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continuation, the particulars of the siege, and ducing the world with her cup of idolatry, under surprise of the idolatrous city:

the same allegory : “ Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand,

“ Woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink, That made all the earth drunken:

That puttest thy bottle to him, and makest him drunken The nations have drunken of her wine;

also, Therefore the nations are mad.

That thou mayest look on their nakedness !
Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed."

Thou art filled with shame for glory :
Jer. li. 7, 8.

Drink thou also, and let thy foreskin be uncovered:

The cup of the Lord's right hand shall be turned unto “ Make bright the arrows; gather the shields :

thee, The Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the And shameful spewing shall be on thy glory.” Medes :

Hab. ii. 15, 16. For his device is against Babylon, to destroy it; Because it is the vengeance of the Lord, The vengeance of his temple.

At an earlier period, the prophet Isaiah still Set up the standard upon the walls of Babylon, more awfully and sublimely predicts the desolaMake the watch strong, set up the watchmen,

tions of Babylon. Prepare the ambushes : For the Lord hath both devised and done

“ Behold, I will stir up the Medes against them, That which he spake against the inhabitants of Which shall not regard silver ;I Babylon.

And as for gold, they shall not delight in it. O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in Their bowsg also shall dash the young men to pieces ; treasures,

And they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb; Thine end is come, and the measure of thy covetous- Their eye shall not spare children. ness."-Jer, li. 11-13.

And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms,

The beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, “ Set ye up a standard in the land,

Shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. Blow the trumpet among the nations,

It shall never be inhabited, Prepare the nations against her,

Neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generaCall together against her the kingdoms

tion : Of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz;

Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; Appoint a captain (Cyrus) against her;

Neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. Cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillars." But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there;

Jer. li. 27.

And their houses shall be full of doleful creatures ; “ The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight,

And owls shall dwell there,

And satyrs shall dance there.
They have remained in their holds :
Their might hath failed;

And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their They became as women :

desolate houses, They have burned her dwelling places;

And dragons in their pleasant palaces : Her bars are broken.

And her time is near to come, One post shall run to meet another,

And her days shall not be prolonged."-Isa. xiii. 17–22. And one messenger to meet another, To show the king of Babylon (Nabonadius]

The prophet Isaiah describes the destroyer of That his city is taken at one end, t

Babylon by name, and that two hundred years And that the passages [from the river) are stopped, before he was born. And the reeds [or, thatch of the houses) they have burned with fire,

“ Thus saith the Lord to his anointed,|| And the men of war are affrighted.

To Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel ;

To subdue nations before him; The daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor,

And I will loose the loins of kings, It is time to thresh her:

To open before him the two-leaved gates; Yet a little while, and the time of her harvest shall

And the gates shall not be shut; come.”- Jer. li. 30-33.

I will go before thee,

And make the crooked places straight: “And I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry.

I will break in pieces the gates of brass, And Babylon shall become heaps,

And cut in sunder the bars of iron : A dwelling place for dragons,

And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, An astonishment, and an hissing,

And hidden riches of secret places, Without an inhabitant."-Jer, li. 36, 37.

That thou mayest know that I, the Lord,

Which call thee by thy name, “ In their heat I will make their feasts,

Am the God of Israel. And I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice,

For Jacob my servant's sake, And sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake,

And Israel mine elect, Saith the Lord." --Jer. li. 39.

I have even called thee by thy name: “How is Sheshach (the drunkard city) taken!

I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.'

Isa. xlv. 1-4. And how is the praise of the whole earth surprised ! How is Babylon become an astonishment among the

“All ye, assemble yourselves, and hear; nations !"-Jer. li. 41.

Which among thein hath declared these things ?

The Lord hath loved him: he will do his pleasure on “ Thus saith the Lord of hosts;

The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, And his arm shall be on the Chaldeans.
And her high gates shall be burned with fire;

I, even I, have spoken; yea, I have called him:
And the people shall labour in vain,

I have brought him, and he shall make his way prosperAnd the folk in the fire, and they shall be weary."

ous." - Isa. xlviii. 14, 15. Jer. li. 58.

1 Xenophon represents Cyrus as praising the Medes The prophet Habakkuk represents the retalia

and his army for their disregard of riches. Addressing tion of Divine vengeance on Babylon, for se- them before their departure for Babylon, he says: “Ye

Medes, and all here present, I well know that ye accom•The river Euphrates, and the neighbouring lakes and

pany me on this expedition, not coveting wealth.” marshes, with the numerous canals, both of communi- $ The bows of the Persians were three cubits long, and cation and irrigation, give a striking propriety to the were used as clubs in warfare. phrase, “many waters."

! Cyrus, says Dr. Henderson, is called the "anointed + The prediction means that couriers should run from of the Lord,” because he had, in his providence, appointed different parts, and so fall in with one another, all of them him to the rule under which the Jews were to be restored. bringing intelligence to the ruler that the city was taken The allusion is to the ancient rite of anointing with oil at the point from whence they started.

those who were invested with regal dignity.

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By the same prophet, the Almighty gives the The loss of children, and widowhood : signal to the commanders and to the troops to

They shall come upon thee in their perfection

For the multitude of thy sorceries, march against Babylon.

And for the great abundance of thine enchantments.

For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: “Lift ye up a banner upon the high mountain,

Thou hast said, None seeth me. Exalt the voice unto them, shake the hand,

Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee ; That they may go into the gates of the nobles.

And thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else I have commanded my sanctified ones,

beside me. I have also called my mighty ones for mine anger,

Therefore shall evil come upon thee; Even them that rejoice in my highness.

Thou shalt not know from whence it riseth: The noise of a multitude in the mountains, * like as of And mischief shall fall upon thee; a great people;

Thou shalt not be able to put it off: A tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered And desolation shall come upon thee suddenly, which together:

thou shalt not know.”Isa. xlvii. 6-11. The Lord of hosts mustereth the host of the battle. They come from a far country,

Having thus pointed out the principal predicFrom the end of heaven,

tions of Holy Writ relative to the destruction of Even the Lord, and the weapons of his indignation, To destroy the whole land."-Isa. xiii. 2-5.

Babylon by Cyrus, we proceed to narrate their

accomplishment from information derived from In the same chapter, a description of the the pages of ancient authors. dismay, consternation, and perplexity into which When Cyrus saw that the circumvallation, the inhabitants of Babylon should be thrown on which his army had long worked upon, was comthe capture of the city, is given under a metaphor pleted, he began to reflect upon the execution of taken from the physical effects produced upon his vast design, which as yet was known only to the human system by fear, alarm, or pain. himself. Providence soon directed him in his

course. He was informed, that in the city a great “ Howl ye; for the day of the Lord is at hand;

festivalt was to be celebrated; and that the It shall come as a destruction from the Almighty. Therefore shall all hands be faint,

Babylonians were accustomed to pass the night And every man's heart shall melt:

of this festival in dancing and merriment. ACAnd they shall be afraid :

cordingly, when the citizens of Babylon were Pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them;

thus employed, Cyrus posted a part of his troops They shall be in pain as a woman that travaileth: They shall be amazed one at another;

on that side where the river entered the city, and Their faces shall be as flames.”—Isa. xiii. 6—8.

another part on that side where it went out, com

manding them to enter the city by marching along In a succeeding verse, the prophet describes the channel of the river, as soon as they found it the panic with which the troops should be seized, fordable. Having given his orders, and exhorted comparing them to a chased roe, or sheep. his officers to follow him, by representing to them

that he marched under the guidance of the gods, “ And it shall be as the chased roe,+

in the evening he caused receptacles he had preAnd as a sheep that no man taketh up."-Isa. xiii. 14.

pared on both sides of the city to be opened, that The same verse, in the latter clause, exhibits the water of the river might flow into them. these troops, the greatest part of whom were The Euphrates, by this means, became fordable, mercenaries, as returning into the provinces from and the troops advanced up the channel, and took whence they came, without being pursued by the the city. In the midst of their rioting, the Babyconqueror.

lonians were surprised, and caused to sleep “They shall every man turn to his own people,

perpetual sleep;" and their city from that moment And flee every one into his own land.

began its downward career of desolation. See The grand causes of the destruction of Baby- the article “ Babylon,” in the History of the As

syrians, etc. This event occurred, B. c. 536. lon were her pride and cruelty. These are aptly described by the prophet.

By a remarkable providence, and contrary to

what might have been expected on the part of “I was wroth with my people, (the Jews,]

the besieged, the gates leading to the river had I have polluted mine inheritance,

been left open on the night of the attack by And given them into thine hand: Thou didst show them no mercy;

Cyrus, in consequence of which his troops found Upon the ancient hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke.

no difficulty in entering the city. Even the gates And thou saidst, I shall be a lady for ever:

of the palace were incautiously opened during So that thou didst not lay these things to thy heart, the tumult occasioned by the invasion. If such Neither didst remember the latter end of it. Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, sians, who entered by night through the channel,

had not been the case, says Herodotus, the PerThat dwellest carelessly, That sayest in thine heart,

would have been enclosed, and caught as in a net, I am, and none else beside me;

and destroyed. I shall not sit as a widow, Neither shall I know the loss of children:

Xenophon says, that Cyrus having entered the But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in city, put all to the sword that were found in the one day,

streets. He then commanded the citizens to bring

him all their arms, and afterwards to shut them• The mountains to which the prophet refers are doubt- selves up in their houses. The next morning, by less the elevated regions from which the warriors came

break of day, the garrison which kept the citadel, who served in the Persian army; such as those of Media Armenia, Koordistan, as well

as the mountains of Sanjar, being apprised that the city was taken, surrenin the immediate vicinity of Babylon.

dered themselves to Cyrus. Thus did this prince, + The“roe,” or, as Dr. Henderson renders it, “gazelle," is selected on account of its timidity, and the lightness

* Babylon was proud not only of her political wisdom, with which it bounds across the plains, to express the

but also of her astrological and mythological science. haste with which the alarmed foreigners would attempt + This was the drunken festival of the Sakea, mentioned their escape from the conqueror.

Jer. li. 41.




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almost without striking a blow, and without any made an ill use of his authority, there might be resistance, find himself in the peaceable possession found witnesses and censors of his maladminisof the strongest city in the world. Thus were tration within his own government. He carefully the various prophecies concerning the capture of avoided the trusting of any one man with absolute Babylon fulfilled.

power, knowing that a prince would have reason After his victory, the first thing Cyrus did, to repent of having exalted one man, if by him says Xenophon, was to thank the gods for the the community are oppressed. success they had given him. Then, having Thus Cyrus established a wonderful order with assembled his principal officers, he publicly ap- respect to his military affairs, his treasury, and plauded their courage and prudence, and their civil government. In all the provinces he had zeal and attachment to his person, and distributed persons of approved integrity, who gave him an rewards to his whole army. After this, he repre- account of every thing that passed. He made it sented to them that the only means of preserving his principal care to honour and reward all those their conquests was to persevere in their ancient that distinguished themselves by their merit. It virtue ; that the proper end of victory was not to was this wise concentration of his resources that give themselves up to idleness and pleasure ; that, enabled him to carry on his conquests. after having conquered their enemies by force of It is not with reference to the destruction of arms, it would be shameful to suffer themselves Babylon alone that Cyrus is celebrated in the to be overcome by the allurements of pleasure ; pages of Holy Writ. Therein he is pointedly that in order to maintain their ancient glory, it referred to as the instrument of restoring the behoved them to keep up amongst the Persians at Jewish polity. Babylon the same discipline they had observed in their own country.

“I have raised him up in righteousness,

And I will direct all his ways: Cyrus, finding himself master of all the east

He shall build my city, and he shall let go my captives, by the capture of Babylon, did not imitate the

Not for price nor reward, example of most other conquerors, of whom Saith the Lord of hosts."-Isa. xlv. 13. history records that their victories were sullied by a voluptuous and effeminate conduct: he Accordingly, in the year of the capture of thought it incumbent upon him to maintain his Babylon, and first of his sole sovereignty, Cyrus reputation by the same methods he had acquired issued his famous decree for putting an end to the it; namely, by a laborious and active life, and a captivity of the Jews, and for rebuilding the constant application to the duties of his high temple of Jerusalem. The decree reads thus : station.

“ Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, How skilful Cyrus was in the art of govern- that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jerement, is recorded in the pages of ancient authors. miah might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the Xenophon says, that he committed the various spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a parts and offices of his government to different proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put persons, according to their various talents and it also in writing, saying, Thus saith Cyrus king qualifications; but the care of forming and ap- of Persia, The Lord God of heaven hath given pointing general officers, governors of provinces, me all the kingdoms of the earth ; and he hath ministers, and ambassadors, he reserved to him- charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, self, looking upon that as the proper duty and which is in Judah. Who is there among you of employment of a king; and upon which de- all his people ? his God be with him, and let him pended his glory, the success of his affairs, and go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the happiness and tranquillity of his empire. His the house of the Lord God of Israel, (he is the great talent was, to study the particular character God,) which is in Jerusalem. And whosoever of men, in order to give them authority in pro- remaineth in any place where he sojourneth, let portion to their merit, to make their private the men of his place help him with silver, and advancement concur with the public good; that with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside every part should have a dependance upon, and the freewill offering for the house of God that is mutually contribute to support each other; and in Jerusalem,” Ezra i. 1-4. that the strength of one should not exert itself The response to this celebrated decree by the but for the benefit and advantages of the rest. Hebrews was immediate by the chief portion of Each person had his district, and his particular the exiles. “Then rose up the chief of the fathers sphere of action, of which he gave an account to of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests, and the another above him, and he again to a third, till, Levites, with all them whose spirit God had by these different degrees and regular subordina- | raised, to go up to build the house of the Lord tion, the cognizance of affairs came to the king which is in Jerusalem. And all they that were himself, who was, as it were, the soul to the body about them nened their hands with vessels of the state, which by this means he governed of silver, with gold, with goods, and with beasts, with as much ease as a parent governs his house and with precious things, beside all that was hold.

willingly offered. Also Cyrus the king brought When Cyrus afterwards sent governors, called forth the vessels of the house of the Lord, which satrapæ, into the provinces under his subjection, Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jeruhe would not suffer the particular governors of salem, and had put them in the house of his gods ; places, nor the commanding officers of the troops even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth maintained for the security of the country, to be by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and dependent upon those provincial governors, or to numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of be subject to any one but himself; in order that Judah. And this is the number of them : thirty if any of these satrapa, elate with his station, | chargers of gold, a thousand chargers of silver,


nine and twenty knives, thirty basins of gold, to some spot which he had selected for retiresilver basins of a second sort four hundred and ment, where he suddenly disappeared, and his ten, and other vessels a thousand. All the ves-train, among whom were some of the most resels of gold and of silver were five thousand and nowned warriors of Persia, perished in a dreadful four hundred. All these did Sheshbazzar bring tempest. This would seem to confirm the acup with them of the captivity that were brought count of Herodotus ; for oriental writers frequently up from Babylon unto Jerusalem,” Ezra i. 5—11. use storms to typify any great or wide-spreading Thus were the Jews “redeemed without money,” calamity, such as an invasion of barbarians, or according to Isaiah's prophecy, Isa. lii. 3. the destruction of an army; but the end of Cy

In the book of Daniel it is recorded that this rus, as related by Xenophon, is more consistent holy man “prospered in the reign of Darius, and with his character in his latter days. in the reign of Cyrus the Persian,” chap. vi. 28. Cyrus was buried at Pasagardæ, in Persia. His last vision is dated in the third year of Cyrus, Pliny notices his tomb, and Arrian and Strabo probably not long before his death, chap. x. 1; and describe it. Curtius represents Alexander the the author of the apocryphal history of Bel and Great as offering funeral honours to his shade; the Dragon says, that Cyrus conversed much and he states that he opened the tomb in hopes with him, and honoured him above all his friends. of finding treasures there, in which he was disWe may conclude that it was by the wise coun- appointed—a rotten shield, two Scythian bows, sel of Daniel that the spirit of Cyrus was “ stirred and a Persian scymitar, being all that it conup” to fulfil the prophecy of Jeremiah, Jer. xxv. tained. In his Life of Alexander, Plutarch re17, this being the year of the expiration of the cords that the following inscription was found captivity which Daniel had computed, Dan. ix. 2 ; thereon: and to fulfil the prophecy respecting the rebuild- “O MAN, WHOEVER THOU ART, AND WHENing of the temple, Jer. xxix. 10, to which Cyrus

EVER THOU COMEST, (FOR COME I KNOW THOU alludes in his decree. See also Isa. xliv. 28.

WILT,) AM CYRUS, THE FOUNDER OF THE The holy work, however, did not proceed PERSIAN EMPIRE. ENVY ME NOT, THEN, THE without opposition. After the death of their

LITTLE EARTH WHICH COVERS MY REMAINS. patron Daniel, probably in the third year of Cyrus, those adversaries of the Jews, the Samaritan Curtius states, that Alexander was much afcolonists, who had been planted in the room of fected at this inscription, which set before him, the ten tribes by Esarhaddon, and had offered in so striking a light, the uncertainty and vicisto join in the erection of the temple, but were situde of worldly things; and that he placed the refused by the Jewish government, obstructed crown of gold which he wore, upon the tomb in the building. By their interest at the Persian which the body lay, wondering that a prince so court, they obtained an order to stop the work, renowned, and possessed of so much treasures, which was discontinued during the ensuing had not been buried more sumptuously than if reigns of Cambyses, Smerdis Magus, Xerxes, he had been a private person. and till the second year of the reign of Darius Cyrus, however, seems to have formed a more Hystaspes, Ezra iv. 1-5. 24.

correct notion of worldly honour and riches than Xenophon closes the military exploits of Cy- the ambitious Alexander. Xenophon says, that rus with the conquest of Egypt, and says, that in his last instructions to his children, he desired the last seven years of his full sovereignty he that his body, when he died, might not be despent in peace and tranquillity at home, revered posited in gold or silver, nor in any other sumpand beloved by his subjects of all classes. This tuous monument, but committed, as soon as testimony is confirmed by the Persian historians. possible, to the ground. He probably had learned These relate, that after a long and bloody war, from the prophet Daniel, that out of the dust Khosru subdued the empire of Turan, now Tur- he was taken, and that unto dust he must rekistan, and made the city of Balk, in Chorassan, turn. a royal residence, to keep in order his new sub- From the peculiar manner in which Cyrus is jects; that he repaid every family in Persia the mentioned in Scripture, named and addressed amount of their war taxes, out of the spoils ages before his birth ; called by Jehovah his gained by his conquests; that he endeavoured shepherd,” and his “ anointed,” and promised to promote peace and harmony between the Tu- his high protection and assistance, there has been ranians and Iranians ; that he regulated the pay much learned investigation concerning the chaof his soldiery ; reformed civil and religious racter of this great king. Some think that these abuses throughout the provinces ; and, at length, terms apply to his character as an appointed agent after a long and glorious reign, resigned the in fulfilling the will of the Almighty, altogether crown to his son, Loharasp, and retired to soli- distinct from any considerations connected with tude, saying, that "he had lived long enough for his personal or religious character. Others, howhis own glory, and it was now time for him to ever, suppose that he was a religious character, devote the remainder of his days to God.” which, in connexion with his appointment to

There is some doubt about the manner of the perform the Divine will among the nations, gives death of Cyrus. Xenophon declares that he died a peculiar force and propriety to the terms apin his bed. Herodotus, on the other hand, as- plied to him by the prophet. Dr. Hales, after serts, that he perished, with a great part of his reviewing his character and history, concludes army, in a war against the Scythians; that, that he lived the life, and died the death of the having invaded their country, he incautiously righteous. Xenophon, who was a polytheist, advanced into the deserts, where he was sur- represents Cyrus praying to the gods, in the rounded, attacked at a disadvantage, and slain. plural number; but that he prayed to one only, Ferdusi and Mirkhoud say, that he proceeded the patriarchal god, worshipped by his ancestors,

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I own,

There is no God beside me;

the Pischdadians, may appear from the watch their own, and went over to Cyrus's opinion, and word which he gave to his soldiers before the chose rather to rule, though inhabiting a rough battle in which Evil Merodach was slain. This country, than cultivating a champaign, to serve watchword was, “Jove, our Saviour, and our others. Leauer.” A late writer seems to set the religious The sage inscription which, according to Saadi, character of Cyrus in its true light. He says: Cyrus caused to be engraved on his tiara, de" It is repeatedly recorded (Isa. xlv.) of Cyrus, serves to be inscribed upon the crowns of mo. Thou hast not known me;' and then coupled narchs in all ages, and in all countries of the with that convincing evidence which the precise world. It read thus: “What avails a long life predictions offer, we see the unity of God strongly spent in the enjoyment of worldly grandeur, since and impressively asserted, together with some dis- others, mortal like ourselves, will one day tramtinct allusion to those very errors which were en- ple under foot our pride! This crown, handed tertained by the people to whom Cyrus belonged down to me from my predecessors, must soon Now, in that remarkable passage, Ezra i. 1, 2, pass in succession upon the heads of many Cyrus says, “Jehovah, the Lord God of heaven, others !" hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth ; and The disregard for riches which Cyrus showed he hath charged me to build him a house at Je- on all occasions, is a noble feature in his charusalem. Here he intimates his acquaintance racter. Brerewood estimates the value of the with this very prophecy, for where else is he gold and silver which he received in Asia at charged to build the Lord a house at Jerusalem ? 126,224,000l. sterling, all of which he distributed and he distinctly acknowledges that the God who among his friends. “ I have prodigious riches,” so charged him was the God of heaven; and that said he to his courtiers, and I am glad he it was, who, as he also had promised, had the world knows it; but you may assure yourgiven him all the kingdoms of the earth.' It selves they are as much yours as mine. For to would, therefore, seem, that in arriving at the what end should I heap up wealth? For my conviction, that in his great and successful un- own use ? and to consume it myself? That would dertakings, he had been but performing the duty be impossible, even if I desired it. No; the to which he was by name appointed and ordain- chief end I aim at is, to have it in my power to ed, he was enabled also to perceive and acknow- reward those who serve the public faithfully, ledge the truth of that sublime declaration which and to succour and relieve those that will acis addressed to himself:

quaint me with their wants and necessities.”

Cresus represented to him, that by continual I am the Lord, and there is none else,

largesses, he would at length make himself poor, I girded thee, though thou hast not known me!' whereas he might have amassed infinite trea

Isa. xlv.5. sures, and have been the richest prince in the " In estimating the effect which this prophecy, world. “ And to what sum,” replied Cyrus,“ do regarded as a whole, was calculated to produce you think those treasures might have amounted ?" upon a mind which appears to have been emi-Crosus named a sum ; upon, which Cyrus caused nently candid and open to conviction, we must it to be signified to the lords of his court that he recollect that Daniel, who probably directed his was in want of money, and a larger sum was attention to this grand prediction, would not fail brought than Cræsus mentioned. Look," said to enforce and explain those declarations con- Cyrus, “ here are my treasures; the chests I cerning God which it contains.”

keep my riches in are the hearts and affections Cyrus may justly be considered as the wisest of my subjects.” conqueror, and the most accomplished prince The care of Cyrus over his people was very mentioned in profane history. Of his wisdom remarkable.“ A prince,” said he to his courtiers, there are many examples given; none of which, 'ought to consider himself as a shepherd, and perhaps, shine more conspicuously than the fol- to have the same vigilance, care, and goodness. lowing. Herodotus says, that when he succeeded It is his duty to watch, that his people may live to the Median crown, he was thus addressed by a in safety and quiet; to burden himself with deputation of the Persians :

anxieties and cares, that they may be exempt “ Since God has given dominion to the Per- from them; to choose whatever is salutary for sians, and the sovereignty of brave men to you, them, and remove what is hurtful and prejupermit us to remove from our scanty and rugged dicial; to place his delight in seeing them incountry of Persia, and to occupy a better. There crease and multiply; and valiantly expose his are many such in our vicinity, and many further own person in their defence and protection. off. If we occupy one of these, we shall be more This," he adds, “is the natural idea, and the highly respected by the world ; and it is but just image of a good king. It is reasonable, at reasonable that rulers should act in this manner. the same time, that his subjects should render And when, indeed, will a fairer opportunity offer him all the service he stands in need of; but it than now, that we rule many nations, and all is still more reasonable, that he should labour to Asia ?”

make them happy; because it is for that very Cyrus, having heard their speech, though he end that he is their king, as much as it is approved not of it, desired them to do so : but to the end and office of a shepherd to take care be warned them, at the same time, to prepare of his flock.” themselves no longer to rule, but to be ruled ; for It may be observed, that it is somewhat rethat fertile countries naturally produced effemi- markable, that Xenophon represents Cyrus as Date men; that it was not usual for the same soil comparing kings, and himself in particular, to to bear both admirable fruit and warlike men. shepherds, seeing that it is the very character

The Persians, therefore, acquiescing, quitted | which Scripture gives to this prince.

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