they want five feet of the height other as in the neighbouring colonnade. Beyond Their fluted shafts are thirty-five feet high ; but the terrace of the double pillars rises another and their capitals are the same with those of the great more extensive elevation, apparently a part of the portal, where the crowned and winged bull royal residence itself. On the north of this is an appears so conspicuous. This phalanx of pillars immense heap of ruins, between which and the is supposed to have supported a roof connected terrace a spacious open area intervenes. Ker with the colonnades. The nearest building to Porter imagines that this mound is the ruins of the banqueting house, from which Alexander with the regal tiara, carries a long thin staff in issued forth with his drunken companions to his right hand, and in his left a lily. The broad desolate the palace. The fifth terrace is the belt and Median robe complete his attire. One most conspicuous on the whole platform, being of his attendants holds in both hands an umbrella at this date twenty feet above its level; it is also over his head, while the other waves a fly-chaser the most ruinous of the whole building. The in the same direction, grasping in his left hand several faces of the building, indeed, are now what probably signifies the royal handkerchief. marked by their foundations alone, one window These attendants are clad the long robe. The to the west and three to the east excepted. These group is sculptured on a marble stone sixteen faces open from two corresponding wings, each feet high and nine wide, which is surmounted by subdivided into three spacious apartments, the a block of smaller dimensions, also adorned with outer ones of which communicate with several a sculptured figure resembling the personage pillared quadrangles. In the centre of these below. This figure issues from a circle, whence quadrangles stands the plinth of four small diverge two strange floating forms, resembling columns, each having a diameter of two feet and serpents, with their heads concealed behind the a half, and sixteen feet from a door which leads figure. A pair of large wings spread themselves into a noble hall of ninety feet square. A door on each side of the circle. On the portals are on the opposite side corresponds with this, and duplicates of the same royal personage.. This both lead into quadrangles, similarly open, of four figure is seated on a chair of state, with his staff pillars. Another portal leads to the south, and a and lily. An attendant stands before him, waving fourth and fifth to the north, into a large vestibule, the fly-chaser over his head. The aërial form, the whole width of the hall, which is supported before described, hovers over him. In this quadby eight similar columns. Two doors lead from rangle four portals face each other. In the this vestibule, south and west, into six smaller centre of these portals, the plinths of four columns rooms, the windows of which are formed of four are still remaining, ten feet distant from each large slabs of marble, six feet thick, equivalent other, and four in diameter. This building is to the depth of the walls. On the inner faces of supposed to have been the private oratory of the the windows that admit light into the rooms there king, where he offered up his daily adorations to are duplicate bas-reliefs, occupying the whole Mezdan or Ormuzd. It is also conjectured that surface, and consisting of two figures each. The between these four pillars stood an altar conwindows of another room are ornamented with taining the sacred fire, which was the symbol of three bas-reliefs of figures, following each other, divinity among the ancient Persians. It is a and each one facing inward, as if directing their singular fact, that in this building there are no steps to the same spot. On the remnants of representations of guards round the various windows in another apartment are found similar effigies of the monarch to protect him. Perhaps bas-reliefs of three figures, some with their heads Ormuzd was considered a sufficient protector. covered, and some uncovered. All of these On the south-east of this edifice of the four carry something in their hands, as dishes, or pillars, is another ruined pile. A quadrangular bowls, as though they represented servants : two edifice of forty-eight feet, and another of thirty of them are in the Median dress, with their faces feet, separated from it by a wall, constitutes the uncovered. The door-frames have all one de- chief glory of this pile. These two apartments, scription of bas-relief, that of a royal personage, indeed, apparently complete the whole edifice; followed by two attendants bearing an umbrella but there is a continuation of foundation walls, and a fly-chaser. Over these bas-reliefs are with the fragments of columns, architraves, and three small compartments of cuneiform inscrip- other architectural adjuncts, supporting a roof. tions. At the sides of the open court are the At the extremities of the wall, southward, are remains of its once magnificent approaches; and two stones, each eighteen feet high, and from near that, eastward, rise from a hollow beneath three and a half to five feet wide. Two doorto a level with the pavement, four enormous ways have bas-reliefs of the double guard on supports, resembling rough formed pedestals, their sides, and another portal opens from the and which was intended to uphold some body of middle of the southern apartment into the enimmense weight. Opposite is a flight of steps, closed quadrangle. In the passage is the walking of a double ascent, beginning from beneath in- figure of a monarch, with his usual attendant; wardly. These steps are greatly decayed, and and the entrances which open into it from the bas-reliefs of guards, with duplicates of the east and west are ornamented with the combats combats between the bull and the lion, are simi- of a lion and a man, while those opening into it larly circumstanced. To the north of these from the north are decorated with representations steps, about sixty feet, are several colossal masses of spearmen. of stone, formerly the sides of gateways, leading North of this edifice there is another, next in into a square edifice of about ninety-six feet, extent to the Chehilminar, being a square of 210 which is small in proportion to the number and feet each face. Doors enter into this on every size of its entrances. Three of these doorways hand, but the grand portals are on the north. are yet entire. On the interior face of the door Nearly parallel with its eastern and western antoward the east, are three figures twelve feet high. gles are two colossal bulls, standing on immense These are representations of the monarch and pedestals. These bulls face the north: two his attendants. The visage of the monarch is others, at some distance from them, look due mutilated, but the air of his person is very south. These latter appear to have formed the majestic. A venerable beard is nicely disposed sides of a magnificent gateway. The sides of upon his breast, and there is a mass of hair curled the principal doors of this quadrangle are richly conspicuously covering his neck. He is covered | adorned with sculpture. The most conspicuous
is that of the monarch seated on his chair of wolf, the fore legs and body of a lion, the hinder state, with both feet resting on a footstool. This legs of an eagle, and the neck scaled or feathered chair (or, in other words, the state chair of Per- with a prickly mane. It has long wings stretchsia) resembles the high backed and carved chairs ing nearly to its tail
, which are formed of a of our ancestors in form, only it was gorgeously chain of bones like the vertebræ of the back inlaid with gold, covered with a carpet, and so
and cut with the most correct knowledge of high that a stool was always placed at its feet. animal anatomy. A crooked horn projects from Over the monarch's head are bas-relief orna- the head of this animal, which is grasped by the ments of a canopy supported by pillars, pro- bero, who is represented stabbing him. The fusely decorated with fretwork fringes, and other opponents of the pontiff king are those of borders of lions and bulls. On the legs of the a horned lion, and a unicorn-bull: all of these chair are the sculptured feet of a lion, and those must be looked upon as in the highest degree of a bull are found in the feet of the footstool. emblematical. Behind the monarch stands the fan-bearer, with It is supposed that the monstrous legends of his face muffled ; a second tunicked person bears Persian romance originated in these strange the royal bow and battle axe; and a third, combinations of human and bestial forms, and dressed in the Median habit, stands behind, especially the legends of their great poet, Fer. holding a long wand in both hands. At the foot doosi. There seems, indeed, to be a great anaof the throne are two vessels, with connecting logy between these latter sculptures and his chains to their covers. These probably were fictions; for he leads his hero, Isfendeear, filled with perfumes. A muffled attendant ap- through seven enchanted gates, the first of proaches from without the pillared frame, bring- which was defended by two wolves; the second ing a small metal-like pail, as though it contained by two lions; the third by a dragon; the fourth aromatics for the supply of the vessels. Behind by a demon devourer of the dead; the fifth by a the censers, and facing the monarch, there is a griffin ; the sixth by a cataract; and the seventh tunicked personage with a plain bonnet, having in by a lake and boundless mountains; all of which his left hand a short rod, and holding his right his hero overcomes. To such strange purposes hand to his mouth to prevent his breath exhal- can man pervert his intellect, that gift of Heaven, ing towards the monarch, to whom he bends as which is given to him to assist him in his jourhe addresses himself. Beyond the royal group, ney through life, and to glorify his Creator! and divided from it by a horizontal border, Besides these magnificent remains of this truly decked with roses, there are five ranges of at- wonderful platform, Sir Robert Ker Porter found tendants, containing fifty sculptured figures, in a several other splendid ruins at a place called the military dress.
Harem of Jemschid. These consisted chiefly of Beyond the northern front of the edifice above prostrate grey marble columns, highly ornadescribed, there are two portals pointing east and mented and fluted, remains of massy walls, and south. These portals are decorated with sculp- the marble work of several door-frames. This tured double guards, about twelve feet high. The harem stands about five miles north-east of Perfaces of these figures are two feet seven inches sepolis, and no doubt it was once a portion of long, of a beautiful colour, and exquisite work- this far-famed city. manship. Their spears are supposed to be Of tombs and sepulchral chambers hewn out nearly eighteen feet in length. Around and be- of the perpendicular face of rocks, there are setween these portals there are numerous frag- veral specimens at Nakshi Roostam, or portrait ments of columns, architraves, and other ruins, of Roostam. These excavations are very shalwhich indicate that formerly there was a covered low, and consist chiefly of an architectural froncolonnade in these parts. Sculptures are met tispiece or portico, richly adorned with sculpture with here similar to those found on the doors on
and other decorations. Four of these tombs are the north. On the compartments is another view evidently coeval with the building of the palace, of the monarch, attended only by his fly-chaser. and are those of the monarchs residing at PerseThe canopy over his head consists of fretted polis; the others, which are lower down, are rings, roses, etc., of the most exquisite sculpture. those of the Sassanian monarchs. Lions, the serpent-winged emblem, and the sculptured with equestrian figures of the Sassaunicorn-bull, fill two rows, while the ferwar, or nian monarchs, with Pehlivi inscriptions. Sir aërial figure, surmounts the whole, exhibiting a
William Ouseley supposes a small square edifice, fac-simile of the symbol below.
opposite to the sculptured rock of Nakshi RoosThe four portals of the quadrangle are deco- tam, to have contained the body of Cyrus; and rated with sculptured combats between a human its appearance is conformable to the idea given figure, usually denominated the pontiff king, of it by Strabo, who says, that “it was a tower and an animal form. The first bas-relief is in not large, having a very narrow entrance.” Arone of the doorways in the western face of the rian also says of it, that “it was situate in the building. The hero is clad in long robes, hav- royal garden, amid trees and running streams." ing his arms bare. In his left hand he grasps
This tomb, however, does not appear to be the strong single horn of the animal, which is clearly identified, for there are no traces of a on its forehead, while he thrusts his poniard into garden near the spot; the name of Cyrus, moreits body with his right hand. The animal has over, does not appear upon the inscription, and the head and neck of an eagle, and is covered St. Martin supposes that it rather refers to Arwith immense plumage half way down its back. taxerxes Ochus. Though wounded, it seems to oppose its adver- Such is the state of the once mighty city of sary with rampant violence. The corresponding Persepolis : such its ruins! They add their tessculpture presents an animal with the head of a | timony, with the many ancient cities now buried
beneath their own ruins, to the perishing nature In the summer, the temperature was so hot that of all human things. Though hewn out of the the court then removed to Ecbatana, the elevated “eternal rock,” yet time and the destroyer man, position and northern situation of which renhave laid the sublime palace of Istakher low. dered its summers cool and agreeable, while the No human head can find a shelter there, where severity of the cold in winter compelled a return the mighty monarchs of Persia once reposed. to Susa. The city was greatly improved by DaYes, this rock, though once cleft with nicest art rius Hystaspes ; and it would seem that the Perand industrious care, for the repose of poor mor- sian kings deposited their treasures and the retality, now mocks the traveller who seeks a re- cords of their kingdoms at Susa, conjointly with fuge there, like every earthly object, reminding Ecbatana. Nothing is known descriptively conhim that there is a Rock that never fails to shel-cerning its ancient condition, except that Strabo ter those that seek a refuge. That Rock is relates, it was built of brick like Babylon, was of Christ, 1 Cor. x. 4.
an oblong figure, and 120 stadia (about fourteen miles) in circumference. The palace was accounted one of the
most magnificent royal residences in This ancient town of Persia is said to have the world. The wealth of Susa was immense. In been built by Cyrus, after his victory over Asty- an account where Aristagoras comes before Cleoages the Mede, which he gained near this place. menes, to tempt him to foreign conquests, having Plutarch says that the kings of Persia were con- with him a brazen tablet, on which was engraved secrated at Pasagardæ by the magi; and Strabo the circuit of the earth, with its seas and rivers, and Arrian relate, that the tomb of Cyrus was he points, among other places, to Susa, saying: at this place. Their description of its situation “On the banks of the Choaspes stands Susa, has been seen in the preceding article. The where the great king fixes his residence, and lower part of the tomb, they say, was of a quad- where are his treasures. Master of that city, you rangular shape, and above it there was a cham- may boldly vie with Jupiter himself for riches.” ber built of stone, with an entrance so narrow, Susa has been called Memnonia, or the palace of that it was difficult for a man to pass through it. Memnon, because that prince reigned there. The Aristobulus entered this chamber, and found in poet Milton makes allusion to this, in a passage it a golden couch, a golden coffin, a table with wherein he finely illustrates the road which Death cups upon it, and many beautiful garments, and Satan made over chaos, by that which Xerswords, and chains. This writer says that the xes made over the Hellespont. inscription on the tomb read thus: “O man, I am Cyrus, who acquired sovereignty for the
“So, if great things to small may be compared,
Xerxes, the liberty of Greece to yoke, Persians, and was king of Asia. Do not, then, From Susa, his Memnonium palace high, grudge me this monument.” Magi guarded the Came to the sea; and, over Hellespont tomb, who received daily offerings of sheep,
Bridging his way, Europe with Asia join'd; wine, and wheat, which were given in honour of
And scourged with many a stroke the indignant Cyrus. The tomb was plundered in the days of Alexander by robbers, who carried away every
There has been much dispute concerning the thing but the golden couch and coffin, which site of Susa. That it stood upon the Eulæus they were probably not able to remove through (Ulai,) as well as upon the Choaspes, is generally the aperture of the chamber.
allowed. Herodotus calls it the river of ChoThe site of Pasagardæ has been much dis- aspes, but he makes no mention of Eulæus, and puted. Many imagine that it is to be identified he says that its waters were so pure and wholewith Persepolis; but there appears to be little
some that the Persian kings drank of no other. doubt that they are distinct places. As such Milton has confined the use of the waters of the they are mentioned by Strabo, Arrian, and Choaspes as a beverage to kings alone, instead of Pliny, the latter of whom says that Pasagardæ confining the kings to the use of those waters : was to the east of a town called Laodicea, of
“There Susa hy Choaspes' amber stream, which nothing is known. Lassen thinks, that
The drink of none but kings.”* we ought to look for Pasagardæ south-east of Persepolis, in the neighbourhood of Fasa. This
Usually, the city of Susa has been identified is the most probable conjecture yet formed on
with Shuster ; but Major Rennell, in which Kinthe subject, but after all, it is but conjecture, for neir, after recapitulating the arguments on both time has done its work effectually with reference sides, agrees, preferred to find it at Shus, a city to Pasagardæ, by having swept its every re
commencing about thirty-six miles more to the mains, great and noble as they may have been, west, or nearer to Babylon. This is the most from off the face of the earth.
probable site of the ancient Susa, for Shuster is
a modern city compared with Sus, or Susa, being SUSA.
founded by Schabour I., in commemoration of Susa, which was so called from the lily, with his victory over the Roman emperor Valerian ; which flower the place abounded, was one of the and oriental traditions state that Roman captives royal cities of Persia. In the prophecies of Daniel, it is called Shushan, Dan. viii
. 2. It ap- • Jortin remarks upon this passage : "I am afraid pears to have existed as a city from the remotest
Milton is here mistaken. That the kings of Persia drank
no water but that of the river Choaspes is well known: ages, and is said to have been first made a resid
that none but kings drank of it, is what, I believe, cannot ence of the Persian court by Cyrus. The kings be proved.”. He concludes his criticism upon this pasof Persia resided at Susa during the whole or
sage by saying, that Milton, by his calling it "amber part of the winter, the climate and local position stream," seems to have had in view the golden water of
Agathocles. But this is not probable, for Milton rarely rendering the temperature mild in that season. commits errors in matters of history.
are no rivers
were employed in its erection. Besides, there , authors of some oriental works, mostly geogra
near Shuster corresponding to phical, I have pursued the tradition to Hamdalla the Choaspes and the Eulæus, while the Kerah Cazvini, of the fourteenth century, and from and the Ab-i-zal, which flow, the former to the him through Benjamin of Tudela, to Ebu Hawwest, and the latter to the east of the ruins of kel, who travelled in the tenth century.' The Sus, may be fairly presumed to be those ancient passage in Ebn Hawkel's work runs thus: “ In streams. Kinneir, speaking of the ruins of Sus, the city of Sus there is a river, and I have heard says : “On its long mounded tract, we indeed that in the time of Abou Mousa al Ashari, a find the remains of the once favourite capital of coffin was found there, and it is said the bones of Cyrus ; that we see the classic Choaspes of He- Daniel the prophet (to whom be peace !) were in rodotus in the Kerah, the waters of which were that coffin. These the people held in great vesacred to the lip of majesty alone; and in its neration, and in time of distress of famine neighbouring river, the Ab-i-zal, we find the through drought, they brought them out and still more hallowed' Eulæus, or Ulai, which the prayed for rain. Abou Mousa al Ashari ordered Scriptures describe as the scene of Daniel's pro- this coffin to be brought, and three coverings or phetic vision : • And it came to pass, I was at lids to be made for it; the first or outside of Shushan in the palace, which is in the province which was of boards, exceedingly strong, and of Elam ; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the caused it to be buried, so that it could not be river of Ulai, Dan. viii. 2.” Strabo, it may be viewed. A bay or gulf of the river comes over added, speaks of the “rivers which pass by this grave, which may be seen by any one who Susa,” which Gosselin explains as having refer- dives to the bottom of the water. Sir William ence to the Choaspes and Ēulæus, or Ulai, as dif- Ousely thus describes the tomb as it now exists : ferent streams.
I was finally driven by the heat to the tomb of The ruins of Shus are very extensive, stretch- Daniel, or, as he is called in the east, Danyall, ing about twelve miles from one extremity to which is situated in a most beautiful spot, the other. They extend as far as the eastern washed by a clear running stream, and shaded bank of the Kerah, occupy a large space between by planes and other trees, of ample foliage. The that river and the Ab-i-zal, and, like the ruins of building is of Mohammedan date, and inhabited Babylon, Ctesiphon, and Kufah, consist of hillocks by a solitary dervise, who shows the spot where of earth and rubbish, covered with broken pieces the prophet is buried, beneath a small and of brick and coloured tile; thereby correspond- simple square brick mausoleum, said to be, withing to the ancient Susa, which was entirely built out probability, coeval with his death. It has,
brick, an additional proof that the ruins of however, neither date nor inscription to prove Shus represent the ancient Susa, for Shuster is the truth or falsehood of the dervise's assertion. celebrated for its stone-erected houses, and for its The small river running at the foot of this buildquarries of stone.
ing, which is called the Bellaran, flows, it has The largest and most remarkable mounds in been said, immediately over the prophet's tomb, these ruins stand about two miles from Kerah. and by the transparency of the water, his coffin The first is computed to be a mile in circumfer- was to be seen at the bottom. But the dervise ence, and nearly 100 feet in height; and the and the natives whom I questioned remembered other, although not quite so high, about double no tradition corroborating such a fact. It has the circuit of the former. They are composed of at all times been customary with the people huge masses of sun-dried brick and courses of of the country to resort hither on certain days of burned brick and mortar. Large blocks of mar- the month, when they offer up prayers at the ble, covered with hieroglyphics, are frequently tomb in supplication to the prophet's shade! found here by the Arabs, who distinguish these and by becoming his guests for the night, extwo great mounds by the name of the Castle and pect remission of all present grievances, and an the Palace; and they may be supposed to re- insurance against those to come.” present the celebrated fortress which Molon, This author has also given a translation of a after having won the city, was unable to take, Persian manuscript, in which the following suand the palace of Susa.
perstitious legend occurs, relative to the tomb of At the foot of the most elevated of these Daniel : “ Abou Mousa having pillaged the termounds stands the tomb of Daniel, a small and ritory of Ahwaz, proceeded to Susa, where he apparently modern building, erected on the spot slew the governor, a Persian prince, named where the relics of that prophet are believed to Shapoor, the son of Azurmahan. Then he enrest. A dervise resides there, who points to the tered the castle and palace of that prince, and grave of “the man greatly beloved,” with as seized all the treasure there, deposited in differmuch homage as if it belonged to the arch- ent places, until he came to a certain chamber, impostor Mohammed himself, or to the Imaum the door of which was strongly fastened, a Hosein. Though the tomb is comparatively a leaden seal being affixed to the lock. Abou modern structure, the Jew, Arab, and Mussul- Mousa inquired of the people of Sus what preman believe, from tradition, that it does indeed cious article was guarded with such care in contain the remains of the prophet.
this chamber. They assured him that he would The earliest notice of the tomb of Daniel was not regard it as a desirable object of plunder; given by Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Asia but his curiosity was roused, and he caused the towards the latter part of the thirteenth century.
lock to be broken, and the door to be opened. Latterly, Sir William Ouseley has written much | In the chamber he beheld a stone of considerupon the subject. He says, “ The local traditionable dimensions hollowed out into the form of which fixes Daniel's tomb at Susa, seems worthy a coffin, and in that the body of a dead man, of investigation. Through the more modern wrapped in a shroud or winding sheet of gold