« ПретходнаНастави »
The river of all to which ocean gives birth, Is uttered in reproaches against Tydeus,
Who leads the Argives in the path of ruin ; Oh! god of my country, who, next to the The Fury's herald, the High Priest of death, sky,
The counsellor of mischief to Adrastus; Lov'st the temples of Thebes, in our troubles Thy hapless brother he addresses thus :
• Is this a warfare sanctioned by the Gods? Put our foemen to shame, and the glory be Expect'st thou glory from a war like this? thine,
A traitor to thy country and her Gods. That for ages thy people may kneel at thy Oh! canst thou close the spring of nature's shrine.
fountains ? Oh! doom not a city to ashes and dust, Although this city fall beneath thy might, The pride of the nations, antiquity's trust; Will she receive thee as a son again? Shall our maidens, like cattle, be dragged I know that in the combat I must die, by the locks,
Yet will I dare the battle, and I hope Ard our matrons be driven to bondage like A fate not quite inglorious.' On his shield flocks!
There was no blazonry, he chose to be, Oh! loud is the wailing on that fatal day, Rather than seem, a virtuous man." From their homes when a people is hurried
Eteocles at last rushes out to battle, away, Bound and fettered like slaves, and with meets his brother, and both are slain. garments all torn,
The bodies are brought on the stage, Wives severed from husbands, and lovers and are mourned by Ismene and Antiforlorn ;
gone, the former of whom was attached When the bride in despair from the bride to Eteocles, and the latter to Polynices. groom is led
Meanwhile they receive information From the joy of her soul to an enemy's bed. Rape, murder, and fire, are in every abode,
that the senate of Thebes had ordered In the palace of kings and the temples of
the remains of Eteocles to be interred God;
with all the honours due to his rank; When the slumbering infant is startled from but that the body of Polynices should
be cast out unburied, a prey to the And with pitiful wailings clings fast to the dogs, as a traitor to his country. Anbreast;
tigone thus replies to the message: For the loved one, the cares of the mother
5 Go tell the Magistrates of Thebes from me, are vain, She may hide, -through her body her dar.
chodo her dar. Though all resist, that I will bury him; ling is slain.”
When nature bids, no dangers shall deter
me; A herald enters, and gives a charac- I will inter my brother, tho' the state ter of each of the chiefs, and describes Should brand me with the name of traitor the blazonry on their shields. In this
for it; part of the play there are some splen- Are we not bound by nature's strongest ties? did passages, but, like that already
Did not one miserable mother bear us ? quoted, more fit for narrative than dra
The children of the same unhappy father ?
Faint not, my spirit, in the path of duty, matic poetry. This is a fault which Æschylus frequently commits; but we
The living with the dead shall hold com
munion ; are not to be surprised, that without He shall not be the prey of hungry wolves. any example of the drama to guide No! I will swathe him in fine linen garments, him, he should not have clearly seen And in my bosom bear him to the grave, the limits which separate acted from And rear for him affection's monument; spoken poetry. These descriptions, in Tho'a weak woman, and the state oppose me, which he seems to have taken the Yet shall I find the means for this good purshield of Achilles as his model, occupy a most disproportionate length of the The “ Phænissæ," the play next to play, nearly one half of the whole. come under review, is the work of EuThe character of Amphiaraus may ripides. It was the glory of Greek serve as a specimen. There was in tragedy, that in it genius was enlistthis man, who was a prophet, and who ed under the banners of morality, and was averse to the expedition, a gentle Euripides was not only a great poet, ness of spirit well becoming a mini but an eminent teacher of moral wisster of religion, and finely opposed to dom. He had from nature a heart of the the ferocity of the other chiefs. keenest sensibility-and a rich ima56 The sixth is Amphiaraus ;-a man
gination. In the school of philosophy, Of sanctity of soul and gentle manners,
he had learned to turn the one into Yet in a righteous cause he knows not terror; its proper channels, and to prune the The virtuous indignation of his heart other of its unprofitable luxuriance,
and, by a concentration of its energies, man points out to her the chiefs, and to give it a force and a vigour which among the rest Polynices, for whom it could not have obtained by any other she had eagerly inquired. training. He took the most exalted " Tutor. See! there he is ;-he stands view of the end of poetry, and from
beyond the tomb the stores of philosophy he was en- of Niobe's seven daughters, near Adrastus; abled to confer a solidity and a value Dost thou not see him? on her creations. It was not his aim
An. Yes! but indistinctly ; merely to yield a momentary delight, Me
Beliebt Methinks I see him dimly shadow'd yonder. but. through the imagination and the Oh! could I journey on that passing cloud, feelings, to elevate, and refine, and in
On the wings of the wind, to my dear bro
ther, vigorate, the whole nature of man. Ar
And pour my spirit in a fond embrace. But the quality the most prominent See! how he shines in coat of golden mail, in this great man, is tenderness of Bright as the beaming of the morning sun." heart; nor did he, like Sophocles, put a check on his sympathies, that they
uy By the mediation of Jocasta, an in. might be displayed with the more
terview is obtained betwixt her sons, effect in some striking situation; where
for the purpose of a reconciliation ; and ever an object presents itself for their
Polynices, on his adınission into the exercise there is an overflow of them,
city, ineets her. . and by the communications of genius “Jo. Oh! my son ! do I again behold he never fails to inspire his readers
thee, with his own sorrows." His verses are After so many weary days of absence ? laboured to the most exquisite polish,
Embrace the breasts that gave thee suck,
and layo . and he bestowed so much care on their
Thy cheek on mine, and let thy raven locks composition, that he is said to have Flow on my bosom ; art thou come at length spent three days on the correction of Thus unexpected to a mother's arins ? so many lines. Whether this be liter- Do I again enjoy the dear delights ally true or not, it is certain that he I had with thee ere thou wert banish'd was his own most severe critic, and
hence ? might, in this respect, be imitated with Without thee the palace of thy father profit in this scribbling generation, in
in Was as a desert to me; thou wert mourned
By all thy friends, by all the citizens ; which many seem to mistake the fa
Then did I shear my hoary locks, and then cility of manufacturing feeble lines for Change the gay garments that betoken'd joy the inspiration of genius. A story, For the dark weeds more fitting for a which has been often told, shews the
mourner. extent of his reputation among his Po. There is no man that does not love contenporaries. In the unfortunate he country ;* expedition of the Athenians against Sy- Yet come I in anxieties and fears, racuse, all the prisoners who could re
Lest I should fall into my brother's snares, peat his verses obtained their liberty.
And perish in them ; yet there is one hope
Of safety in thy promise pledged to me. This is perhaps a more splendid eulo
Thus have I dared to enter these lov'd walls, gy than ever was bestowed on poet.
These palaces, these altars of the Gods, In dramatic management, he is less
alic nanageinent, ne is less And that Gymnasium wherein I was train'd skilful than Sophocles, and his trage- To manly sports; and the fair streams of dies are often clumsy and disjointed ' Dirce, in their structure, but even in this re- Which years have come and gone since I spect it will soon appear that he was
· have seen,
A miserable exile, fill my eyes superior to Æschylus.
With tears of melancholy. Oh! mother, In the Phænissæ, Jocasta, the mo
How art thou changed since last I saw thee ther of the warring princes, is intro
here! duced by Euripides, and acts a dis- Thy griefs for me have brought the low tinguished part in the play. She opens
indeed. the piece by a prologue, in which she How is my father, feeble, blind, and old ? explains the causes of the calamities How are my sisters ? Do they weep for me? of her family and the quarrels of her Jo. The Gods have doomd our family to $ops. Antigone, of whose attachment ruin, to her brother we had a proof in the
Yet must we bear our sufferings with pa, conclusion of the last play, then ap
Po. Ask what thou wilt, I will deny thee pears, accompanied by an aged tutor,
nothing ; Froin the scene they had a full view I came in arms against my country, of the besieging army, and the old But, by the Gods I swear, unwillingly
I lift the spear and draw the sword against Hear me, ye kindred of the unhappy king; it.
His sons have perished in the deadly combat. 'Tis thine to reconcile thy children;
C. Alas! this is a heavy blow indeed! Deliver me, the city, and thyself,
M. Yes, if thou knew'st the whole. From the calamities that threaten us.
C. More misfortunes ? Eteocles. (Addressing Jocusta.)
M. Thy sister sleeps in death beside her I come, but in submission to thy orders;
sons. What wouldst thou have, there is no time -Just as they lay expiring side by side, to lose?
In speed the mother with her daughter Jo. Truth and justice require delibera
came, tion ;
And when she saw them dying of their Look not so sternly, 'tis no Gorgon's head
wounds, That thou beholdest, but thy only brother. She shrieked aloud, “Oh! I am then too Oh ! Polynices, turn a friendly eye
late!' Upon Eteocles. --Be friends, my sons! And falling on her children, now the one, Et. Mother, do not deceive thyself, but And now the other, wept in bitterness ; know
And cried, Sons of my age ! ye once were That I for sovereignty would seek the sky
dear Where the sun rises, aye, and would de. To one another as to me, but now scend
Your feuds have ruined me.' Eteocles, Into the central caverns of the earth. In the last throes of agonizing nature, Therefore to none will I resign the crown: Was wakened to attention by her cries, It is the sword that must decide our quarrels. And stretched his hand, wet by the dews of Shall he be sovereign, and must I be slave?
death, Let him for this bring fire and sword against Seized upon her's, and, with a feeble presme,
sure, Harness his steeds, and fill the plain with Held it a while, and watered it with tears, chariots,
In token of the love he could not speak, I will not yield to him the sovereignty.” And thus expired. The brother, who still
lived, The dialogue is continued, and is so
so Looked on his sister and his aged mother : extremely beautiful, that I regret my "I perish, mother, yet I pity thee, limits will not permit me to translate And thee, my sister-aye, and thee, my even a part of it.
brother, A scene follows betwixt Eteocles Though by my hands thou diest, as I by and his uncle Creon, who recommends thine. caution ; but the impetuous young Thou wert once my friend, became mine
enemy, man, impatient of restraint, and burning for revenge, delegates to him the
Yet still wert dear to me. My beloved
mother, care of the government, and hurries
And thou, my sister, hear my dying prayer. out to battle. Creon sends for the Oh! sooth the citizens, and let them not soothsayer Tiresias, to consult him Take vengeance on my ashes after death ; respecting the issue of the war; who But let me with my kindred have a grave informs him, that there is no other In this my dear and much-loved native means of delivering the city from de- land. struction but offering up his son a
o 10 his son Though I have lost at once my life and victim for the general safety. The
crown, father refuses, but the generous youth
Let them no longer treat me as an exile.
And, mother, close mine eyes with thine retires, and puts an end to his life.
own hands,' This scene, taken in itself, is good; (Then did he lay her hands upon his eyes,). but as it is little connected with the ‘And fare ye well; for now the shades of principal story, it must be condemned
death as an excrescence.
Surround me.' It was thus the princes After this transaction, Jocasta and perished. Antigone are informed that the battle
Then was Jocasta conquered by her sorrows, had ceased. and that Polvnices and And in a fit of frenzy drew the sword
From her son's side, and thrust it through Eteocles had agreed to decide their
her throat, differences by a single combat, Jo- And long as life remained, embraced her casta, alarmed by these tidings, hastily
sons, quits the stage, with the design of And died between them.” throwing herself betwixt her sons, and preventing this unnatural combat, of The play concludes with the banishwhich the issue is narrated to Creon ment of old Edipus, by the orders of by a messenger.
Creon, and a pathetic scene betwixt '“ Mess. Aside.) How shall I commu him and Antigone, who accompanies nicate the tidings ?.
him into exile, VOL. I.
from the smallness of the foundation CARR ROCK STONE BEACON.
afforded by the rock, which, as already The Carr Rock forms the outer ex- noticed, forms the communication to tremity of an almost continuous reef seaward of an extensive reef of rocks. of rocks, which extends about a mile B oth the Bell and Carr Rocks are and a half from Fifeness, the eastern what seamen term half tide rocks, a point of land in the county of Fife. name which indicates, that they are As this reef forms a turning-point in wholly covered by the sea at half tide. the course of all northern bound ships In respect to the elevation of these to or from the Frith of Forth, and has rocks above low water mark of spring very often proved fatal to shipping, it tides, the circumstances of both are was extremely desirable that this dan- very similar, but the surface of the gerous rock might be distinguished, Bell Rock measures about 300 feet in and pointed out to the mariner. length by 280 feet in breadth, while
After much labour and expense, the the greatest extent of the beacon rock Bell Rock Lighthouse, situate also at at the Carr is only seventy-two feet in the entrance of the Frith of Forth, length by twenty-three in breadth. but at a greater distance from land, The consequence of the smallness of was completed in the year 1810; but the dimensions of the Carr Rock is the still the safety of the navigation of the almost total want of shelter for the atgreat estuary of the Frith of Forth tending boats on either side, which was incomplete, while the place of the renders the approach difficult exceptCarr Rock could not be ascertained by ing in the finest weather. Another the mariner between half flood and evil consists in its having been found half ebb tide, and especially in neap necessary to cut down the rock for a tides, when it hardly appears above solid foundation, even so low as to be water. In the year 1811, the Commis under the tide ; it thus became necessioners of the Northern Lighthouses, sary to erect a coffer-dam round the with a view to remedy this evil, first site of the building; this required ordered one of Waddell's large floating the pumping of water from the founbuoys, from their superior and com- dation-pit every tide, and thereby submanding appearance at sea, to be jected the whole operation to many moored off the Carr Rock.
casualties, which were only to be overBut as ships still continued to be come by the resolution and perseverwrecked upon, and in the neighbours ance of those employed in the work, hood of, this rock, a permanent beacon, encouraged by the confidence of the a more conspicuous mark, appeared Board of Commissioners. The operastill to be necessary. Accordingly, in tions have been at length brought to the 1812, the Northern Lighthouse Board most flattering prospect of being comresolved upon the erection of a stone pleted in the course of the present beacon, and this building has now been year. in progress during the last five sum- The Carr Rock, as before noticed, mers.
is only twenty-three feet in breadth, As the Bell Rock Lighthouse is and the foundation course of the beaabout twelve miles from the nearest con is consequently confined to a dialand, and as this great work was e-" meter of eighteen feet. Its height rected in the course of four years, our therefore cannot exceed fifty feet, have rcaders will probably be desirous to ing an elevation of a circular form, dilearn how a building upon the Carr minishing towards the top to nine feet Rock, of much less extent, and not diameter over walls. two miles from the shore, should have During the three years ending. In required a longer period, and be at- 1815, the artificers employed at this tended with so much difficulty. We work were wholly occupied in preare informed by Mr Stevenson, engi- paring the foundation or site of the neer for both works, that this is partly building, which became extremely tea owing to the waters of the ocean being dious and difficult, from the lowness more easily agitated and disturbed of the first course and the accidents when flowing over the shelving rocks to which building apparatus so exbounding the shores, than over those posed was liable. The operatio more in the open sea. The chief bar, could go on only in good weather, al liowever, to the operations of the Carr only at the return of spring tides. Rock Beacon, is considered to arise whole year's work, under these circus
stances, did not exceed 130 hours work- which the perpendicular rise of the ing upon the rock, although a pre- tide gives motion; and in this manner mium was allowed to the artificers, the large bell is tolled. A weight is over and above their stated wages, also at the same time raised, and as the for every hour's work they were able tank or float is elevated to the height to make good upon the rock. After of neap tides, to which the train of much labour, a site was at length pre- machinery is calculated, when the tide pared for the building, and two cour- has flowed to its height, the weight ses of stone were built upon it in 1815; begins to operate by its tendency to but in the month of September of descend, and it keeps the machine in that year, when in the act of laying a motion till the food returns again to third course, which would have brought lift the float and raise the weight, or the beacon up to the level of low water in other words, to wind up the mamark of ordinary spring tides, a dread- chine. In this manner the bell is to ful gale occurred, that dispersed the ar- be tolled without intermission. tificers, and wrenched the oaken tre- We shall have much pleasure in nails, used in fixing down the stones attending to the further progress of till the cement took bond; by which this curious work, and in giving our untoward accident, one-half of the readers a detailed account of the apstones of the third course were swept plication and effect of the machinery, away, the building apparatus was de when it comes to be erected in the stroyed, and the works were stopped building. It has already been modelfor the season. In the following sum- led, and tried upon the small scale for mer of 1816, the damages of the former several years, and found to answer in season having been repaired, the work the most satisfactory manner. * was got to the height of the high water mark of spring tides, and as the building has withstood all the gales of last SKETCHES OF FOREIGN SCENERY AND winter in this unfinished state, with
MANNERS. out sustaining the smallest injury,
No II. there remains little doubt of its being Batavia's patient sons before me stand, now successfully completed.
Where the broad ocean leans against the Our readers will observe, from the land; smallness of the Carr Rock, that it is And, sedulous to stop the coming tide, impossible to erect any building upon Lift the tall rampire's artificial pride; it, of sufficient height to be above the While the spent ocean, rising o'er the pile, reach even of very weighty seas, which Sees an amphibious world beneath him would at once be fatal to the effect and ,
The slow canal, the yellow-blossom'd vale, apparatus of a lighthouse. The build
ila- The willow-tufted bank, the gliding sail, ing is therefore to be covered with a The crowded mart, the cultivated plain, large bell, in the form of a cupola ; A new creation rescued from his reign. this bell is to be tolled night and day,
GOLDSMITH. to warn mariners of impending dan
Leyden. ger. But as the beacon is too small, I LEFT Rotterdam the day before and is otherwise quite inadequate for yesterday in the treckschuit for Delft, the habitation of a man, it is none of where I arrived in the forenoon of the the least interesting parts of this de- same day. The morning being wet sign, to devise how this effect is to be and hazy, I saw little of the country, produced, without the regular attend- but on reaching Delft the atmosphere ance of a person to wind up the ma- cleared up, and I obtained a distinct chinery of the bell apparatus. This view of the surrounding landscape. is provided for in the following man- One of the most interesting and ner: In the centre of the building picturesque features which I have yet there is a kind of chamber or cavity, witnessed in the scenery of Holland, into which the tidal waters are ad- is the appearance of the storks on the mitted, by means of a small conduit chimney tops, pruning their feathers, or perforation in the walls, and as the and feeding their callow young. The tide rises on the exterior of the build- snowy whiteness of their plumage, ing, it also rises in the chamber, and elevates a metallic float or tank, which For an illustration of the dangers atis connected with a rod communicat- tending the Carr Rock, we may refer to ing with the train of machinery to page 109 of our First Number.