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It may naturally be asked, who shall a Saving Bank to the management of be the officers of these banks, if they all its details; and the success of these are not to be chosen by the contri- Societies as a further proof of the adbutors themselves, either out of their vantages to be expected from the choice own body, or from the higher classes ? of their own functionaries by the deTo this I inight answer, by referring positors. Buta Saving Bank and a Beto the highly respectable self-copsti- nefit Society are usually as different in tuted banking companies in every part the information and circumstances of of Britain; but I am aware, that the an- their members, as in their objects. alogy between these and Saving Banks The frequent meeting of benefit sois by no means complete. The object cieties, or of their committees, is neof the one is the profit of the partners, cessary for the admission of new memwhereas that of the other ought to be bers, and for carrying into effect, as to promote the welfare of the labour- occasions require, the very purpose of ing classes ; and, on this account, the their establishment. The cases of apservices of its managers should be plicants must be speedily examined, either altogether gratuitous, or paid and such allowances made to them, for at so low a rate, as to hold out no out of the funds, as they are entitled inducement, in the shape of emolu- to receive by the rules of the society. incnt, to such men as it would be safe The responsibility of the managers is to intrust with its funds. But it there not confined to the security of the be a want of benevolent individuals funds, but extends also to the mode in among the higher classes, of their own which they are employed, and the reaccord to incur the responsibility, and ceipts and disbursements must thereassume the direction of those Saving fore be investigated at short intervals. Banks, which by their constitution Every member has an equal and unexclude popular elections, it does not divided interest in the welfare of the readily appear, that the circumstance concern, from which he cannot withof being elected by the members, per- draw himself at pleasure, like the dehaps in the face of much opposition, positor in a Saving Bank. The partwill inspire benevolence, or ensure ners of a company in which the memefriciency. For, let it be observed, bers reciprocally ensure one another, that whether the ofiicers be or be not are held together by a bond of conmance by the depositors, it is indis- nexion, which can terminate only with pensable to the success of the establish- their lives, or the dissolution of the ment, that they should be men of pro- partnership. Every member must perty and education, much above the therefore be known to the great body ievel of the depositors themselves. of his associates, all of whom are Even Mr Duncan, the founder of the nearly on the same level. But it is of Ruthwell Bank, and the advocate of importance to observe, that this level the popular system, has contined the is placed somewhat higher than that choice ot' its office-bearers, in the first of the great body of depositors in Savinstance, to the donors and annual be- ing Banks. The most numerous memnefactors of the society. It cannot well bers ot' benefit societies are not of the be doubted, that there are in almost class of common labourers, but men every country parish, and certainly in bred to trades, who have had the adevery town, a few respectable indivi- vantage of being educated in their duils, able and willing to undertake youth, or have since acquired that the management of a Saving Bank, who knowledge of business which is necesmight not, however, choose to attempt sary to success in their professions, in the far more arduous task of preserving which many of them arrive at indeorder in a large assembly, or of ap- pendence. From the very different pearing in it as a candidate for nomiobject and materials of a benefit sonation, and mixing in the discussions, ciety, therefore, it cannot be interred, which, on such an occasion, can hardly that the principle of their organization fail to be introduced.
is either necessary or suitable to that It may be said, however, that there of a Bank for Savings. can be no need for going out of the If weare to look forward to the general society itself for the necessary office establishinent, and to the permanence bearers; and the organization of Be- of Saving Banks, some fears may be nefit Societies may be adduced in proof entertained for the constant and effecot' the competency of the depositors in tive operation of that part of the machinery which is composed of the be- the less probability there is of their nevolence of the higher orders. It is being faithfully discharged by men not altogether improbable, when these who give their services without a pebanks have become very numerous, cuniary reward. The benetit to which and stood so long and so firm, as to the depositors would be entitled, if seem to require only that protection their stock were converted into an anwhich the law confers on all the hon- nuity, must depend upon a variety of est pursuits of private interest, that circunstances, in particular upon their the zeal of that class, from which it is age; and the errors in calculation, proposed the managers should be which may justly be expected to occur, drawn, may not always be found suf- if an annuity scheme were ingrafted ficient for the conduct of their affairs. upon a Saving Bank in country parShould this apprehension be realized, ishes, would, in all probability, soon Inuch stronger reasons than at present bring ruin upon the whole establishwill then be felt for having recourse to ment. It may be doubted, indeed, the alternative of the popular system; how far it may be advisable to urge it and with much less danger of incon- as a duty in the lower classes, to save venience, after all the details of man- a part of that income which barely agement have become familiar by long 'suffices for their own maintenance, or practice. But though I am not so to excite a blind zeal for accumulation, well acquainted with the local arrange- even though, as in the case of Saving ments of England, as to suggest the Banks, they be allowed to withdraw mode of eventually supplying this their deposites at pleasure. In prodesideratum, by means of the resident portion as the zeal of all concerned magistracy or clergy ; yet, if Saving may at first be somewhat immolerate, Banks shall be found in any consider so is the danger that disappointment able degree to operate favourably upon may be succeeded by indifference. All the habits and condition of the lower that is really necessary, or perhaps exclasses, and particularly in diminish- pedient, is to afford to the labouring ing poor-rates, there is every reason to classes the opportunity of depositing hope, that the voluntary and gratui their earnings under safe custody, and tous services of men of property and of drawing them out again with ineducation will always be supplied in terest, when they are too small in aabundance. In Scotland, there is per- mount to be received by mercantile haps still less reason to fear the want banks; and if the advantages of the of such talents and disinterestedness. measure do not form a sufficient inIn every parish there are at least two ducement to them to avail themselves respectable individuals, the clergyman of it, it were idle to expect success to and schoolmaster, who may be confi- Saving Banks, as it is unjustifiable to dently expected to undertake the exe- seek it, by any other means of excitecutive department; and the landed ment. proprietors of this country, justly a- To obviate the objections which I larmed at the progress of poor-rates in am aware may be made to ihis excluEngland, and anxious to ward off the sion of popular interference, I must evil from themselves, certainly would beg leave to conclude this part of the not hesitate to give the most ample subject with observing, that hitherto security for the faithful administration I have chiefly had in view the Saving of all the affairs of the institution. Banks of Scotland, in which the depo
Froin these remarks on the object sitors are understood to be, at least the of Saving Banks, and the principle on far greater number of them, of the very which they should be formed and con- lowest description of accumulators. It ducted, it will be seen that I am de- is for such people, principally, that cidedly averse to the measure that has there is felt a want of Saving Banks been recommended, of combining with in this country; for all our mercantile thern a scheme for converting the de- banks are in the practice of receiving posites into annuities. Those who, so small a sum as £10 in one payment, from the best motives, would thus and returning it on demand with inhasten to rear the superstructure be- terest ; and their agents are spread fore the stability of the foundation has throughout almost every part of the been proved, ought to consider, that country. But I can easily suppose, the more complicated and laborious the that a higher class of depositors may duties of the managers may become, avail themselves of this institution in
England, where it is not customary recently published. It is written with for the mercantile banks to allow in- so much ability, and with such an terest even upon the largest deposites. appearance of precision and of close If associations of this kind, in that reasoning, that those who take a deep country, should, therefore, comprise a interest in so promising an institution, Large proportion of men of informa- cannot fail to be astonished, as well tion, and the number of their mem- as somewhat alarmed, at the extraorbers be consequently very limited, dinary opinion of its author, when, they may certainly find their account after a very imperfect, though an im. in managing their own affairs; but posing view of their probable utility, the character of such societies has he comes to this conclusion, -that, but a very slight affinity with that of “taken by themselves, it is at least a Saving Banks.
doubt whether Saving Banks * may Having been led to notice the re- not procluce as great a quantity of evil markable difference in the conduct of as good.”
Hi. English and Scottish banks, in regard 20th February 1817. to the advantage they allow to depositors, I cannot avoid observing, that the practice of the latter, in pay
TALES AND ANECDOTES OF THE ing interest on deposites of so small
PASTORAL LIFE. an amount as £10, has materially con
* No I. tributed to diffuse among the lower MR EDITOR, orders of this country, that abstinence Last autumn, while I was staying and foresight by which they are so a few weeks, with my friend Mr favourably distinguished from the Grumple, minister of the extensive same class in England. The desire of and celebrated parish of Woolenhorn, accumulating a little capital is never, an incident occurred which hath atexcept among the very worst paid forded me a great deal of annuseinent; labourers, or such as have large fami- and as I think it may divert some of lies, repressed in this country, by the your readers, I shall, without further difficulty of finding for it a secure and prefice, begin the relation. , profitable depository. Partly to this W e had just finished a wearisome circumstance, perhaps, though it has debate on the rights of' teind, anıl the been generally overlookedl, it may be clains which every clergyman of the owing that so many Scotsmen have established church of Scotland has for been enabled to rise from the class of labourers; and, by habits of applica- " It is a curious circumstance, that an tion and economy, which are very appropriate term for those banks should generally combined, establish them- still be wanting. “ Savings Banks,” though selves in a few years in the learned the most common appellation by which they professions, or arrive at independence
are known, seems to please nobody. The
Edinburgh reviewers long since found fault through the more lucrative pursuits
with it as it was then printed. The writer of commerce. In England, on the of the article referred to in the text tells us, contrary, there is no such facility to that some adjunct is wanted to distinguish the secure and profitable investment this from other species of banks, and no of small savings: monied men,-at good one has yet been found. He rejects least bankers, the most convenient and “ Provident Institution," and “ Frugality accessible of this description,-pay no
v no Bank," equally with “ Saving Bank ; interest; and landed proprietors can
and thinks that “ Poor's Bank” would be
the best, if it were not humiliating. Mr not always be safe depositories, while
Duncan gave the Ruthwell Institution the the laws of England protect their ample title of the Parish Bank Friendly estates from the just demands of their Society of Ruthwell.” The Quarterly recreditors.
viewers will not consent to this, and proOn a future occasion I may proba- pose the term “ Friendly Bank," with the bly offer you some remarks on the name of the place prefixed. But the Edinmoral effects to be looked for from the burgh and other banks, in which the depos.
itors are strangers to each other, and do not introduction and increase of Saving
interfere in the management, are not very Banks, when I shall venture to exam
aptly designated by this latest invention, ine what I think is a most injudicious,
is, unless it be understood to apply to the man. and by no means impartial, article on agers exclusively.-Be so good as insert this this subject, in the Part of the Supple- note for the purpose of exercising the inment to the Encyclopædia Britannica genuity of your readers.
a grass glebe; the china cups were by day, and they could not understand already arranged, and the savoury tea- why they should be driven from the pot stood basking on the ledge of the parlour, or how they had not as good grate, when the servant maid entered, a right to be there as he. Of course, and told Mr Grumple that there was neither threats nor blows could make one at the door who wanted him. them leave him; and it being a scene
We immediately heard a debate in of life quite new to me, and of which the passage,-the parson pressing his I was resolved to profit as much as guest to come ben, which the other possible, at my intercession matters stoutly resisted, declaring aloud that were made up, and the two canine “ it was a' nonsense thegither, for he associates were suffered to remain was eneuch to fley a' the grand folk where they were. They were soon out o' the room, an' set the kivering seated, one on each side of their maso'the floor a-swoomin.” The parlour ter, clinging fondly to his feet, and door was however thrown open, and, licking the wet from his dripping to my astonishment, the first guests trowsers. who presented themselves were two Having observed, that when the strong honest-looking colleys, or shep- shepherd entered he had begun to herd's dogs, that came bouncing and speak with great zest about the sport capering into the room, with a great they had in killing the salmon, I deal of seeming satisfaction. Their again brought on the subject, and master was shortly after ushered in. made him describe the diversion to He was a tall athletic figure, with a me.-“() man!” said he, and then black beard, and dark raven hair hang- indulged in a hearty laugh-(man ing over his brow; wore clouted shoes, was always the term he used in adshod with iron, and faced up with dressing either of us-sir seemed to copper; and there was altogether be no word in his vocabulary)" something in his appearance the most man, I wish ye had been there! I'll homely and uncouth of any exterior I lay a plack ye wad hae said ye never had ever seen.
saw sic sport sin' ever ye war born. “ This,” said the minister, « is We gat twall fish a'thegither the-day, Peter Plash, a parishioner of mine, an' sair broostles we had wi’ some o who has brought me in an excellent them; but a' was naething to the salmon, and wants a good office at my killin o' that ane at Pool-Midnight, hand, he says, in return."-" The bit Geordie Otterson, Mathew Ford, an' fish is naething, man,” said Peter, me, war a' owr the lugs after him. sleeking down the hair on his brow; But ye's hear :-When I cam on to “ I wish he had been better for your the craigs at the weil o' Pool Midsake—but gin ye had seen the sport night, the sun was shinin bright, the that we had wi' him at Pool-Midnight, wind was lowne, an' wi' the pirl * ve wad hae leughen till ye had burstit.” being away, the pool was as clear as Here the shepherd, observing his two crystal. I soon saw by the bells dogs seated comfortably on the hearth coming up, that there was a fish in rug, and deeining it an instance of the auld hauld ; an' I keeks an' I high presumption and very bad man- glimes about, till, faith! I sees his Ders, broke out with “Ay, White, blue murt fin. My teeth war a' foot, lad! an' ye're for being a gentle waterin' to be in him, but I kend the man too? My certy, man, but ye're shank o' my wastert wasna half length. no blate!-I'm ill eneugh, to be sure, Sae I cries to Geordie, “ Geordie," to come into a grand room this way, says I, “ aigh man! here's a great but yet I wadna set up my impudent chap just lyin steeping like a aik nose an' my muckle rough brisket clog." Off comes Geordie, shaughle afore the lowe, an' tak a' the fire to shaughlin a' his pith; for the creamysel-Get aff wi' ye, sir! An' you ture's that greedy o’ fish, he wad ventoo, Trimmy, ye limmer! what's your ture his very saul for them. I kend business here?"-So saying, he at- brawly what wad be the upshot. tempted with the fringe of his plaid " Now," says I, “ Geordie, man to drive them out; but they only ran yoursel for this ae time. Aigh, man! about the room, eyeing their master he is a terrible ane for size--See, with astonishment and concern. They yonder he's lying.” The sun was had never, it seemed, been wont to be separated from him either by night or
shining sae clear that the deepness ó' drowned the men,” said I. « On na. the pool was a great cheat. Geordie only keepit them down till I took the bait his lip for perfect eagerness, an power fairly frae them-till the bullers his een war stelled in his head-he gae owr coming up; then I carried thought he had him safe i' the pat; them to different sides o’ the water, but wheuever he put the grains o' the an' laid them down agroof wi’ their leister into the water, I could speak heads at the inwith ; an'atter gluthernae mair, I kend sae weel what was ing an' spurring a wee while, they coinin, for I kend the depth to an came to again. We dinna count muckle inch.-Wcel, he airches an' he vizies of a bit drowning match, us fishers. for a good while, an' at length made a I wish I could get · Geordie as weel push down at him wi' his whole might. doukit ilka day; it wad tak the Tut the leister didna gang to the smeddum frae him-for 0, he is a grund by an ellman' Geordie gaedd greedy thing! But I fear it will be a into the deepest part o' Pool-Midnight while or I see sic glorious sport again.” wi' bis head foremost! My sennins Mr Grumple remarked, that he turned as supple as a dockan, an' I thought, by his account, it could not fell just down i' the bit wi' lauchin- be very good sport to all parties; and ye might hae bund me wi' a strae. that, though he always encouraged Hle wad hae drowned for aught that I these vigorous and healthful exercises could do; for when I saw his heels among his parishioners, yet he regretfingin up aboon the water as he had ted that they could so seldom be conbeen dancin a hornpipe, I lost a' power cluded in perfect good humour. thegither ; but Mathew Ford harled “They're nae the waur o' a wee him into the shallow wi’his leister. bit splore," said Peter ; “ they wad
“ Weel, after that we cloddit the turn unco milk-an'-water things, an' pool wi' great stanes, an'aff went the dee away a'thegither wantin a broolzie. tish down the gullots, shinin like a Ye might as weel think to keep a ale. rainbow. Then he ran, an' he ran ! vat workin wantin barm." an' it was wha to be first in him. “But, Peter, I hope you have not Geordie gat the first chance, an' I been breaking the laws of the country thought it was a' owr; but just when by your sport to-day?" he thought he was sure o' him, down. " Na, troth hae we no, mancan Mathew full drive, smashed his close-time disna come in till the day grains out through Geordie's, and gart atter the-mom ; but atween you an' him miss. It was my chance next; me, close-time's nae ill time for us. an' I took him nently through the It merely ties up the grit folk's hands, gills, though he gaed. as fast as a an' thraws a' the sport into our's theskell-drake.
gither. Na, na, we's never complain “ But the sport grew aye better. o'close-time; if it warna for it there Geordie was sac mad at Vathew for wad few fish fa' to poor folk's share.” taigling hiin, an' garring him tine the This was a light in which I had tisa (for he's a greedy dirt), that they never viewed the laws of the fishing
had gone to grips in a moment; an association before ; but as this honest . when I lookit back, they war just hind spoke from experience, I have
fightin like twae tarriers in the mids o' no doubt that the statement is founded the water. The witters 'o' the twa in truth, and that the sole effect of leisters were fankit in ane anither, close-time, in all the branches of the an' they couldna get them sindry, else principal river, is merely to tie up the
there had been a vast o’ bludeshed; hands of every respectable man, and - but they were knevillin, an' tryin to throw the fishing into the hands of drown ane anither a' that they could ; poachers. Ile told me, that in all the an' if they hadna been clean fore- rivers of the extensive parish of Wooltoughen they wad hae done't ; for enhorn, the fish generally run up they were aye gaun out o'sight an' during one flood and went away the comin howdin up again. Yet atter a', next; and as the gentlemen and tarın. when I gael back to redd them, they ers of those parts had no interest in were sae in veterate that they wadna the preservation of the breeding salinon part till I was forced to haud them themselves, nor cared a farthing about down through the water an' drown the fishing associatious in the great them baith."
river, whom they viewed as monopo“ But I hope you have not indeed lizers of that to which they had no