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Professor of Philosophy in the University of Chicago


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The title of this book is taken from the deed of gift by which Phillips Academy, Andover, was founded. The purpose of the school was declared to be “instructing youth not only in English and Latin Grammar, Arithmetic, Writing, and those Sciences wherein they are commonly taught; but more especially to learn them the Great End and Real Business of Living.” By the Great End the founders probably meant the service of God; by the Real Business of Living they probably meant doing one’s work in the world.

There is a growing conviction that today also we need not only to furnish young people instruments or tools for efficiency by the aid of “those sciences wherein they are commonly taught o’ but to consider more than we have hitherto the ends and values of living. This finds expression on the one hand in inquiries as to better preparation for citizenship through a different treatment of history or civics; on the other in demands for moral education; and although there may be a question as to how far the school is able to secure the formation of habits or deal with the more personal and intimate aspects of character and morals, there is general recognition that school is eminently the place for consideration of what is dependent particularly upon intelligence and is relatively objective—the field of public morality and civic duty.

This book attempts to show the origins of our institutions and standards, of our business and political

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ideals. It makes large use of the objective expression of these in law and government, but it also aims to point out the tasks in responsibility, public spirit, fair dealing, city planning, and further development of liberty, coöperation, and democracy which make the real business of living a genuine enterprise of high appeal.

Part I of this volume and, in more extended form, Part IV have appeared in a book for general readers entitled Our Democracy. In the preparation of the manuscript for the press I have been aided in this as in that book by Mrs. Anna Bryan Ayres. I should like to express also my obligations to numerous colleagues, for I have gone much afield beyond the borders of my own special studies.

J. H. T. February, 1918.

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