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Darius, since it was under his protection, that come acquainted with ourselves; to know what each of them was lord in his own city, and that we really are, not only in the sight of men, but the cities of Ionia would not fail to depose them, also in the sight of God. and recover their liberty, upon the downfal of the Megabyzus continued some time in Thrace, Persian power. This was sufficient; their own whose inhabitants, according to Herodotus, would private interests were dearer to them than the have been invincible, had they possessed the dispublic good, and they determined to wait for cretion of uniting their forces, and of choosing Darius. In order, however, to deceive the Scy- one commander. Being however divided, they thians, and prevent them from using any vio- were subdued one by one, and brought under lence, they declared that they would retire pur- the yoke of Persia. Some of the tribes, as the suant to their request, and the better to impose Pæonians, the Syropæonians, the Pæoplæ, etc., upon them, they began to break down the bridge, were removed from their habitations, at the comencouraging the Scythians, at the same time, to mand of Darius, and transported to Asia. return back, meet Darius, and engage his army. Darius, on his return to Sardis, having learned The Scythians complied with the request, but that he owed his safety to Hystiæus, who had missed Darius, who arrived safe at the bridge, persuaded the Ionians not to destroy the bridge repassed the Danube, and returned into Thrace. on the Danube, sent for him, and desired him to

On his way towards Scythia, Darius had sought name what reward he wished for his services. the subjugation of Thrace: he now left Mega- Hystiæus, who was tyrant of Miletus, requested byzus, one of his chief generals, with part of his Mircina of Edonia, a territory upon the river army, to complete the conquest of that country. Strymon in Thrace, with the liberty of building With the rest of his troops, Darius passed the a city there. His request was granted, and he Bosphorus, and took up his quarters at Sardis, was proceeding with his designs, when, upon the where he spent the winter and the greatest part representations of Megabyzus, he was recalled, of the year following, to retrieve his losses. under the plea of seeking his counsel in some This disastrous expedition may be dated B.C. great matter, and with a promise of ample pos

sessions in Persia, in lieu of those in Thrace. Herodotus relates an instance of wanton cruelty Hystiæus, pleased with this distinction, accomcommitted by Darius, on his departure for Scy- panied Darius to Susa, leaving Aristagoras, his thia, which well deserved such a disastrous issue. son, to govern in Miletus. Oebazus, a Persian, who had three sons serving Having subjected Thrace, Megabyzus sent in the army, petitioned the monarch that one of seven Persian noblemen to Amyntas, king of them might be left at home. The king replied, Macedon, to require earth and water in the name that since he was a friend, and had made a mo- of Darius, as a token of his submission to that dest request, he would leave him all his sons. monarch. Amyntas complied with their request, Oebazus was rejoiced, and hoped that they would and entertained them hospitably; but the conbe discharged from the service; but Darius or duct of the Persians towards his wife and daughdered them to be slain, and delivered to the ters so enraged his son Alexander, that, by a parent. And yet this same prince soon after set stratagem, he caused them to be slain. Search up an inscription to this effect: “ Darius, son of was made by Megabyzus for these ambassadors, Hystaspes, the best, and fairest of all men, king but Alexander having bribed Bubares, who was of the Persians, and of all the continent, in his sent to inquire after them, with large presents, expedition against the Scythians, came hither to their death was concealed, and the matter glossed the springs of the river Tearus, which afford the best and fairest water of all rivers."

About the same time, B.c. 508, the Scythians, Plutarch pertinently remarks,“ What made to be revenged on Darius for invading their Nero erect his tragic theatre, and wear the mask country, passed the Danube, and laid waste the and buskins as an actor, but the plaudits of country of Thrace, under the government of adulators ? Were not kings in general styled, Persia, as far as the Hellespont. They returnwhile they sang, Apollos? while drunk, Bac- ed home laden with booty, without meeting any chuses? while wrestling at the games, Hercules ? opposition either from the Persians or the and, delighting in these titles, led on by flattery Thracians. to the lowest depravity.” Thus it was with the During this period, Darius appears to have kings of Persia. Their courtiers spoiled them paid considerable attention to maritime affairs. by their base and gross adulation, and by it they | He finished a canal of communication between were led to commit the most fearful crimes with the Nile and the head of the Red Sea, which had out compunction, and without fear of restraint; been commenced by Pharaoh-Necho, but failed, so true it is, that flattery and indulgence make after a great loss of life among the workmen. the passions eager and ungovernable. Flattery According to Rennell, this canal, with others is, indeed, a most base disposition. It often be made by Ptolemy Philadelphus, Adrian, and the trays a man to his ruin, and it declares the man caliph Omar afterwards, were more for ostentawho covets it totally unconcerned about the tion than use. They soon, at least, became unmisery or welfare of his brother. The cynic navigable, either from the failure of the Pelusiac, Diogenes, being asked what beasts were apt to or eastern branch of the Nile, which supplied bite the worst, answered, “Of all wild beasts, the them with water, or from the stoppage of their detractor ; and of all tame beasts, the flatterer.” | outlet at the head of the Red Sea, and by the In a word, flattery is an ensnaring quality, and operation of the tides. leaves a dangerous impression on the mind, About the same time, Darius, ambitious of against which we should carefully guard. One extending his conquests eastwards, resolved to of the chief objects of our lives should be, to be obtain a proper knowledge of the country. For


the world

And her merchandize and her hire shall be holiness to

the Lord :

this purpose, he employed Syclax, and other able This project having thus miscarried, Meganavigators, on a voyage of discovery down the bates threw all the blame upon Aristagoras, and river Indus to its mouth. From this point they ruined his credit with Artaphernes. Aristagoras coasted westwards, along the Persian Gulf, and foresaw the loss of his government, and his own after a voyage of two years and a half, they ruin, and he resolved upon a revolt, as the only reached the port on the Red Sea from which expedient whereby he could save himself. His the Phenicians, employed in the circumnaviga- design was seconded by the secret counsel of tion of Africa, had set out about a hundred years Hystiæus, who, imagining that if any troubles before. From thence Syclax returned to Susa, should arise in Ionia, he should be sent to quell where he gave Darius an account of his dis- them, took this step in order to be restored to coveries.

his native country. Aristagoras, therefore, after After this, says Herodotus, Darius subdued having communicated his designs to the principal the Indians, and became master of the ocean, persons of Ionia, began to prepare for the revolt which probably means no more than that he with great activity. possessed himself of the tract adjacent to the At this date, B.c. 502, the people of Tyre, who Indus and its branches. History does not record had been reduced to slavery, when their city was the particulars of this expedition.

taken by Nebuchadnezzar, having groaned under According to the Greek historians, the latter that oppression for seventy years, were restored, part of the reign of Darius was turbulent, and according to Isaiah's prophecy, to the possession embarrassed both abroad and at home.

of their ancient privileges, with the liberty of In the seventeenth year of his reign, B.C. 504, having a king of their own, which liberty they from a small spark, kindled by a sedition at Naxos, enjoyed till the time of Alexander the Great. (which, according to Hawkins, is the largest and The prophecy reads thus :most circular of all the Cyclades in the Ægean Sea,) a flame arose, which occasioned a consider- “And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years,

That the Lord will visit Tyre, able war. In this sedition, the principal inhabit

And she shall turn to her hire, ants, being overpowered by the populace, were And shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of banished the island. They fled to Miletus, and

Upon the face of the earth. implored the assistance of Aristagoras, who was at that time governor of that city, as lieutenant to Hystiæus, to whom he was both nephew and It shall not be treasured nor laid up; son-in-law.

For her merchandize shall be for them that dwell before

the Lord, Aristagoras promised to restore the exiles to

To eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing." their native country; but not being powerful

Isa. xxiii, 17, 18. enough to accomplish his design alone, he went to Sardis, and communicated the matter to Arta- It seems probable, that this favour was granted phernes, the king's brother, who governed in them by Darius, in consideration of the services that city, in order to obtain his assistance. He he expected to receive from the Tyrians, who represented to Artaphernes, that if he were were powerful at sea, in reducing the Ionians to once master of that island, all the rest of the their ancient subjection. Cyclades might be brought under subjection ; The next year, B.C. 501, Aristagoras reinthat the isle of Eubæa, now Negropont, which stated the Ionians in their liberty, and in all their was as large as Cyprus, and lay very near them, former privileges. He began with Miletus, would be easily conquered ; and that from

thence where he divested himself of his power, and reDarius would have a free passage into Greece. signed it into the hands of the people. He then He concluded by saying that 100 ships would be travelled through Ionia, where, by his example sufficient for the enterprize.

and influence, he prevailed upon all the other Artaphernes was pleased with the project, and petty princes, or, as the Greeks then called them, promised 200 ships, if the king's consent could tyrants,” to do the same. Having thus united be gained. In this matter there was no difficulty. them all into one common league, of which he Charmed with the mighty hopes held out, and himself was the acknowledged leader, he openly regardless of the injustice of the enterprize, as revolted from Darius. To strengthen himself well as of the perfidy of Aristagoras and Arta- | the more against the Persians, in the beginning phernes, the king approved of the project, and of the following year, he went to Lacedæmon to preparations were made for putting it into exe- engage that city in his interest. He made temptcution.

ing offers to Cleomenes, who was at that time During the next spring, B.C. 503, Artaphernes king of Lacedæmon; but Cleomenes was proof sent the number of ships he had promised to against them, and declined sending him any sucMiletus, under the command of Megabates, a cours. Aristagoras then proceeded to Athens, noble Persian, of the Achæmenian family. The and the Athenians being at this time at variance order Megabates received was, to obey Arista- with the Persians, for having shown favour to goras. This gave him great offence, and led to Hippias, the son of Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens, a breach between the two generals ; and Mega- whom they had exiled ten years before, availed bates, to be revenged of Aristagoras, gave the themselves of this opportunity of revenge, and Naxians secret intelligence of the design formed ordered a fleet of twenty ships to be sent to the against them. They prepared for their defence, assistance of the Ionians. and the Persians, after having spent four months In the year B.c. 500, the Ionians, having colin besieging the capital of the island, and con- lected their forces, and being reinforced with sumed all their provisions, were compelled to these twenty vessels, and five more from Eretria, retire.

in the island of Eubea, set sail for Ephesus, and

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rous manner.

leaving their ships there, they marched by land to the Panionium.* The result of their delibeto Sardis. The city was soon taken, and an rations was, that the people of Miletus should Ionian soldier having set fire to one house, the vigorously defend their city ; that the allies should flames spread and communicated to the rest : | provide and equip every vessel in their power ; most of them being built with reeds, the whole and that as soon as their fleet should be in readicity was reduced to ashes. The citadel only, into ness, they should meet at Lada, ř and risk a battle which Artaphernes had fled, escaped the general | in favour of Miletus. conflagration.

The Ionians assembled at Lada, as had been After this accident, the Persians and Lydians appointed, and so vigorous had they been in their assembling their forces together for their defence, preparations, that they had collected a fleet of the Ionians retreated, in order to re-embark at 353 sail. At the sight of this fleet, the Persians, Ephesus ; but before they had reached that city, though double their number, were afraid to join they were overtaken by the enemy, and defeated issue, till by their emissaries they had secretly with great slaughter. The Athenians, who es- corrupted the greatest part of the confederates, caped, immediately set sail, and returned home ; and engaged them to desert the common cause. and notwithstanding the urgent solicitations of The defection took place at the commencement Aristagoras, they would not return to the combat. of the engagement; the Samians and Lesbians,

Darius being informed of these proceedings, with others, hoisting sail, returned to their reenraged with the Athenians for the part they spective countries. The remaining fleet of the had taken, resolved from that time to make war confederates did not consist of above 100 ships, upon Greece. Shooting an arrow into the air, and these were quickly overpowered by the Perhe exclaimed, “Suffer me, O Jove, to be re- sians, and almost entirely destroyed. After this, venged on these Athenians.” And that his the city of Miletus was besieged, and became a revenge might not slumber, he commanded one prey to the conquerors, who levelled it with the of his attendants to repeat to him three times ground. every day, when he sat down to table, “Remem- This event occurred six years after the revolt ber the Athenians.” A wiser admonition, and of Aristagoras. All the other cities that had more conducive to the happiness of the monarch, revolted returned to their allegiance soon after, would have been the following sentiment, so well either voluntarily, or by compulsion. Those expressed by one of our own poets :

that opposed the victors were treated in a barba

The handsomest of their youths “Bid o'er revenge the charities prevail."-CAWTHORN. were made eunuchs; the young women were

sent into Persia; and the cities and temples were In the burning of Sardis, the temple of Cybele, reduced to ashes. Such were the effects of the the tutelar goddess of that country, was totally revolt of the Ionians, a revolt into which the destroyed, which was afterwards used as a pre- people had been drawn by the ambition of two tence by the Persians for burning the temples of designing men, Aristagoras and Hystiæus. the Greeks. Their true motive will fall under Hystiæus was soon after taken by the Persians, observation in a future page.

and carried to Sardis, where he was crucified by The Ionians, though deserted by the Athenians, order of Artaphernes, who hastened his end and weakened by their late overthrow, neverthe- without consulting Darius, lest his affection for less pursued their point with great resolution. him should incline him to mercy. The conjecTheir fleet sailed towards the Hellespont and ture of Artaphernes was well grounded. When the Propontis, where they reduced Byzantium, the head of Hystiæus was brought to Darius, he and most of the other Greek cities on those expressed his displeasure at the act, and caused coasts. As they returned, they obliged the it to be honourably interred, as the remains of Carians to join with them in this war ; the people one to whom he owed great obligations. Hysof Cyprus likewise entered into the confederacy, tiæus was the most bold, restless, and enterprising and openly revolted from the Persians. The genius of his age. With him all means were Persian generals, however, having divided their good and lawful that served to promote the end forces, marched three different ways against the he had in view, acknowledging no other rule of rebels, and defeated them in several encounters, his actions than his own interest and ambition, to in one of which Aristagoras was slain: the island which he was ever ready to sacrifice the good of of Cyprus was again subjected to the Persians. his country, and even his own kindred. In the

According to the expectations of Hystiæus, he page of history, his name stands forth as a witness was sent back to Ionia, in order to restore the king's affairs in that province. No sooner, how- • It is supposed that the Panionium here mentioned ever, had he arrived at Sardis, than he formed suggested to Milton the idea of his Pandemonium: a plot against the government, into which he drew a great number of Persians. For fear of “Meanwhile the winged heralds by command

Of sovereign power, with awful ceremony detection, he retired to the isle of Chios, where

And trumpet's sound, throughout the host proclaim by artifice he justified himself to the Ionians, A solemn council forthwith to be held and engaged them to prosecute the war with

At Pandemonium, the high capital

Of Satan and his peers.” vigour. The generals of the Persian forces, finding

+ According to Pausanias, this island was divided into that Miletus was the centre of the Ionian con

two, one of which parts was called Asterius, from Astefederacy, resolved to march thither with all their rius, the son of Anactes. At the present period, by the forces. When the Ionians received intelligence alluvions of the Meander, it is joined to the main land,

and is a full mile within the margin of the sea; so that of this armament, which not only menaced

the Latinicus Sinus is become an inland lake, seven or Miletus, but the rest of Ionia, they sent delegates | eight miles distant from the sea.

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to the truths that human nature, uncontrolled by, acts in thy passion. The hair of Samson grew a Divine power, is capable of committing the again, but his eyes no more drank in the blessed most fearful deeds; that man is very far departed light of heaven. Time may restore some losses, from original righteousness.

but others are never to be repaired. Do not, The flame of revenge, which had been long therefore, in an instant what an age cannot smouldering in the breast of Darius, at length recompense. An old divine has said, “ As a good burst forth. In the twenty-eighth year of his man would not wish to be taken out of the world reign, B. C. 494, having recalled all his other in a fit of anger, into that place which is all generals, he appointed Mardonius, the son of peace and quietness, so he should never indulge Gobryas, a young Persian nobleman who had passion, lest he should die in that state." lately married one of his daughters, to the com

“Be all mad rage, all anger then resigned,
mand in chief throughout all the maritime parts

A cruel heart ill suits a human mind.'
of Asia, with a particular order to invade Greece,
and to revenge the burning of Sardis upon the

Bent upon the reduction of Greece, Darius
Athenians and Eretrians. Mardonius, pursuant hastened the departure of his generals, Datis and
to his orders, marched through Thrace into Ma- Artaphernes. Their instructions were, to plun-
cedonia, ordering his fleet first to reduce Thasus, der the cities of Eretria and Athens, to burn
and then to coast along the shore, that they down to the ground all their houses and temples,
might act in concert with each other. On his and to make all the inhabitants slaves, and to
arrival in Macedonia, all the country took the send them to Darius ; for which purpose they
alarm at such a mighty army, and submitted ;
but the fleet, in doubling the cape at Mount and fetters.

were provided with a great number of chains Athos, now called Cape Santo, was dispersed by their fleet to meet at Samos, set sail from thence

The generals having appointed a storm

; 300 ships, and 20,000 men perished in with 600 ships, and an army of 500,000 men. the mighty waters. His land army met at the same time with a misfortune no less fatal. Being islands in the Ægean Sea, which they did with

After having made themselves masters of the encamped in a place not sufficiently secured, the Bryges,* a people of Thrace, attacked him under Eretria, a city of Eubea, which they took, after

out difficulty, they turned their course towards cover of the night, broke into his camp, and wounded Mardonius himself. These misfortunes of the principal inhabitants. They reduced the

a siege of seven days, by the treachery of some obliged him to return into Asia, from whence he city to ashes, put all the inhabitants in chains, was soon after recalled by Darius.

Darius, perceiving too late that the inexperience and sent them to Persia, and then sailed for of Mardonius had occasioned the defeat of his

When the Persians had arrived at Attica, troops, put two other generals in his place, Hippias, of whom mention has before been made, namely, Datis, a Mede, and Artaphernes, son of conducted them to Marathon. In order to strike his brother Artaphernes, who had been governor of Sardis. Before, however, he made any farther heralds from thence to acquaint them with the

terror into the citizens of Athens, they sent attempts upon Greece, he deemed it politic first fate of Eretria, hoping thereby to induce them to sound the Greeks, to discover how these

to surrender immediately.f It had the contrary different states stood affected to, or were averse

effect. Despair inspired them with courage, and from the Persian government. With this view,

not being able to gain assistance from their allies, he sent heralds to all their cities, to demand earth and water, in token of submission. On the except 1000 men from Platæa, they armed their arrival of these heralds, many of the Greek cities, slaves, which was contrary to their usual practice. dreading the power of the Persians, complied sisted of 100,000 foot, and 10,000 horse ; that of

The Persian army commanded by Datis conwith their demands, as did all the inhabitants of the Athenians amounted in the whole but to Ægina, a small island near Athens. At Athens

10,000 men. It was commanded by ten generals, and Sparta, the heralds met with a different of whom Miltiades was chief, and these ten were reception. One of them was thrown into a well,

to have the command of the whole army, each and the other into a deep ditch, and were bid to

for a day, in rotation. There was a division take thence earth and water. This they did under the influence of anger. When that was

among the generals whether they should hazard passed, they were ashamed of the transaction, Miltiades argued that the only way to raise the

a battle, or simply fortify and defend the city. looking upon it as a violation of the law of courage of their own troops, and strike terror nations; and they accordingly sent ambassadors into the enemy, was to advance fearlessly, and to the king of Persia at Susa, to offer him what attack them with intrepidity. Aristides, consatisfaction he pleased for the affront they had vinced by this argument, embraced the opinion, put upon his heralds. But Darius, declaring and brought over to it some of the other comhimself satisfied with the embassy, sent the ambassadors back to their respective countries, all that it would be wise to engage the enemy in

manders ; and eventually it was agreed upon by though those of Sparta voluntarily offered them the open field; and under this feeling, the conduct selves as victims, to expiate the crime of which of the battle was yielded to Miltiades. Thus all their countrymen had been guilty.

sentiments of jealousy gave way to the love of This incident affords an excellent lesson on

the public good : this was noble, and it resulted that sinful passion, anger, which has been justly in the redemption of their country from Persian characterized by an ancient sage as a “short

domination. madness.” Reader, beware of doing irrevocable

+ The distance of Marathon from Athens is about • These Bryges were probably the Phrygians. twenty-four miles.

Although honoured with the general command, | attempts to escape, and those that were consumed Miltiades would not engage in battle till his own in their burning ships.f The Greeks, moreover, day for governing arrived. When that day obtained possession of seven of the enemy's came, he endeavoured by the advantage of the vessels. ground to make up for his deficiency in strength Hippias was killed in the battle. That perand number. He drew up his army at the foot fidious citizen, in order to recover the unjust of a mountain, that the enemy should neither be dominion usurped by bis father, Pisistratus, over able to surround him, nor charge him in the rear. the Athenians, had put himself at the head of On the two sides of his army he caused large those who were come with a design to reduce to trees to be thrown, in order to cover his flanks, ashes that city to which he owed his birth. An and render the Persian cavalry useless.

ignominious death, with lasting infamy entailed Datis, the commander of the Persians, was upon his name, was the result of his treachery. sensible that the place was not advantageous for The Persians had considered victory so sure, him ; but relying upon the number of his troops, that they had brought marble to Marathon, in he determined to sustain a battle.

order to erect a trophy. The Grecians took this All things being disposed, and the sacrifice, marble, and caused a statue to be made of it by according to the custom of the Greeks, performed, Phidias, in honour of the goddess Nemesis, whose Miltiades commanded the signal to be given for business, it was supposed, was to punish injustice battle. Betwixt the two armies there was an and oppression, and who had a temple near interval of about eight furlongs; and the Persians Marathon. seeing the Athenians approach hy running, pre- Plutarch relates, that immediately after the pared to receive them as men devoted to destruc- battle, an Athenian soldier, stained with blood, tion. As soon, however, as the Greeks mingled hastened to Athens, to acquaint his fellow-citizens with the enemy, they discovered that they were with the success of their army at Marathon. no mean foes.* After a long and obstinate con- When he arrived at the public palace, where the test, the barbarians in the centre, composed of magistrates were assembled, he was so spent that, the Persians and the Sacæ, obliged the Greeks to having uttered these words, “Rejoice, the victory give way, and pursued the flying foe into the is ours !” he fell down, and expired. middle of the country. At the same time, how- The news of this victory spread a general joy ever, the Athenians and Platæans, who were in throughout the nations around, to which the poet the two wings, having defeated the wings of the Wordsworth has a fine allusion : enemy, came up to the relief of the centre, and obtained a complete victory, killing a prodigious

“When far and wide, swift as the beams of morn,

The tidings passed of servitude repealed, number, and pursuing the rest to the sea, where

And of that joy which shook the Isthmian field, they set fire to the vessels.

The rough Ætolians smiled with bitter scorn. It was on this occasion that Cynægirus, brother

'Tis known,'cried they, 'that he who would adorn of the celebrated tragic poet, Æschylus, who had

His envied temples with the Isthmian crown,

Must either win through effort of his own, laid hold of one of the ships in order to get into The prize, or be content to see it won it with those that fled, had his right hand cut off, By more deserving brows. Yet so ye prop, and was drowned ; of which we find a similar

Sons of the brave who fought at Marathon,

Your feeble spirits! Greece her head hath bowed, example in Lucan:

As if the wreath of liberty thereon

Would fix itself as smoothly as a cloud, “He, the bold youth, as board and board they stand,

Which, at Jove's will, descends on Pelion's top.'”. Fix'd on a Roman ship his daring hand; Full on his arm a mighty blow descends,

Instead of sailing by the islands, the Persian And the torn limb from off his shoulder rends:

fleet, in order to return to Asia, doubled the cape The rigid nerves are cramp'd with stift’ning cold, Convulsive grasp, and still retain their hold:

of Sunium, with the design of surprising Athens Nor sunk his valour, by the pain deprest,

before the Athenian forces should arrive to its But nobler rage infiam'd his mangled breast:

defence. The latter, however, had the precaution His left remaining hand the combat tries,

to march thither with nine tribes, to secure their And fiercely forth to catch the right he flies; The same hard destiny the left demands,

country, and these performed the march with so And now a naked, helpless trunk he stands."

much expedition, that they arrived there the

same day, and the designs of the Persians were Amongst those that were slain on the side of frustrated. This battle occurred B.C. 490. the Greeks were Callimachus and Stasileus, two

The Lacedæmonians had promised assistance of their chief commanders. They had not above

to the Athenians, but they were hindered by a 200 men killed on their side in this engagement; ridiculous superstition from taking a part in the whereas on the side of the Persians about 6000 action. Mankind, in all ages of the world, from fell, besides those who were drowned in their observing the visible operations

upon the ocean, have supposed its influence to • Xenophon relates, that the Athenians made a vow to sacrifice to Diana as many goats as they should kill ene- + It was between the foot of the Agherlichi and the mies; and being unable to procure a sufficient number, Charadrus mountains that Miltiades ranged his troops. they determined every year to sacrifice 500. Ælian relates The Persians being driven across the Charadrus by the the same fact with some slight variation; and we read in Greeks, the whole body made for the defile, where the only the Scholiast on Aristophanes, that Callimachus, one of the passage afforded was hardly broad enough to admit of two Athenian generals, vowed to sacrifice as many oxen as persons abreast of each other. Every attempt to escape they should slay enemies; and unable to obtain a sufficient in this direction was impossible, as the sea or the swamp number, he substituted goats in their room. Herodotus interposed to prevent it. The consequence of such an is silent on this matter, for which he is blamed by attempt is obvious; and hence it follows, that the vast loss Plutarch. The account which Xenophon gives is, how- of the Persians was as much owing to their ignorance of ever, the most probable ; for Callimachus being killed in the existence of this swamp, and defile leading to it, as to the battle, could not have performed a vow.

the valour of the Greeks.


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