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THE EDINBURGH Review, No 5,5, several other pious and charitable pure
• poses, besides the relief of the paro.. 1. Minutes of the Evidence taken chial poor. The practice is indeed of before the Committee appointed by the long standing; but even in those paHouse of Commons to inquire into the rishes where there are no legal assesse State of Mendicity and Vagrancy in ments, the annount of these voluntary the Metropolis and its Neighbourhood. contributions is, from causes which it -This is an essay on the “ Causes and is unnecessary to inquire into in this Cure of Pauperism." The boldness, place, gradually diminishing. That originality, and independence of sen- our southern neighbours may have timent, for which this celebrated jour. some idea of this mysterious“ sysnal has been always remarkable,-to tem,” of which they have lately heard say nothing of the acknowledged ta. Soinuch, we must beg leave to tell lent, good taste, and profound specula them, that for several years that we tion, by which it has been so pecu- resided in the immediate vicinity of liarly distinguished, -induced us to three country parish churches, this enter upon the perusal of this article collection did not amount, on an avewith very sanguine hopes of finding rage, in each of them, to the sum of that which is at present of such incala sixpence sterling weekly; and what culable interest-a clear exposition of became of this trifle we never heard, the causes of the rapid increase of pau- nor thought it worth while to inquire. perism, with some definite, enlightened, -As to the legal assessments, in so far and practicable proposal for checking, as they have been deemed expedient, at least, if not for eradicating, this chietiy owing to the non-residence of most alarming evil. In these hopes the principal proprietors, there is little we have been most grievously disap- danger that they can ever either bepointed. The writer proposes to make come considerable in amount, at least our southern neighbours acquainted in country parishes, or be bestowed on with the benefits of the original paro- improper objects. These are the points chial system of Scotland,- deeply de- most interesting to our brethren in plores the introduction of legal assess the south, though the Reviewer says ments for the poor in a few counties, not a word of either. In the comand points out the measures by which paratively few parishes where a poorhe thinks these hitherto very moderate rate is imposed, the heritors of the contributions may be withdrawn, and parish, or their agents, along with the purposes to which, in that event, the minister, hold regular meetings, they may be advantageously applied. at which the assessment is imposed Now this “ original parochial systein,” equally on themselves and their tenthis “ material mechanism of our pa- ants, according to the real or valued rishes," and so on, may be described rent of each farm, after a careful exain one word, as being no system at mination of the cases of the applicants all, -nothing more than a practice, now for relief, who are required to attend by no means universal, of making a col- the meeting, and, except in case of lection before divine service at the sickness or infirmity, usually do attend church doors, or within the church and answer the questionş which the itself before the disinissal of the con minister or other meinbers of the meetgregation, out of which the minister ing are in the practice of proposing to and elders of a parish distribute small them. The money is collected by their sums occasionally among the poor, ac- clerk, who is commonly schoolmaster cording to their own discretion. As of the parish; the allowance to each similar collections are made in the pauper, as fixed by the heritors, paid meeting-houses of the numerous bo- by him; and his accounts audited at dies of dissenters which are to be their next meeting. How different all found in every part of Scotland, of this is from the practice of England, which a large portion is avowedly none of our readers need be told; but it applied to other purposes than the is material to runurk, that as those who relief of the poor, this practice can impose the assessment pay a moicty of hardly, with any propriety, be called a it themselves, and have thus an evident parochial system. Even in the churches interest in limiting its amount, the rates of the Establishment, it is usual to levied for the poor even in the parishes adopt this mode of raising funds for of Berwickshire nearest to the conta
mination of the English system, and herds, who rear great numbers of where assessments have been estab- sheep, horses, cows, and goats. The Lished for many years, do not, in ordi- cause of the insalubrity of this country nary seasons, amount to fourpence in is a mystery into which science has the pound of rent.-- Another striking not yet been able to penetrate. “It and most important difference between seems undeniable,” says the Reviewer, the English and Scottish poor laws, as “ that whatever be the cause of this now administered, is, that no relief is evil, its effects have increased, and are given in Scotland to those who are increasing, at this moment." Rome able to work; and the absence of the itself suffers under the increased action cruel and most injudicious laws of set- of the Mal’ Aria; and the extraordinary tlement established in England, leaves diminution of its inhabitants within every one at perfect liberty to carry twenty-one years, from 1791 to 1813, his labour to the best market.- We from 166,000 to 100,000, is partly have no room to offer any remarks on ascribed to this cause. the measures proposed here for putting 3. Speech of the Right Honourable an end to pauperism ; but the substance George Canning in the House of Comof them is,--the multiplication of pa- mons, on Wednesday, January 29th, rishes, with schools and churches, and 1817, on the Motion for an Address to a more intimate intercourse between his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, the minister and his parishioners.--It on his most gracious Speech from the has now become the fashion, because Throne. The title of this article is, the poor laws of England are actually “History of the Alarıns.” The object a disgrace, as well as an intolerable of the Reviewer is to shew, that there burden, to the nation, to cry out was no good cause for the suspension against all legal provision for the relief of the Habeas Corpus Act, and that it of even the most helpless and despe- had not been suspended in times more tate cases. In this part of the Island, alarming than the present. too far north as we are to write very 4. Aus Meinem Leben. Von GOETHE. learnedly on the subject, we have been This is a continuation of Goethe's Meforward enough to join in this clam- moirs, containing recollections of his our, and to supply the want of local travels in Italy. This volume, the knowledge and dear-bought experi- Reviewer says, will be judged by most ence by what we call general views, readers to be almost as doting as the and of close and perspicuous argument preceding ones, without being equally by elaborate declamation.
entertaining ; but however that may 2. Lettres écrites d'Italie en 1812 et be, the article itself is entertaining in 1813, à Mr Charles Pictet, l'un des no ordinary degree. Goethe and his Rédacteurs de la Bibliothèque Britana adventures are the subject of much nique. ' Par FREDERIC SULLIN de good-humoured ridicule. A Chateauvieux.-The object of this book 5. Interesting Facts relating to the is to explain the rural economy of Fall and Death of Joachim Murat, Italy; and the title of the article is, King of Naples, &c. By Francis « Agriculture and Statistics of Italy.” MACIRONE. The “ Foreign Policy of The most interesting part of the cri. England” stands at the top of the pages tique, perhaps, is the account of Man of this critique ; but the Reviewers remma, which forms the third division confine their attention to the affairs of of the Italian territory. This singular Italy. The Congress of Vienna, and tract extends along the shore of the particularly the representatives of this 3 Mediterranean, from Leghorn to Ter- country at that memorable assembly, racina, and reaches inland as far as the are freely censured at the outset; and first chain of the Appennines. Its the transactions regarding Genoa and length is 192 geographical miles; and Ragusa, in 1813 and 1814, brought in in the Agro Romana, where it is proof of the misconduct of our governgreatest, the breadth is between 30 ment. The Reviewers cannot too much and 40 of these miles. It is unfortu- recommend this book to the reader's nately distinguished by the character attention, whether he look for enter of Mal Aria, an unhealthy constitu- tainment or for information with retion of the atmosphere, or of the soil, spect to the views and conduct of the during the summer season; and is in- legitimates. An account is then given habited only during the winter, and of the abominable' treatment whit chiefly by a race of wandering shep- Macirone had experienced from
Papal government of his repairing to The only remark we would beg leave Italy and becoming an officer of the to offer on this important part of the staff to Murat-of the arrangement question is, that the statute of Charles, between Lord William Bentinck and recognizing the prorogation of parliathat personage, and the conduct of our ment for three years, without being government in consequence. Some called together, seems to be in direct very interesting extracts are given from opposition to the more ancient laws, the work, regarding Murat's conceal- which required a parliament to be held ment near Marseilles, before he was every year; and some explanation of able to effect his escape to Corsica ; and this obvious inconsistency might have a few curious particulars of the author's been expected from this very learnreception at the English head-quarters, ed writer.—As to universal suffrage, to which he was sent by Fouché, with scarcely the vestige of a foundation for propositions, after the battle of Wa- this claim can be discovered ; and what terloo,--and of his passage thither, we know of the structure of society in through Blucher's army. The article the earlier periods of our history, is concludes with noticing a story about sufficient of itself to convince us, that the death of Berthier, which is said, this pretended right never was exerwith truth, not to be over and above cised, -as we are certain, that in the credible.
present state of society, it never can 6. The title of this article is, “ An- be, without speedily blending in one nual Parliaments and Universal Suff- undistinguishable mass of ruin, the rage,” and we suppose, that the way in liberties, the energies, and the rewhich the subject is discussed here, sources of the nation. will give satisfaction to the well in- 7. Wat Tyler, a dramatic poem ; formed and well disposed, whatever and A Letter to William Smith, Esq. may be their political attachments. M.P. From ROBERT SOUTHEY, Esq. Regarding annual parliaments, the The readers of the Edinburgh ReReviewer proves clearly, by numerous view will at once anticipate the leading references to the rolls of parliament, contents of this article. and other authentic records, that 8. Transactions of the Geological though it was provided by several Society, Vol. II.-There are twentystatutes, that parliaments should be four papers in this volume, of which held every year, yet, that a new parlia- sixteen relate to different localities in ment was not chosen every year, but the British islands, and three only to continued by prorogation for an inde- foreign geology. The account of it is finite period, -in one instance, so early favourable. as the reign of Edward IV. for near 9. Tales of my Landlord.—This three years, and much longer by seva critique is introduced by some excellent eral of his successors. This preroga- remarks on the general character of tive of the crown was recognized in the author's performances ; and then one of the first acts of the long parlia- the Reviewer exhibits a concise anament, by which a parliament which lysis of the present work, interspersed was continued by prorogation, and did with copious and well selected extracts. mot meet within three years after its What strikes us as rather singular is, last sitting, was declared to be dissolved. that the circumstance of the author's " We trust we have now proved," being a Tory, which the critic thinks say the Reviewers, “ to the satisfac- he has discovered him to be, is assigntion of our readers, that, Ist, The me ed as a reason for passing over some thod of continuing parliaments by pro- of his peccadilloes with scarcely any rogation, was known from the earliest reproof. It is possible enough, that period of our parliamentary history. Reviewers, as well as Poets, may some2d, That the laws of Edward III. and times nod; for true it is, that the other princes, for annual parliaments, conclusion of this gentleman's lacu. did not affect, and were not intended brations is not altogether in his usual to affect, this prerogative. 3d, That style ; and something a great deal betthe statute of 16 Charles I. chap. 1, ter weighed, was to be expected on was the first act that touched or limit- the topics to which he there adverts. ed this prerogative of the crown; and, Martin himself, in the corresponding 4th, That the triennial act of King article of the Quarterly Review, shews William was the first statute which a more kindly disposition towards his limited the duration of parliament to homely brother in the hour of his tri+ fixed and certain term of years."- bulation.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.“
Discovery of a rich vein of Lead Ore earths, particularly the porphyritic trap, at Lead Hills. We are informed by Mr but that oatmeal is capable of producing Braid, surgeon at Lead Hills, that a few the same effects, by spreading about two weeks ago a very rich vein of lead ore quarts of it on a large dish and putting was discovered in the Scots Mining Com. it in an exhausted receiver, when it will pany's field. The vein is fully four feet freeze nearly a pint of water in a few wide, and filled from wall to wall with minutes ; the latter being in a pot of pure unmixed galena, or' lead glance. porous earthenware. The fact itself is This important and valuable discovery valuable not only to confectioners and will in all probability raise the mines of private families at home, but also to re. Lead Hills to their former flourishing sidents in the hottest climes. The abstate.
sorbent powder recovers all its qualities, Cumberhead Lead Mines.-We are also after operation, if dried in the sun, or informed, that it is in agitation to re-open before a fire. the lead mines of Cumberhead, in La- The interesting experiment, by Pro. narkshire, the property of Michael Lin. fessor Leslie, announced in our First ping, Esq. which have been lately sur. Number, under the above title, has been veyed by Professor Jameson.
successfully repeated by Mr Stodart. The In January last, Dr Macculloch read a stone from which he made his absorbent paper to the Geological Society of Lon- powder was taken from Salisbury Craigs, don, on the Parallel Roads of Glenroy, in near Edinburgh; this was pounded and which the ingenious author, after a par. dried ; and with it, under an exhausted ticular description of these appearances, receiver, a small body of water was soon entered into a minute consideration of all frozen. On procuring a very low recei. the hypotheses which have been suggest. ver, and preparing a larger surface of ed relative to the mode of their forma, earth, the process was accelerated, a lar. tion. He thinks the theory which re. ger body of water being soon converted gards them as the remains of the shores into a cake of ice. Experiments were of a lake, is the most probable; but al. made with various other absorbents, of lows the difficulties attending every opi. which pipe-clay was the best, equalising nion as to their origin.
in intensity the whin-trap itself. The The absolute horizontality of these latter, however, when in a state of com. “ roads” is a point which, hitherto, has plete decomposition, will probably prove been assumed from inspection with the to be the best material for the refrigera. naked eye, not proved by actual levelling ting process. This elegant discovery of But we are happy to be able to inform the Professor promises to prove equally our readers, that within these few days, interesting to the philosopher, and imthis point has been determined in the portant in its application to the common most satisfactory manner. Mr Lauder purposes of life, in every climate. WheDick, with the assistance of some scien. ther required as a luxury in health, or as tific friends, has ascertained by a series a necessary in sickness, ice may at all of levellings executed with the utmost times be readily procured. care, that the “roads” are perfectly ho- At a late meeting of the Bath Literary rizontal at every point. He has also ex. and Philosophical Society, Dr Wilkinson, amined minutely the corresponding ap- in remarking upon a paper presented by pearances in the neighbouring valleys of Dr Wollaston, relative to the theory of Glengloy and Glenspian ; and made a va- the diamond cutting glass, mentioned, riety of observations, serving very much that he had some micrometers, made by to confirm those views relative to their the late Mr Coventry, where the lines on origin, which he lately delivered to the glass had been so finely drawn, that the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
cross lines formed a series of squares, so Artificial Congelation.New theories minute, that 25 millions are equal to of Chemistry and Geology may now be no more than one square inch. expected to start up from the recent dis- The plan of a new drag for searching coveries of Professor Leslie, whose frigo- for drowned bodies has been submitted rific process, by the combined powers of to, and approved by the same society. It absorption and evaporation, acts with un consists of an iron rod, at least six feet
common energy and effect. He has in length, divided into three parts by *lately ascertained, that the congealing two joints; so that, as the sides of rivers • power is not confined to the absorbent are generally sloping, the two extremi.
ties of the rod may lie on either bank, bly be not more than one-fifth part of the while the central part keeps its horizon, money. tal position on the bed of the river. To Saturday, the 10th ult. Mr Moir eshi. this rod are attached a number of creep. bited a model of a machine before the ers, at the end of small chains, about a Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, foot asunder. This instrument, towed for impelling a vessel against a stream, by a small boat, will, it is conceived, without the application of sails, oars, or completely search the bed and banks of steam. any small river.
Bath Literary and Philosophical SoAfrican Expedition. Accounts have ciety. March 17.-Mrs Grose favoured been received from Lieutenant Campbell, the Society with some specimens of the on whom devolved the command of the Cicada mannaferens, or locust of New expedition for exploring the Joliba or Nin South Wales, and likewise of the wild ger River, on the death of Major Peddie, honey or manna deposited by that animal stating his arrival at the head of the river on a large forest tree called the EucalypNunez, whence he intended proceeding tus. This insect continues but a short across the mountains towards Bammakoo, time in its winged state : it was first obthe place at which Mr Park embarked ;
served in November 1800, by Colonel on the surface of which Lieutenant Camp
Paterson, in the pupa state, and on the bell and his companions are in all proba same day it appeared with its wings bility at this time.
through an opening in the back of the Earthquakes.-The following is an outer covering; it was then in a very enumeration of earthquakes felt in differ weak state, and slowly left its original ent parts of the world since the 1st of
abode. The rapidity with which the inJanuary last :
sect enlarges after this is surprising; in Jan. 13. In the Gulf Stream.
the course of a few hours it can fly to the 17. AtChamouny, in Switzerland.
top of the tallest eucalyptus, which gene19. At the same place.
rally grows to the height of sixty or se. 20. At the same place, and also venty feet. On this tree Colonel Paterat Alcocer, in Spain.
son first discovered the manna in great Feb. 11.)
quantities, apparently produced by these 13. At the same place.
insects. It may be collected both in a 14.
liquid and in a saccharine state : the inis. At Madrid, Barcelona, Leri. habitants gathered it, and used it for some da, and Saragossa.
time as sugar, but soon discovered that March 11. At Lyons.
it possessed in some degree the quality of 15. At Chamouny, and Messina, manna. The extraordinary noise these in Sicily.
little creatures make is deserving of no18. At Madrid, Pampeluna. and tice : the males first begin with a note
several other parts of Spain. similar to that of the land-rail, and re. 22. At Pampeluna.
peat it for several times ; at length the At Frascati, Gensano, and females join, when the combination of 25.( other adjacent places in notes exactly resembles the noise of grind.
notes exactly resembles the 26. Italy. One shock particu ing knives or razors; and hence the inlarly violent.
scct is popularly known by the name of 28. At Chamouny,
the razor-grinder. It makes its appear. 30. — ditto.
ance about the end of November, and 31. ditto.
early in January deposits its eggs in the April 1. ditto.
ground. The larva is perfect in Septem2. - ditto, very violent, direc ber, when it is formed into the pupa, in
tion from north to south. which state it remains until November. (Day not mentioned) At Palermo.
There is a species of the insect in New A gentleman at Blackheath has found, South Wales of the same appearance, and that alcohol and snow or ice mixed to which makes the same sort of noise, but gether, form an absorbent of such capa. produces no manna. city, that the temperature of snow, when The university of Cambridge has rę. the alcohol is not very strong, is reduced cently received a gift of £20,000 from en from 32° to 17o.
unknown individual, who is stated to be Orders have gone down to Plymouth on the verge of concluding a century, and for the Resolute bell-vessel to repair to who has adopted this plan in preference Portsmouth, in order that the state of to a testamentary bequest, as the legacy the Royal George may be ascertained, duty is thereby saved. The gift is expreparatory to the removal of her hull, pressly to St Peter's College i te either together or in pieces. Her remains ter and Fellows of which, it is said, he are estimated to be worth £56,000, while tend to expend the interest of the sum in the expense of raising them will proba. founding some new Scholarships, and"