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the revenues of the crown among his friends, with an army of 100,000 foot, and 20,000 horse, and he took with him only seventy talents, or a to oppose his passage ; contrary to the advice of month's pay for his army. When Perdiccas that experienced general, Memnon the Rhodian, asked him what he reserved for himself, he whose opinion was, that they should not hazard replied, “Hope.” This it was that furnished him a battle, but lay waste the plains, and even the with energy to advise and execute ; this it was cities, thereby to starve the invaders, and oblige that set both his head and heart to work, and Alexander to return into Europe ; as well as to animated him to do his utmost ; this it was that make a powerful diversion, by carrying war into overcame all difficulties, and aided him in the Macedonia and Greece. This plan was rejected accomplishment of designs that seemed almost with scorn, as unworthy of the magnanimity beyond his reach. To hope is the way to have, of the Persians.” Arsites, governor of Phrygia, and the issue is often owing to belief and expect- moreover, protested that he would never suffer ation. Transcendant above all other hopes, the Greeks to lay waste the country over which however, is the Christian's hope, of which the he presided. poet has said,

The Persian cavalry, which was very numer

ous, lined the banks of the Granicus; and the Hope! let the wretch once conscious of the joy, Whom now despairing agonies destroy,

foot, consisting chiefly of Greek mercenaries, Speak, for he can, and none so well as he,

was posted behind the cavalry on an easy ascent. What treasures centre, what delights in thee.

Parmenio, commander of the Macedonian inHad he the gems, the spices, and the land

fantry, observing the disposition of the enemy's That boasts the treasure all at his command,

army, advised Alexander to encamp on the oppoThe fragrant grove, the' inestimable mine, Were light when weighed against one smile of thine."

site banks of the river, that his troops might have rest, and not to attempt the passage till the next

morning, the river being deep, the banks craggy As soon as Alexander landed in Asia, he went and steep, his troops fatigued with their march, to Troy,* and sacrificed to Pallas, the patroness whilst those of the enemy had rested for several of the Greeks, and offered libations at the tomb days. Alexander replied that it would be a disof the hero Achilles, whom he proposed for his grace to him and his army should they, after model.

crossing the Hellespont, suffer their progress to From Troy Alexander marched to Lamp- be stopped by a rivulet. sacus,t which he had determined to destroy, in

The two armies continued some time looking order to punish the rebellion of its inhabitants.

at each other on the opposite banks of the river, Anaximenes, a famous historian, who had been

as if dreading the event. The Persians waited very intimate with Philip his father, and his till the Macedonians entered the river, in order (Alexander's) own tutor, was a native of this

to charge them to advantage upon their landing, city. Anaximenes came to meet him, and Alex

and the latter seemed to be making choice of a ander, suspecting that he would plead for his city

place proper for crossing, and observing the disto be spared, in order that he might be before- positions of their enemies. Alexander, at length, hand with him, declared that he would not grant having ordered his horse to be brought, comany request he might make. “ The favour I manded his nobles to follow him. He himself have to desire of you,” said Anaximenes, “is,

commanded the right wing, and Parmenio the that you would destroy Lampsacus,” by which

left. The king first caused a strong detachment witty evasion the city was saved,

to march into the river, himself following it with Alexander passed onward from Lampsacus, the rest of his forces, Parmenio advanced afterand came to the river Granicus, & in the lesser wards with the left wing; the trumpets throughPhrygia. On the banks of this river he found

out the whole host sounding, and the whole army the governors of the western provinces assembled,

raising cries of joy. * Respecting the site of ancient Troy, modern geogra

The Persians, seeing the detachment advance phers and classical antiquaries have been greatly at a

into the river, began to let fly their arrows, and loss. The plain of Troy has been repeatedly visited by

march to a place where the declivity was not so classical travellers, in order to verify Homer's description great, in order to prevent the Macedonians from of the tomb of Ilus, the green fig trees, the hot and cold

landing. As they drew near the bank, a fierce springs, and the sources of the Scamander, Simois, and Thymbrius; but none of them have agreed in fixing the engagement ensued; the Macedonians endealocalities

of the Iliad. In the days of Strabo; however, vouring to land, and the Persians pushing them ancient Troy was considered to have stood within three again into the river. As Memnon commanded miles of New Ilium, which, as Strabo informs us, was only a small village, distinguished by a temple dedicated

in this place, the first ranks of the Macedonians to Minerva.

perished; and the rest, after having with great + Lampsacus is about thirty miles in direct distance difficulty gained the shore, were driven anew into from Ilium, and was once renowned for its safe and capa- the river. Alexander, however, who had followed cious harbour at the entrance of the Propontis, or Sea of

them closely, reinforced them with his best Marmora, opposite Callipolis, and its noble temple dedi. cated to Cybele, the Phrygian goddess. It was also famous

troops, and putting himself at their head, routed for its excellent wine, on which account it was given to the Persians, upon which the whole army folThemistocles, the Athenian exile, by Artaxerxes Longi: lowed after and attacked the enemy on all sides. manus. By some travellers its ruins have been identified with those lately discovered at and around a village called

A sickening scene ensued. The Persian horse

was first defeated with great slaughter, and the The Granicus lay thirty-five miles from Lampsacus infantry shared the same fate. The Grecian inin direct distance. It is a narrow, deep, and rapid stream, fantry retired in good order to a neighbouring originating in the northern slope of the range of Ida, and

hill, whence they sent deputies to Alexander, running a north-east course of forty geographical miles to the Propontis. Its western banks are said to be high, demanding leave to retreat unmolested; but steep, and rugged. Its modern name is the Oostrola. Alexander following the dictates of wrath rather

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than those of reason, rushed into the midst of Having possessed himself of Miletus, Alexander this body of soldiers, and destroyed the whole, marched into Caria, in order to besiege Halicarexcept 2000, who were taken prisoners.

nassus, the capital || of that province, which defied In this engagement, the Persians lost 20,000 his power. This city was of most difficult acfoot, and 2500 horse. On the side of the cess; nature and art combined in its defence. Macedonians, twenty-five of the royal horse Memnon, moreover, had thrown himself into it perished at the first attack. Alexander ordered with a considerable body of troops, and seconded Lysippus to make their statues in brass, which bw nother general of great prowess, Ephialtes, be were set up in Dios, a city of Macedon, from resolved to withstand the Macedonian power to whence they were many years after carried the utmost. Whatever could be expected from the to Rome by Q. Metellus. According to Arrian, most intrepid bravery, and the most consummate about sixty of the other horse were killed, and knowledge in the art of war, was practised on nearly thirty foot, who the next day were laid this occasion by the adverse parties. The Macewith their arms and equipage in one common donians, with immense labour, filled up the ditches, grave. Their fathers and children had an and brought their engines near the walls ; but their exemption granted them from every kind of works were soon demolished, and their engines tribute and service.

burned. Repeated attempts of this nature were The victory of the Granicus put Alexander in made, and any other general but Alexander would possession of Sardis,t the capital of Asia Minor, have foregone the enterprise ; but he encouraged which was the bulwark of the Persian empire on his troops to persevere, and at length they sucthe side next the sea. The citizens surrendered ceeded. Memnon abandoned the city, and, going on his approach, upon which Alexander gave on board the Persian fleet, of which he was adthem their liberty, and permitted them to enjoy miral, he conveyed the inhabitants with all their their own laws.

effects to the island of Cos, not far distant. AlexFour days after, Alexander arrived at Ephesus, I ander, finding the city without riches and incarrying with him those who had been banished habitants, rased it to the ground, the citadel only from thence for being his adherents, and restored excepted. its popular form of government. Here he offered To conciliate the Asiatic colonies from Greece, sacrifices to Diana, and assigned to the temple Alexander now declared them free, and exempt of that goddess all the tributes that were paid to from tribute. This had the wished-for effect; the Persians. He was ambitious of having the all the Greek cities of Asia declared in his favour, name of the celebrated temple of Diana, which which very much facilitated his progress. was then rebuilding, changed for his own, and he The last action of this military campaign, acoffered to defray the whole cost of the work on cording to Diodorus Siculus, was with the Marsuch conditions ; but the Ephesians evaded the marians, 1 an inconsiderable people inhabiting request, by telling him that it was inconsistent the western border of Lycia. Their city was for one god to erect temples to another !

placed on a rock, and was accounted impregnable. “The force of flattery could no further go."

These rude mountaineers fell on the rear of the

Macedonian army, destroyed many men, and capBefore Alexander left Ephesus, the deputies of tured a great part of their baggage. This enthe cities of Tralles and Magnesia waited upon raged Alexander, who immediately invested their him with the keys of those places.

stronghold, and attacked it by storm for two sucFrom Ephesus, Alexander marched to Miletus, cessive days. The old men among the besieged, which city, deceived by the hopes of a powerful seeing no prospect of a longer defence, would support from the Persian fleet then lying off the have advised surrender; but the young men coast, closed their gates against him. Memnon scorned such advice. Their elders then advised had shut himself up in this fortress, with many them to put all their superannuated men, together of his soldiers, and was determined to make a with their women and children, to death, and then, vigorous defence. After several days' fruitless if possible, to force their way through the Maceefforts, however, Alexander compelled the be- donians. This advice was acted upon. Every sieged to capitulate. He treated the Milesians one going home, made a great feast, and after with great humanity, allowing them to live ac- eating and drinking with his wife and children, cording to their own laws. Memnon was allowed shut the door of his house, and set it on fire ! to march out with his Greeks unmolested; but While the fires were raging, to the number of the Persians were put to the sword, or sold for six hundred, they forced their way through the slaves.

Macedonian guards, and escaped to the mounconciliate his soldiers, he dismissed such as the foot of the pass, of which the Telmessians had married that year, and sent them to their had possessed themselves, at the close of night, homes, with orders to return again next spring. hoping that the fear of an attack would induce This was a wise military regulation, and seems them to withdraw. To his great joy they did to have been derived from the law prescribed withdraw, and shut themselves up in their city, by Moses, Deut. xxiv. 5. Probably Aristotle, the so that he passed through without any obstructutor of Alexander, learned it from the Jews, oftion. He passed their city by as one of inferior whom he makes honourable mention : the phi- consequence, his great object being now to gain losopher, indeed, speaks of a Jew, whom he met possession of the interior of Asia Minor. From in Asia, as communicating more information to the defile of Telmessus, Alexander crossed the him in the Greek language than he received in high upland of Milyas, which Bochart deduces return.

tains. * This account is taken from the Greeks, the only one we have of the battle of the Granicus. It seems incredible,

Alexander now put his army into winter that in the combat with the Greek mercenaries, who were

quarters ; but before he did this, in order to men of equal courage with themselves, they should all have been killed on the spot, after a brave defence, with- li This city lay forty miles south-east of Miletus in diout a proportionate carnage on the part of the Macedoni- rect distance. It is now a heap of ruins. It was once ans. False love of their country's glory, doubtless, caused famous for the stately mausoleum, or tomb, erected in the Greek historians to depart from the truth in narrating honour of Mausolus, king of Caria, of which this city was

the capital, by Artemisia, his widowed queen. Herodotus, + Sardis lay about 138 miles in direct distance, s. E. of

the father of historians, was born here; so also was Dionysius, the Greek historian of Rome, and the poets Hera

clitus and Callimachus. I Ephesus lay south-west of Sardis, about sixty-three Roman miles in direct distance.

1 The appellation, Marmarians, still exists in Marmo

rice, the name of a bay on the south-east side of the Gulf s Miletus lay twenty-eight miles south-east of Ephesus of Macri, on the west side of Lycia; and the present inin direct distance, on the Lalmian Gulf, which is supposed habitants are described as being of the same predatory by some to be the Lake of Ufa Bashee.

habits as their ancestors.

this event.

the Granicus.

from the Phenician word mulia, “ an elevated About the same time, Alexander adopted the mound,” to Celænæ,t which surrendered after a bold expedient of dismissing his fleet, which was truce of sixty days, granted by him with a protoo small to cope with the Persian fleet, collected mise to that effect, if no succours should arrive from Phenicia and Egypt, and yet too large for in the interim. his treasury to maintain. In doing this he de- From Celænæ Alexander marched over the clared to his lieutenants, that by conquering the lofty chain now called the Moorad Dagh, to Gorland, he would render himself master of the sea, dium, the ancient and celebrated residence of since every harbour that surrendered to him must king Midas, situated on the river Sangarius. diminish the naval resources of the enemy, and Having taken the city, he was desirous of seeing tend to disable them from invading Greece in his the famous chariot to which the Gordian knot absence; and also contribute to hold open his was tied. This knot, which fastened the yoke communication with his own dominions, and in- to the beam, was tied with so much art, and the troduce fresh supplies from thence, when he strings were adjusted in so intricate a manner, should find it expedient to advance into the that it could not be discovered where they comheart of Asia.

menced, or where they ended. An oracle had Next spring, B.C. 333, Alexander recommenced foretold, that the man who could untie it should the reduction of the maritime provinces. His possess the empire of Asia ; and Curtius relates, progress at first met with some interruption. that Alexander being fully persuaded that this Near Phaselis, a small sea-port, on the west side promise related to himself, he, after many fruitless of the gulf of Attaliah, and on the eastern shore trials, exclaimed, “ It is no matter which way it be of the Lycian Peninsula, is a defile along the sea untied,” and thereupon cut it with his sword. shore, which is always dry in the summer, but Aristobulus, however, who was an eye-witness when the sea rises is impassable. As the winter of the transaction, assures us, that Alexander was not yet past, his forces were obliged to march wrested a wooden pin out of the beam of the a whole day in the water, but they surmounted chariot, which being driven in across the beam the difficulty, and passed onward. Some histo- held it up, and so took the yoke from it. In this rians relate that the sea, by the Divine command, version of the story Plutarch coincides. opened a way to him, contrary to the usual course In the mean time, Darius was preparing to of nature; but this is evidently a parody, sug- make a vigorous defence. Memnon the Rhodian gested by flattery, on the astounding miracle of advised him to retaliate, by carrying the war into the passage of the Israelites through the Red Macedonia, stating that the Lacedæmonians and Sea.

several other Greek nations, who were adverse to While Alexander was in the neighbourhood of the Macedonians, would be ready to join him, Phaselis, he discovered the conspiracy to which and that Alexander would be compelled to reallusion has before been made; (see page 87.] turn to defend his own country. Darius approved The traitor was discovered, and suffered death of the plan, and appointed Memnon admiral of for his perfidy.

the fleet, and captain general of all the forces deFrom Phaselis, Alexander marched to Perga, signed for that expedition. Memnon was at the in Pamphylia, on the river Cestrus ; and from island of Cos when he received this commission, thence to Aspendus, on the river Eurymedon, and this place was the rendezvous for the fleet. east of Perga ; which, though a well fortified Memnon soon commenced operations. He made place, surrendered without sustaining a siege. himself master of the island of Chios and all From hence Alexander marched north-west to Lesbos, the city of Mitylene excepted. From the pass of Telmessus, a strong defile in the range thence he was preparing to pass over into Eubea, of Taurus, and which, had the inhabitants of that but he died before Mitylene, which city he was place known how to avail themselves of the ad- compelled to besiege. vantageous position of their city,* which com- The death of Memnon was a severe loss to the manded the pass on one side, as a high mountain Persian monarch. No one was able to supply did on the other, they might have defended it his place, and the only enterprise which could against all Alexander's attempts to penetrate have saved his empire was therefore abandoned. through it into Phrygia, and compelled him to attempt a passage in some other quarter. Alexander knew this, and therefore he encamped at

+ Celænæ lay about seventy-five geographical miles north-west of the defile of Telmessus.

I Gordium lay a little east of Celænæ. It is difficult to * This city must not be confounded with the Telmessus fix its site, but all agree that it stood on the Sangarius. on the south-east angle of the Gulf of Macri, which was It was founded by Gordius, but it did not long retain its once a large and flourishing city, as the sarcophagi, and honours; for in the time of Strabo it had become a mere other remains found there, certify.


The sole resource of Darius now lay in the ar- pass by which the younger Cyrus had entered that mies of the east, and these he resolved to com- country. He came to Tarsus,* which, from Sora, mand in person. The rendezvous of his army was a march of 430 miles direct. was Babylon, where, upon mustering, they were Through this city the Cydnus runs, a river refound to be about 400,000, 500,000, or 600,000 markable for its clear and limpid streams, but men ; for such are the different accounts of an- very cold, with a gentle winding current. Alexcient authors.

ander having imprudently bathed in this river in One of the king's counsellors, Charidemus, a the heat of the day, and when covered with sweat Greek refugee, had opposed the monarch's head- and dust, a serious illness was the consequence, ing his own troops ; saying, that he ought not to which threatened his life. He was recovered risk his life; and he pledged himself that, with from his sickness by the skill of his physician, the command of 100,000 men, of whom a third Philip, an Acarnanian, and his own magnapart should be Greek mercenaries, he would nimity in drinking the potion prescribed, after compel the conqueror to abandon his enter- he had received a letter, intimating that he was prise. Darius was disposed to accede; but bribed by Darius to poison him, while Philip was his ministers, generally, rejected this course reading it without any emotion. He knew the atthrough envy, and insinuated that Charidemus tachment and fidelity which his physician bare to meant to betray their cause to the Macedonians. him, and doubt was removed. It was well said by Fired at this insult, he called them cowards in Aristotle, that friendship is composed of a single the king's presence, for which he was ordered soul inhabiting a pair of bodies. Where true to instant execution. As he went to his death, friendship exists, pain and joy are mutual ; and he exclaimed, that the king would shortly repent he that touches the heart of one friend, touches of his injustice, and be punished with the loss of the heart of the other. his empire; which was verified by the event, and In the mean time, Darius had commenced his required no gift of prophecy to suppose, now

march at the head of his numerous army, and that the Persians were left to themselves. had advanced as far as the plains of Mesopo

Before Darius departed to meet Alexander, ac- tamia. Here the Greek mercenaries advised him cording to ancient historians, he had an ominous to wait for the enemy; but imagining that Alexdream. He thought he saw the Macedonian ander's tardiness to meet him was the effect of phalanx on fire; that Alexander waited on him, terror, and fearing that he would flee from him as a servant, and in his former courier dress; to avoid an action, he hastened toward Cilicia, and that he then went into the temple of Belus, where the cavalry and the number of his troops, and disappeared. Plutarch says, that by this from the mountainous nature of the country, dream, Heaven seemed to signify that honour and would be of little service to him. prosperity would attend the Macedonians; and The order Darius observed in his march was ihat Alexander would become master of Asia, as follows. Before the army were carried silver like Darius, who, from a simple courier, became altars, on which burned the fire, called by them king; but that he would soon die, and leave his sacred and eternal; and these were followed by glory behind him. This result accords with the magi, singing hymns, and 365 youths in prophecy in a remarkable manner, (see Dan. scarlet robes. After these came a consecrated viii. 5—8, xi. 3, 4;) and it is probable, as Dr. cart drawn by white horses, and followed by Hales suggests, that it might have been dis- one of an extraordinary size, which they called closed by the magi, who understood these pro- “ The horse of the sun." The equerries were phecies, though they dared not unfold them to dressed in white, each having a golden rod in the king.

his hand. Next appeared ten sumptuous chaWe return to Alexander. Big with the hope riots, enriched with curious sculptures in gold of conquest, he passed from Gordium east to An- and silver; and then the vanguard of the horse, cyra,* a city of that part of Phrygia, afterwards composed of twelve different nations, in difcalled Galatia, from the Gauls, who seized upon ferent armour. This body was succeeded by it. From Ancyra, Alexander proceeded north to those of the Persians, called “ The Immortals," Paphlagonia, crossing the lofty ridge of Olym- amounting to 10,000, who surpassed the rest of pus, which separates Galatia from Bithynia and the barbarians in the sumptuousness of their Paphlagonia, the terminus of which march was

* Tarsus was about twelve miles north of the mouth, probably the city of Sora, eighty-three miles in

and thirty miles south of the southern brow of the pass direct distance from Ancyra. From thence he through which Alexander had passed. In the days of the marched south-east by the Halys and Mount Tau- emperor Augustus, this city rivalled Athens, Antioch, and

Alexandria, in wealth, grandeur, literature, and science. rus to Cilicia, crossing, in his way, the same

It was called Juliopolis, in honour of Julius Cesar, who

spent several days here in his pursuit of Pharnaces. Here Ancyra lay fifty-five geographical miles south-east of it was that Antony first met with the fascinating Cleothe assumed site of Gordium in Rennel's map, near the patra Here it was, also, that the great apostle of the source of a river, which flows south-east to the Halys. It Gentiles was born, Political changes have reduced it to formed one of the three capitals of Galatia, the other two comparative insignificance. Kinnier, who spent a week being Tavium and Pessimus. It is celebrated in profane

at Tarsus, could not discover a single inscription, or any history as being taken by the consul Cneius Manlius monument of beauty or magnificence. It contains two Vulso; as being raised to the rank of the metropolitan public baths, a number of mosques, several handsome city of that province by Augustus; and as entertaining caravanserai, and a church of great antiquity, said to have the apostate Julian, on his way to the Persian war. been erected by the apostle Paul. During the winter, sacred history, Ancyra is noted for having received the there are 30,000 inhabitants; but many of the families impress of the feet of the great apostle of the Gentiles. It remove during the hot seasons to the mountains. was here St. Paul preached to the Galatians. In the + Quintus Curtius says, that this car was dedicated to fourth century, Ancyra was made an episcopal see. An- Jupiter; but as this god was unknown to the Persians, it (yra is the modern Angora, which is a city of considerable is probable he calls Mithra, the first and greatest of their note in the east.

gods, by that name.



dress ; for they all wore collars of gold, and At length Alexander himself set forward in were clothed in robes of gold tissue, having large quest of Darius. He first came to Adana,* sleeves, garnished with precious stones. About twenty-eight miles due east of Tarsus, on the thirty paces from them came the king's relations, right or west bank of the Sarus. From this city or cousins,* to the number of 15,000, apparelled Alexander marched to Mallos, thirty-five miles like women, and more remarkable for the pomp in direct distance, almost due south of Adana, of their dress than the glitter of their arms. and the southernmost projection of the coast beAfter these came Darius himself, attended by tween Tarsus and the head of the Issic Gulf. his guards, and seated on a chariot, as on a throne. From hence he pursued his march north-east to The chariot was enriched, on both sides, with Castabala, the modern Kastanlæ, a city amongst images of the gods in gold and silver; and from hills, fronting the head or innermost recess of the the middle of the yoke, which was covered with gulf. In his way thither he crossed the Jeihoon, jewels, rose two statues, a cubit in height; the a large stream, about 160 yards in breadth. one representing War, the other Peace, having a From Castabala, about three miles distant, comgolden eagle between them with extended wings. mences a defile of five miles long, through the The king was clothed with a garment of purple hills, to a narrow belt of level shore, stretching striped with silver; and over it was a long robe, nearly two miles east and west, and about three glittering with gold and precious stones, on which quarters of a mile broad from the foot of the hills were represented two falcons rushing from the to the sea. The mouth of this defile is called clouds at each other. Around his waist he wore Kara Capi, “ The Black Gate.”. Along this belt a golden girdle, whence his scimitar hung, the the road runs to Issus, where the contest for the scabbard of which was covered with gems. On empire of the east took place. each side of Darius walked 200 of his nearest Parmenio had taken the little city of Issus, and relations, followed by 10,000 horsemen, whose after possessing himself of the pass of Syria, had lances were plated with silver, and tipped with left a body of forces to secure it. Alexander left gold. After these marched 30,000 foot, the rear the sick in Issus,f and marched his whole army of the army, and, lastly, 400 horses belonging to through the pass, and encamped near the city of the king.

Myriandrus, where the badness of the weather About 100 paces from the royal division of the obliged him to halt. army came Sisygambis, the mother of Darius, In the mean time, Darius, contrary to the adseated on a chariot, and his consort on another, vice of the Greeks, was advancing towards the with female attendants of both qu riding on

straits of Cilicia. They advised him to wait for horseback. Afterwards came fifteen chariots, in the enemy in the plains of Assyria ;I but his which were the king's children, and those who courtiers biassed his mind against their advice, had the care of their education. Next to these and had persuaded him that Alexander's long were the royal concubines, to the number of 360, delay was the effect of terror, inspired by the all attired like so many queens. These were fol- approach of the Persian army. The adverse lowed by 600 mules, and 300 camels, which hosts missed each other in the night, and Darius carried the king's treasure, and were guarded by entered Cilicia by the pass of Amanus, which a body of bowmen. After these came the wives lies beyond that of Syria, through which Alexof the crown officers, and the lords of the court; ander had entered that country. Darius had not then the sutlers and servants of the army. And advanced far into Cilicia, when he was informed finally, in the rear, were a body of light armed that Alexander fled before him, and was retiring troops, with their commanders.

in great disorder into Syria. He therefore turned Such was the army of Darius. Surrounded short towards Issus, where he barbarously put to with this mighty pomp, he fancied he was great, death all the sick that Alexander had left therein, and was confident of success.

In his arrogance,

a few soldiers excepted, whom, after making he wrote a letter to Alexander, styling himself them view every part of his camp, he dismissed. king, without giving that title to Alexander. His Word was soon brought to Alexander, that arrogance was returned with interest, which may Darius was behind him in the straits of Cilicia. illustrate the dispositions of the belligerent mo- His keen eye saw that he was taken as in a net, narchs.

and he immediately prepared for the conflict. Alexander, upon learning that Darius was advancing towards the Euphrates, in order to enter

* Adana is a large city, superior to Tarsus, and the poCilicia, detached Parmenio with part of the army pulation, chiefly composed of Turks and Turkmans, is to seize the pass of Syria, that he might secure a nearly equal in number. It is beautifully situated on a free passage for his army. As for himself, he rising ground, surrounded by groves of fruit trees and marched west from Ta to Anchialos, a city said to have been erected by Justinian ; part of the an

vineyards. There is a bridge over the Jeihoon, (Sarus,) which is said to have been built by Sardanapalus. cient wall still remains, and a noble gateway in the marFrom hence he came to Soli, where he offered ket-place mocks the mean architecture of the Turks. sacrifices to Æsculapius, the god of physic, in

+ There is a great diversity of opinion concerning the exact site of the

city of Issus, and consequently of the precise gratitude for the recovery of his health. Alex

spot where the baitle was fought. D'Anville conceives ander headed the ceremony himself with lighted that the ruins of Ayasse represent the ancient Issus; tapers, followed by the whole army; and he there


Kinnier places it at Pias; whilst Rennel and Arrowsmith

tix it on the site of Oscler, called Karabolat by the Turks. solemnized games; after which he returned to

Of the three, the latter seems the most likely, as it is Tarsus.

supported by the authority of Xenophon, the Jerusalem itinerary, and five different reports of modern travellers.

| Arrian calls them the plains of Assyria, but they were * It was thus that this body was called, and probably in reality the plains of Syria. By Greek and Latin writsome of them might be the king's relations; but it must ers, however, the term Assyria often comprehended all not be so understood of all.

the tract from the Mediterranean to the river Indus.


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