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Drop down, ye heavens, from above,

eyes from coveting that which belongs to another. And let the skies pour down righteousness :

3. To have a care always to speak the truth. 4. Let the earth open, and let them bring forth salvation, And let righteousness spring up together;

To attend closely to his sacerdotal functions, and I the Lord have created it."-Isa. xlv. 8.

not meddle with worldly matters. 5. To con

the book of the law by heart, that he may be As might be expected, the magi in Persia always able to instruct the multitude therein. were the guardians of all ceremonies relating to To keep himself pure and undefiled. 7. To be divine worship. It was to them that the people ready to forgive injuries, showing himself a had recourse in order to be instructed therein, pattern of meekness. 8. To teach the common and to know on what day, to what gods, and after people to pray according to the law, and to pray what manner, they were to offer their sacrifices. with them. 9. To give licenses for marriage, As the magi were all of one tribe, and as none and to take care that parents do not marry chilbut the son of a priest could pretend to the dren without his approbation. 10. To spend the honour of the priesthood, they monopolized all greatest part of his time in the temple, that he knowledge and all learning, whether in religious may be ready to assist all who come to him. 11. or political concerns, to themselves and families. To believe no other law than that given by ZoIt was unlawful for them to instruct any stranger roaster; to add nothing thereto, nor to take in these matters, without the king's permission. aught therefrom. Hence, when the favour was granted to Themis- Many of these precepts are evidently derived tocles, it was, says Plutarch, the effect of the from the Hebrew Scriptures. monarch's peculiar favour.

It would appear that the ancient Persians kept The magi were divided into three classes. six festivals annually, in memory of the six The first class consisted of inferior priests, who seasons, wherein they believed all things were conducted the ordinary ceremonies of religion; created. After each of these feasts, they kept a the second presided over the sacred fire; the fast of five days, in memory of God's resting five third was the archimagus, or high priest, who days, as they believed, at each of those seasons. possessed authority over the whole order. They When they ate flesh, fowl, or fish, they carried a had three kinds of temples. First, common small portion of it to the temple as an offering to oratories, in which the people performed their God, beseeching him that he would pardon them devotions, and where the sacred fire was pre- for taking away the lives of his creatures, in orserved in lamps ; second, public temples, with der to their own subsistence. altars, on which the fire was kept constantly Concerning the dignity and sanctity of the burning, where the higher order of the magi matrimonial institution, the Persians entertained directed the public devotions, and the people similar degrading notions with the Babylonians. assembled to perform magical incantations, hear Polygamy and incest were carried to a fearful interpretations of dreams, and practise various extent among them ; such having the sanction superstitions ; and thirdly, the grand seat of the of the religion of Zoroaster. These facts teach archimagus, which was visited by the people at us from what an abyss of iniquity the gospel has certain seasons with peculiar solemnity, and to delivered us, and how weak a barrier human which it was deemed an indispensable duty that wisdom is of itself against

the most extravagant every one should repair at least once during his and abominable crimes. The ceremony of marlife. This leads to a notice of the religious rites riage was in unison with their notions of its inand ceremonies practised and sanctioned by the stitution. magi.

Equally abominable and revolting was the Religious rites and ceremonies.The ancient disposal of the dead by the Persians. The anmagi were bound to discharge their sacerdotal cients, generally, had great horror at the idea of offices with exactness and devotion. Their public not receiving the rites of burial. Hence, when worship was thus performed :-In every pyreum, Ulysses visited the infernal regions, he is made or fire temple, there was an altar, on which the sacred fire was preserved. When the people

There, wandering through the gloom, I first survey'd, assembled to worship, the priest put on a white New to the realms of death, Elpenor's shade; habit and a mitre, with a gauze, or cloth, passing His cold remains, all naked to the sky, before his mouth, that he might not breathe on

On distant shores unwept, unburied, lie.” the boly element. He then read certain prayers The ghost is represented as imploring of in a mumbling tone, holding in his left hand some Ulysses the rites of sepulture in these strains : small twigs of a sacred tree, probably the rose tzeh, which, when the service was ended, he • But lend me aid, I now conjure thee, lend, threw into the fire. When prayers were finished,

By the soft tie, and sacred name of friend,

By thy fond consort, by thy father's cares, the priest and people withdrew silently, and with By loved Telemachus's blooming years. other tokens of solemnity. These rites are still observed among the parsees; but according to

The tribute of a tear is all I crave,

And the possession of a peaceful grave.” Hyde, the priests now inform the people on their departure, whence it is they worship before the In Holy Writ, also, we meet with many affire, and why they are called upon to regard it fecting instances of the care with which the with reverence. This, he says, is to preserve ancient orientals_buried their dead. But it was them from idolatry.

not so with the Persians. Their kings, indeed, According to Lord, the duty of the priesthood had the privilege of having their bodies depoof Persia is comprised in the eleven following sited in rocky vaults, as in the tombs at Nakshrules: 1. The observance of the rites prescribed i-Rustam and Naksh-i-Rejob. But this was not, in the liturgy of Zoroaster. 2. To keep his properly speaking, inhumation, or putting them

to say:

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within the surface of the earth; it was simply a state of the deceased's future felicity; and if he deposition of them in a rocky excavation. The can be allured to take a bit out of the dead common manner of disposing of their dead was far man's mouth, it is an infallible sign of his going different from this. As, in their religion, the four to heaven; but in case the dog be not hungry, elements, fire, earth, air, and water, symbolized, or loathes the object, or refuses the morsel, the though not in equal degrees, the Divine Being, case of the deceased is then considered past all great care was taken to preserve them from hope.” He adds, that the dog, in the instance coming into contact with each other. Hence, before us, could not be induced to come near the as they held also that all bodies were composed corpse. of these elements, they would not suffer them to The place of sepulture at Surat may probably be buried, for fear of contaminating the earth. illustrate some of the ancient raised places On the contrary, they exposed the body on a whereon the dead were exposed. It is described high tower, that each of the four elements, by as enclosed with a wall twelve feet high, and 100 its gradual decay, might obtain its own. Some in circumference. In the middle, was a stone affirm that separate towers were erected for the door, six feet from the ground, which was opened good and the evil; others say, that men, women, to receive the corpse. The ground within the and children were placed on different towers. walls is raised four feet, and made shelving toThis was adopted to preserve the purity of the wards the centre, where there is a sink for reelements; but wild beasts, dogs, and birds of ceiving the moisture which continually falls prey, were suffered to devour them, as they con- from the carcases. Here the body is left to be sidered that, the bodies being thus entombed in devoured by vultures. After it has been there the bowels of those animals, the earth was not for a day or two, some of the nearest relations defiled nor the air polluted.

come to see the state of the body, and if the This custom of exposing their dead to be de- vultures have first plucked out the right eye, it voured by beasts or birds, was a great barrier in is taken as an indication of the felicity of the the way of people's becoming proselytes to the departed; if the left, they are assured he is magian religion. After the Armenians had miserable. The scene within is described as rereceived the Christian faith, it rendered the volting and offensive to the last degree: manmagian name and religion odious to them, and gled bodies, and gorged vultures, still feeding on it was a frequent cause of revolt in that country their fetid prey, compose the horrid picture. To against the authority of the Persians. This such revolting customs has the false religion of custom was, indeed, anciently esteemed so bar- Zoroaster given birth. barous by other nations, that Theodoret, speak- Truly there is no religion to be compared with ing of the good effect Christianity had on men's that of the Bible ; for it not only teaches man the minds, in reforming them from brutal and wicked true way of salvation, but his duties toward habits, mentions expressly that the Persians, both the dead and the living. Carry your since they had received its doctrines, no more thoughts back, reader, to the patriarchal age, exposed the bodies of their dead, but gave them and witness the conduct of the faithful Abraham, a decent burial.

when his beloved Sarah was torn by death from Similar practices, with reference to the dead, his arms. Did he barbarously expose her reare common among the modern parsees or mains to the wild beasts of the field, and to the Ghabrs to this day. When a person is dead, cruel birds of prey ? Oh no! He earnestly the priest does not approach the body, but the sought a burying place of Ephron, the son of corpse is put on an iron bier, and carried to the Zohar, that he might, to use his own beautiful place of exposure. The body is placed on the and tender expression, “bury the dead out of tower; the priest standing at a distance, performs his sight.” His desire was gratified, and he the funeral service, which concludes in these acted accordingly. Carry your thoughts further words: “ This, our brother, while he lived, con- down into time, and see with what tenderness sisted of the four elements ; now he is dead, let that faithful friend of the Saviour, Joseph of each take his own : earth to earth, air to air, Arimathea, assisted by others, buried him in his water to water, fire to fire.” They suppose that own “new sepulchre.” To use the idea supplied the spirit wanders about three days after its de- by the poetparture from the body, and that it is during that

There buried they time pursued and tormented by Ahriman, till it The heavenly earth; there let it softly sleep, is able to reach their sacred fire, near which he The fairest Shepherd of the fairest sheep :

And all the body kiss'd, then homeward went to weep." cannot approach. Accordingly, they pray morn

GILES FLETCHER. ing, noon, and night, during these three days, for the soul of their deceased brother, beseeching Look into our own burying places, and see God to blot out his sins and cancel his offences. there what Christian affection does for those On the fourth day, supposing his fate determined, once tenderly loved on earth. There they rest they make a great feast, which closes the cere- in peace, till the last trumpet shall sound, and monies used on that occasion.

call them back to life again. As we wept over A late writer, who witnessed a parsee funeral our Christian friends, and committed their boat Surat, says, that “as soon as the corpse was dies to the earth, we felt that we could lie down laid down in the open field near the burial place, with them in their graves, and be at peace. And or rather cemetery, some friend of the dead per- yet, not sorrowing as those without hope, we exson hunted about in the neighbouring villages claimed, as we turned from the mournful scene, till he found a dog, whom with a cake he en- with the apostle, “ If we believe that Jesus died ticed to come near the corpse ; for the nearer the and rose again, even so them also which sleep in dog approaches, the better hope they have of the Jesus will God bring with him,” i Thess. iv. 14.

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Forbear, then, ye learned, to compare the reli- which he endeavoured to dissuade Cræsus from gion of Zoroaster with that of the Bible.

invading Persia: “ If you conquer them,” he asks pertinently, “What can you take from such

as have nothing ?” After the Lydian conquest, Concerning this caste of Persia, very little is B.C. 548, the Persians, becoming masters of só known. It would appear, however, that they many rich provinces, it is probable that they apworked by rule, and that the rule was fixed by plied their minds to trade and navigation, to the monarch himself; at least the poet says that supply themselves with commodities which their it was so fixed by Jemshid. They were un- country wanted, and to dispose of their own sudoubtedly an oppressed class of people, as may perabundance. On this subject, however, no be seen from the annexed quotation from Fer- authentic information has been handed down to dusi.

us by ancient historians; yet it is probable that " The Ahmenshuhi class combined

commerce obtained increased attention, from their Men of ingenious hand, and active mind;

luxurious mode of living in later ages, which will Laborious, staid, who crafts of skill espouse,

be seen in the succeeding section of the kingdom While care and want deep grave their wrinkled brows. In fifty years the monarch (Jemshid) fixed the place

of Persia ; and which was one of the chief causes Of this, the artist and mechanic race;

of the declension of their empire. Selecting one from each, the task to guide By rules of art—himself the rules applied." To what perfection architecture was brought among the Persians, may be seen in the descrip

CHAPTER IV. tion of the ruins of Persepolis. It is not so cer

THE KINGDOM OF PERSIA. tain, however, that the vast structures in Asia were as remarkable for their beauty and sym

PERSIAN KINGS. metry, as they were for their magnitude and

The early history of Persia is involved in imextent.

penetrable obscurity. The Persian writers have HUSBANDMEN.

so surrounded it with romance, with tales of By Ferdusi this class of people among the griffins, monsters, giants, and fairies, that no soPersians is called, “ The full of wisdom,” and ber account can be collected from their writings. it would appear from him, that they were supe- According to them, some of the kings of the rior to the order of artificers.

first Persian dynasty, called the Pischdadian, "Remote from haughtier sway, and lust of fame,

reigned from 500 to 1000 years each. Dr. Tillage and harvest-toils their simple aim;

Hales has, indeed, corrected these extravagant No cries of hunger rise, nor famines come

reigns, by the soberer accounts of other oriental To stint their meals, or scare their humble home; From cold, from want secure, their peaceful ear

writers, so as to reduce the length of the dynasty Rings not of doom, nor sounds of death and fear.

to a moderate compass; that is, from B.C. 2190 Yes! these are blest; but mark this maxim grave, to B.C. 1661. But still, no authentic accounts 'Sloth turns the happy freeman to a slave.'"

have reached us of the actions of these monarchs; Agriculture was one of the objects on which

and the reader can only be referred to the table the Persians principally bestowed their care and

of dynasties at the close of this history, for their attention. One of the chief cares of their mo- probable names. narchs was to make husbandry flourish; and

At the close of this dynasty, it would appear those satraps whose provinces were the best cul- that a long period succeeded, of more than 1,000 tivated, enjoyed his highest favour. Agriculture years, during which Iran, or Persia, was subject was, also, encouraged by the precepts of Zoro

to the empire of Turan, and afterwards of Assyaster. By that sagacious but interested teacher, ria, until the revival of the second Persian dythey were recommended to plant useful trees, to nasty of the Kaianites, B.C. 641, when Cyaxares convey water to the dry lands, and to work out began to reign over Media, under the ancient their salvation by pursuing all the labours of title kai, or king, and Persia became subject to agriculture. By thus connecting the temporal

the Median power. and future interests of his followers, agriculture

During the Assyrian and Median dominations, flourished exceedingly. Hence it was that the the Persians, according to the Greek writers, Persians, under the Sassanian dynasty, rose to

were still governed by their native princes, as as great a pitch of prosperity as could be ex

was the usage throughout the east. Thus Xepected under a despotic government, and the nophon traces the pedigree of Cyrus up to Perphysical disadvantages of a dry and parched soil

, ses, who gave name to the country; and Herothe want of navigable rivers, and commercial dotus notices his ancestors, Achemenes, the ports.

ath er of Teipses, the father of Cambyses, the

father of Cyrus. Concerning the sovereigns of From the last clause in the foregoing sentence,

Persia, however, before the downfal of the Meit will be seen that the Persians laboured under

dian empire, nothing can be recorded ; and the a great disadvantage with reference to commerce.

proper history of the empire of the Persians From this cause, indeed, the Persians never were

commences with a commercial people. Anciently, they were utter strangers to gainful commerce. Clad in the According to Xenophon, this prince, whose untanned skins of beasts, they drank the water name is equally celebrated both in sacred and of the brook, and ate whatever their barren profane history, was the son of Cambyses, king country produced, and were contented. This of Persia, and of Mandane, daughter of Astyages, appears from the speech of the wise Sardanis, in i king of the Medes. He was born about B.č. 599,




In early life, Cyrus appears to have given vasion of Media and Persia. His reasons for promise of future greatness, whence the mar- this were, that he deemed it more prudent his vellous tales recorded of him by both Persian army should eat up the enemy's country than and Greek writers. His childhood was spent their own ; that so bold a step would strike terwith his parents in Persia, where he was trained ror in the forces of the enemy, and inspire his in the Persian simplicity of manners, and inured own with confidence ; and that it was a maxim to fatigue and hardship till he was twelve years with him, as it had been with Cambyses, his old. At this date, he went on a visit with his father, that victory did not so much depend upon mother to his grandfather, Astyages, to whom the number as the valour of troops. As soon, he much endeared himself. He also gained the therefore, as the customary sacrifices were offered affections of the grandees, and of the Medes in to the tutelary gods of the Medes and Persians, general, by his courteous behaviour. Nature, Cyrus marched forward with his hosts, in search who usually makes a very pleasing discovery of of the confederates. He found them encamped herself in children, exhibited her charms in Cy- in the open country of Assyria, where he atrus in an extraordinary degree.

tacked and routed them, and stormed their When about fifteen or sixteen years of age, camp. Evil Merodach, the king of Babylon, was B.C. 584, Cyrus attended his grandfather in an slain in the engagement. The rest of the conexpedition against Evil Merodach, the son of federates, among whom was Cræsus, king of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, who made a Lydia, being greatly dispirited, retreated homepredatory excursion into the Median territories. wards, pursued by Cyrus. Chiefly by the valour of young Cyrus, the Baby- The next notable act of Cyrus was, his invalonians were repulsed, which raised his fame still sion of Assyria. In this enterprise, he received more among the Medes. The next year Cyrus great assistance from Gobryas and Gadatas, two returned to Persia, where he continued till the noblemen, who had been grievously injured by death of his grandfather, Astyages, and the ac- Belshazzar, the son and successor of Evil Merocession of his uncle, Cyaxares, B.C. 566.

dach. Acting upon the principle of revenge, In the year B.C. 559, Cyrus succeeded to the which is ever sweet to an unregenerate heart, throne of Persia. His first act after his acces- they surrendered to Cyrus_the provinces and sion was, to wage war with Evil Merodach, who, castles intrusted to them. Belsházzar took the two years before, had succeeded his father, Ne- field in order to punish Gadatas for his rebelbuchadnezzar, at Babylon.

lion. He was encountered and defeated by CyEvil Merodach, ambitious of adding Media to rus, who forced him to return with great loss to his empire, which comprehended Syria, and As- Babylon. This defeat is dated by Dr. Hales, syria, Hyrcania, Bactria, and Arabia, formed a B.c. 554. The next year he was slain by conpowerful confederacy of the neighbouring states, spirators, and Cyaxares, or Darius the Mede, the Lydians, Cappadocians, Phrygians, Carians, took possession of his kingdom, appointing NaPaphlagonians, and Cilicians, westwards ; and bonadius king, or viceroy, as before recorded. the Indians, or Turanians, eastwards, against the (See the History of the Assyrians and Chaldeans, Medes and Persians; alleging, that by their page 46.) junction and intermarriages, they were grown so After the death of Cyaxares, B.c. 551, Cyrus great and powerful, that unless they were op- succeeded to the inheritance of the empire of posed with their united forces, the confederates Media and Babylonia by right, according to sawould be reduced by them separately. The cred history, and confirmed by the poet Æschylus, Medes and Persians combined their forces, and who fought at Marathon against the Persians, Cyrus was appointed general.

and was acquainted with Persian affairs.* The king of Armenia, who was a vassal of The accession of Cyrus was followed by the the Medes, looking upon them as destroyed by capture of many cities, and the reduction of sethe confederacy, deemed this a favourable oppor- veral provinces, which so alarmed Cræsus, king tunity of shaking off their yoke. Accordingly, of Lydia, that he assembled his forces, and comhe refused to pay Cyaxares the usual tribute, menced hostilities: the particulars may be seen and to provide him with the number of troops in the History of the Lydians. See page 70, etc. which, as a vassal, he should furnish in time of These events occurred B.C. 548. The next

This greatly embarrassed the Median year Cyrus reduced some revolted cities of Meking; but Cyrus, by a rapid expedition into Ar- dia, namely, Larissa and Mespila ; while Harpamenia, surprised the king and his family, obliged gus, his general, was engaged in subduing Asia him to pay the usual tribute, and to send his Minor, Ionia, and Halicarnassus, the native city quota of auxiliary troops, after which he re- of Herodotus. stored to him his kingdom.

After this, Cyrus prosecuted the war against Before Cyrus quitted Armenia, he rendered the eastern confederates, and reduced all Syria the king some essential service. At this time, he and Arabia ; and Nabonadius having rebelled was at war with the Chaldeans, who dwelt in against him, he at length invested Babylon, the north of Armenia, and who being a warlike which was the only city that now held out people, continually harassed his country by against him. Nabonadius, or, as Herodotus their inroads, thereby hindering a great part of terms him, Labynetus, marched out to fight him, his lands from being cultivated. Cyrus marched

• Dr. Hales states, however, that “the actual comagainst, and defeated them, and after making a

mencement of his full sovereignty” was B. c. 536, when treaty with them to the effect that they should he captured Babylon, and defeated Nabonadius, who had no more invade Armenia, he returned to Media. been appointed king, or viceroy, by his uncle Cyaxares. The next year, B.c. 558, due preparations be

(See the History of the Assyrians, etc., page 46;) and who

had rebelled against him, as described in a succeeding ing made, Cyrus anticipated the threatened in- 1 paragraph.


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but was defeated and driven into Borsippa, the mingled people that dwell in the desert, and citadel of Babylon, where Cyus besieged him all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of and the town for two years, B.c. 538.

Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, and all The siege of Babylon was no easy enterprise. the kings of the north, far and near, one with The walls of it were of a prodigious height; a another, and all the kingdoms of the world, numerous army defended it from within, and it which are upon the face of the earth : and the was stored with provisions sufficient to support king of Sheshach ['the drunkard’ city of Babythe inhabitants for some years. But these dif- lon) shall drink after them,” Jer. xxv. 11–26. ficulties did not discourage Cyrus from pursuing The retaliation of Divine vengeance in the his design. Despairing, however, of taking the invasion of Babylon by the Medes and Persians, place by storm or assault, he made the inhabit- the surprise of the city unawares, the slaughter ants believe he would try to reduce it by famine. of its inhabitants, and its final destruction, He caused a line of circumvallation to be drawn are thus described by the same prophet, in the round the city, with a large and deep ditch; and fourth year of Zedekiah, B.c. 593 : that his troops might not be worn out by labour, he divided his army into twelve bodies, and as

“ Declare ye among the nations, signed each of them its month for guarding the

And publish, and set up a standard;

Publish, and conceal not: trenches. The besieged saw his mighty labour, Say, Babylon is taken, and laughed him to scorn, deeming themselves Bel is confounded,

Merodach is broken in pieces; out of danger by reason of their ramparts and

Her idols are confounded, magazines.

Her images are broken in pieces. But Babylon was founded in impious pride For out of the north there cometh up a nation against and rebellion against God; and many a woe was


Which shall make her land desolate, denounced against her in Scripture for her cry

And none shall dwell therein: ing sins and abominations, by the Hebrew pro- They shall remove, they shall depart, phets.

Both man and beast."-Jer. L. 2, 3. The duration of her empire for seventy years, " Remove out of the midst of Babylon, while she was destined to scourge the corrupt And go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans, nations of the earth, and her own ensuing deso

And be as the he goats before the flocks.

For, lo, I will raise lation, are thus described by Jeremiah, in the

And cause to come up against Babylon first year of Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 604:

An assembly of great nations from the north country: “ And this whole land [Palestine] shall be And they shall set themselves in array against her; a desolation, and an astonishment; and these

From thence she shall be taken:

Their arrows shall be as of a mighty expert man; nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy None shall return in vain." --Jer. 1.8, 9. years. And it shall come to pass, when seventy

“ Behold, I will punish the king of Babylon and his land, years are accomplished, that I will punish the

As I have punished the king of Assyria.”—Jer. 1. 18. king of Babylon, and that nation, saith the Lord, for their iniquity, and the land of the

“ Go up against the land of Merathaim,

Even against it, and against the inhabitants of Pekod: Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desola- Waste and utterly destroy after them, saith the Lord, tions. And I will bring upon that land all my

And do according to all that I have commanded thee. words which I have pronounced against it, even

A sound of battle is in the land, all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah

And of great destruction.

How is the hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and hath prophesied against all the nations. For

broken! many nations and great kings shall serve them- How is Babylon become a desolation among the naselves of them also: and I will recompense them

tions !

I have laid a snare for thee, and thou art also taken, according to their deeds, and according to the O Babylon, and thou wast not aware: works of their own hands. For thus saith the Thou art found, and also caught, Lord God of Israel unto me; Take the wine

Because thou hast striven against the Lord.

The Lord hath opened his armoury, cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the

And hath brought forth the weapons of his indignation : nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it. And For this is the work of the Lord God of hosts they shall drink, and be moved, and be mad, be- In the land of the Chaldeans."-Jer. L.21--25. cause of the sword that I will send among them. “ A sword is upon the Chaldeans, saith the Lord, Then took I the cup at the Lord's hand, and And upon the inhabitants of Babylon, made all the nations to drink, unto whom the

And upon her princes, and upon her wise men. Lord had sent me: to wit, Jerusalem, and the

A sword is upon the liars--and they shall dote:

A sword is upon her mighty men-and they sha!l be cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the dismayed. princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, astonishment, an hissing, and a curse; as it is

And upon all the mingled people that are in the midst

of her; this day; Pharaoh king of Egypt, and his serv- And they shall become as women: ants, and his princes, and all his people; and A sword is upon her treasures--and they shall be all the mingled people, and all the kings of the

robbed. land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the

A drought is upon her waters—and they shall be dried

up : Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and For it is the land of graven images, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod, Edom, And they are mad upon their idols."-Jer. 2.35—38. and Moab, and the children of Ammon, and all

The prophet describes circumstantially, in the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are * In the east, sheep and goats frequently mingle in the beyond the sea, Dedan, and Tema, and Buz,

same pasture, and on these occasions the he goats always and all that are in the utmost corners, and all

take the lead. It is to this habit that the prophet alludes

in this verse, which is an exhortation to Israel to remove the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the out of the land of the Chaldeans.

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