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consulting the articles “ Financial Review” and “United States Finances,” together with the trade summaries in the articles on our own and other countries. Pursuing this subject into the speculative and adventurous region, the reader will be interested in our article on “The Klondike” with its accompanying colored maps.

A new and interesting feature will be found in the State articles this year, where we give the portraits of the Governors, with the exception of a few who failed to respond to our request for a photograph.

In the realın of science, the “ Astronomical Progress” of the year is recorded by Prof. Swift, that in “Physiology” by Dr. Youmans, "Physics” by Dr. Bostwick, and the “National Academy” by Dr. Benjamin.

The yearly list of “Gifts and Bequests” will be found unusually interesting by reason of its extent. This feature was introduced in the volume for 1893, and the five lists thus far published make a remarkable showing. The aggregate in 1893 was $29,000,000; in 1894, $32,000,000; in 1895, nearly $33,000,000; in 1896, $27,000,000; and in 1897, $45,000,000; making a grand total of nearly $166,000,000.

Among the eminent dead of the year Charles A. Dana–who had a double career, as Assistant Secretary of War during the great civil contest and for nearly thirty years as the foremost journalist in the United States—comes first. We present not only a sketch of his life, but a fine portrait, which forms the frontispiece of this volume. The other men and women of letters who passed away in 1897 include: Alphonse Daudet, the French novelist ; Jean Ingelow, the English poet ; Margaret Oliphant, the story-writer and critic; William J. Linton, the artist and author; William T. Adams, known to the boys as Oliver Optic; Joel T. Headley, popular a generation ago; Margaret J. Preston, Alice Wellington Rollins, Margaret Hosmer, Justin Winsor, and Daniel G. Thompson in our country; and in Europe Isabella Banks; Cavalcaselle, the Italian art historian ; Richard Holt Hutton ; Meilhac, the French dramatist; Francis Turner Palgrave; Riehl, the German historian ; Sir John Skelton; and Vacherot, the French philosopher. The necrology of the artists includes the names of Ilomer Martin, Johnson M. Mundy, John Sartain, Eliza Greatorex, Max Maretzek, George P. Boyce, Sir John Gilbert, Charles P. Knight, and John L. Pearson. Among the scholars we lost were Henry Drisler, Solomon Deutsch, James IIammond Trumbull, Francis A. Walker, E. Cobham Brewer, Sir Augustus Franks, James Legge, Francis W. Newman, and Charles J. Vaughan ; while the scientists and inventors included Edward D. Cope, Alfred M. Mayer, Theodore Lyman, Campbell Morfit, Alvan G. Clark, George M. Pullman, Carl R. Fresenius, Sir Isaac Holden, Sebastian Kneipp, and Alexander M. Ross. The clergymen whose earthly career was closed included Father Hewit, Joshua H. McIlvaine, George H. Houghton, Bishop Rulison, Henry Drummond, Edward M. Goulbourn, William W. How (the hymn-writer), and Baron Plunket. Of statesmen the world lost Canovas del Castillo, the Spanish Premier, assassinated by an anarchist, Lord Rosmead (Sir Hercules Robinson), Sir Rutherford Alcock, John Anthony Mundella, James R. Doolittle, Daniel W. Voorhees, and Isham G. Harris. Of reformers Neal Dow completed a long life and Henry George was called away in mid career. Of those who played noticeable parts in our great civil war were Couch, De Trobriand, McLaws, Pleasonton, R. W. Meade, Samuel P. Lee, A. C. Rhind, and John L. Worden; while the eminent European soldiers who passed away included Sir Henry Havelock-Allan, Sir William Jervois, Sir George Malcolm, and Baron Sterneck. all these, and many more, brief but comprehensive sketches will be found here.

The book closes with an index covering the two volumes of the new series.

CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædia" are the following :

Oscar Fay Adams,

Hon. Benjamin F. Clayton, Author of " A Dictionary of American Authors."

President of the Farmers' Congress.
CORSON, JULIET,

FARMERS' CONGRESS.
GOULBOURN, EDWARD MEYRICK,
NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM,

Charles Henry Cochrane,
OLIPHANT, MARGARET,

Author of “ The Wonders of Modern Mechanism." PEARSON, JOHN LOUGHBOROUGH,

AËRIAL NAVIGATION, THAYER, ALEXANDER WHEELOCK,

CALCULATING MACHINES, and other articles.

KINETOSCOPIC PICTURES,

KITE-FLYING, Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

TIN-PLATE MANUFACTURE,
Editor of department of chemistry in the "Standard

WIRE GLASS,
Dictionary.

and other articles.
ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE,
COPE, EDWARD DRINKER,

William F. Coston,
Mayer, ALFRED MARSHALL,
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,

Joint Inventor of the Coston signals.
NEW YORK CITY,

SIGNALS, Night. and other articles.

Mrs. Bessie Nicholls Croffut. J. H. A. Bone,

LITERATURE, AMERICAN, IN 1897, Of the - Cleveland Plain-Dealer."

LITERATURE, BRITISH, IN 1897. OHIO.

SURETY COMPANIES.
John Henry Boner,

Thomas R. Dawley, Jr.
Of the “Standard Dictionary " staff.
ALABAMA,

CUBA.
CONNECTICUT,
MAINE,

Charles Fitzgerald,
MARYLAND,

Art critic of the Evening Sun." NEW JERSEY,

LINTON, WILLIAM JAMES, VIRGINIA,

Martin, Homer DODGE. VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA, and other articles.

Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist.
Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.,

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
Superintendent of New York Free Libraries.
Physics.

Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D.D.,

Formerly Professor of Physics in the l'niversity of William G. Bowdoin.

Tokio. BOOK-PLATES.

Japan,

KOREA.
Thomas Campbell-Copeland,
Formerly of United States Census Bureau.

George J. Hagar,
MECHANICS, JUNIOR ORDER OF,

Associate Editor of the “Colnmbian Cyclopædia." STREET RAILWAYS, UNITED States Military ACADEMY,

GIFTS AND BEQUESTS, UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY.

OBITUARIES, AMERICAN. Mrs. Helen C. Candee.

Rev. Moses Harvey, ILLINOIS,

Author of "Text-book of Newfoundland History." MUNDY, Johnson MARCHANT,

NEWFOUNDLAND, and other articles.

J. Castell Hopkins,
James P. Carey,

Editor of "Golden Canada."
Formerly Financial Editor of the “ Journal of Com.

CANADA, DOMINION OF,
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1897.

MANITOBA,

New BRUNSWICK,
John Denison Champlin,

QUEBEC,
Editor of "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings." PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND,
FINE ARTS IN 1897.

and other Canadian articles.

merce.

V

Frank Huntington, Ph. D.,

Col. Charles L. Norton,
Of the “ Standard Dictionary?' staff.

Author of “Political Americanisms."
ABYSSINIA,

DISASTERS IN 1897,
AUSTRALASIA,

EVENTS OF 1897.
BULGARIA,
China,

Rev. Solomon E. Ochsenford, D. D.
COLOMBIA,

LUTHERANS.
EAST AFRICA,
FRANCE,

Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor.
GREAT BRITAIN,

COLORADO, Mexico,

GEORGIA, OBITUARIES, FOREIGN,

GEOGRAPHICAL PROGRESS IN 1897. Russia,

Iowa, SPAIN,

KENTUCKY, and other articles.

LOUISIANA,

MICHIGAN,
Prof. Andrew J. Hutton,

MONTANA,
Of Wisconsin State Normal School.

PENNSYLVANIA,
WISCONSIN.

TEXAS,

and other articles. Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D., Editor of the “ Jewish Messenger."

Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, D. D., JEWS.

of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. Herman Justi,

Chief of Department of Publicity and Promotion, Lewis Swift, LL. D.,

Tennessee Centennial Exposition. TENNESSEE EXPOSITION.

Formerly Director of Lowe Observatory.

ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1897.
Miss Florence K. Johnson.
KLONDIKE, THE.

James B. T. Tupper,

Formerly of Internal-Revenne Office. Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson,

SUPREME COURT (in article UNITED STATES). INGELOW, JEAN.

J. Kendrick Upton, William H. Larrabee, LL.D.

Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. BAPTISTS,

UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE.
CONGREGATIONALISTS,
FEDERATION OF FREE CHURCHES,

Frank H. Vizetelly,
FRIENDS,

Associate Editor of “ Home and Country." METHODISTS,

DAUDET, ALPHONSE, OLD CATHOLIC CHURCH,

and other articles. ORIENTAL CHURCHES IN THE UNITED STATES, PRESBYTERIANS,

Frank Weitenkampf, UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH,

of the Astor Library. and other articles.

LITERATURE, CONTINENTAL.
H. T. Newcomb,

Chief of Section of Freight Rates, U. S. Department William J. Youmans, M. D.,
of Agriculture.

Editor of “ Appletons' Popular Science Monthly." RAILWAY SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES.

CHEMISTRY,

METALLURGY, Mrs. Joanna Nicholls Kyle.

METEOROLOGY, REVENUE-CUTTER SERVICE.

PHYSIOLOGY.

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ALVA ADAMS
RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER
GEORGE W. ATKINSON
FRANK S. BLACK
CORNELIUS N. Bliss
WILLIAM D. BLOXHAM
WILLIAM O. BRADLEY
JAMES H. BUDD
Asa S. Bu SHNELL
David M. CLOUGH
John W. COLLINS
LORRIX A. COOKE
CHARLES A. DANA
ALPHONSE DAUDET
EDWARD S. DEEMER
NEAL Dow
Francis Marion DRAKE .
HENRY DRUMMOND
ELISHA DYER
WILLIAM H. ELLERBE
SIR John EVANS
ALBERT Fink.
LYMAN J. GAGE
JAMES A. GARY
HENRY GEORGE
OLIVER Wolcott GIBBS
TuEODORE N. Gill .
Josiah GROUT.
IsHAM GREEN HARRIS
DANIEL H. HASTINGA
Silas A. HOLCOMB
JEAN INGELOW.
ANDREW E. LEE
John W. LEEDY

141 | John Davis Long 776 WILLIAM P. LORD 823 JOSEPH MCKENNA 556 LAFAYETTE McLaws

ALFRED MARSHALL MAYER 323 JAMES A. MOUNT 436 | MARGARET OLIPHANT

97 HAZEN S. PINGREE . 650 ALFRED PLEASANTON 529 GEORGE MORTIMER PULLMAN 713 | GEORGE A. RAMSDELL 238 ALEXANDER COLDEN RHIND 270 WILLIAM A. RICHARDS 272 John R. ROGERS 504 | DANIEL L. RUSSELL. 588 John HENRY RUSSELL 416 | PRAXEDES MATEO SAGASTA 635 | John SARTAIN 714 EDWARD SCOFIELD 731 JOHN SHERMAN.

39 CHARLES F. SHOEMAKER 591 ROBERT B. SMITH 776 Lon V. STEPHENS 777 | ROBERT L. TAYLOR . 592 | EBE W. TUNNELL 31 J. HOGE TYLER 32 | DANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES 810 FRANCIS AMASA WALKER 595 HEBER M. WELLS 661 JAMES WILSON. 540 JUSTIN WINSOR 414 ROGER Wolcott 734 John LORIMER WORDEN 432

604 607 409 642 526 613 614 550 615 827 814 569 618 738 619 825 775 712 535 533 757 274 811 624 624 805 778 627 501 627

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.
COLORED PLATES-

MAP OF NORTHWESTERN INDIA
MAP OF ALASKA
MAP OF THE KLONDIKE REGION
MAP OF GREATER NEW YORK

Night SIGNALS .
VIEW OF HAVANA
THE NEW BUILDING FOR THE CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY
WEST Point, FROM FORT PUTNAM
ANNAPOLIS NAVAL ACADEMY .

PAGE 402 442 444 562 730 254 794 796 798

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.

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PAGE Maxim's FLYING MACHINE 4 A STREET SCENE IN VILLA CLARA

258 LILIENTHAL's LAST SOARING APPARATUS 5 A SPANISH SENTRY

260 LANGLEY'S AËRODROME

5 SPANISH SOLDIERS BREAKFASTING. FORT NEAR RUDOLPH Kosch's MECHANISM FOR ILLUS

MATANZAS.

264 TRATING THE POWER OF CIRCULAR WINGS 6 A BARRICADED STREET IN GUAXABACOA 267 STENTZEL'S FLYING MACHINE .

7 | CHARLES A. DANA'S SUMMER HOME, NEAR MYER'S SKY CIRCLE. 7 GLEx Cove, L. I.

271 HERRING'S FLYING MACHINE

7 GENERAL GRANT'S TOMB IN RIVERSIDE PARK, ONE OF THE TEMPLES AT QUECHMICTOPLICAN,

NEW YORK

320 MEXICO

20 BRONZE BUST OF ABRAHAM COLES, WASHINGSCULPTURED HEAD IN STONE, QUECHMICTO

TON PARK, NEWARK, N. J.

321 PLICAN

21 STEVENSON MEMORIAL

FOUNTAIN

IN SAN HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS, QUECHMICTOPLICAN 21 FRANCISCO .

322 EARLY FRENCH BOOK-PLATE-PERIOD PRIOR Diagrams of Kites (six illustrations) 440–443 TO 1650 86 THE FORWARD"

711 FRENCH BOOK-PLATE UNDER NAPOLEON I 86 METHOD OF IGNITING SIGNAL CARTRIDGE 730 English TRICKED BOOK-PLATE_PERIOD PRIOR IMPROVED SIGNAL HOLDER

738 TO 1738

86 STREET RAILWAYS (seven illustrations): EARLY AMERICAN NAME LABEL 87 BROADWAY CABLE

740 AMERICAN ARMORIAL BOOK-PLATE OF CHARLES

BROADWAY GRIP MECHANISM

741 HOPKINS

87 CROSS SECTION OF ELECTRICAL SUBWAY, RECENT AMERICAN PICTORIAL Book-PLATES

SHOWING TROLLEY MECHANISM

742 (two illustrations)

DANGER OF A SLACK CABLE

744 FIGURE WHEELS FOR CALCULATING MACHINE 96 RESULT OF A BROKEN STRAND

: 745 ADMINISTRATOR'S HOUSE ON PLANTATION, Car

A DOUBLE-DECKED CAR

746 MEN DEL CRESPO 255 VIADUCT, CINCINNATI, Ou10.

748

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