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quences. In the influence of the mag- of iron that were inserted in its lid. netism, nature holds out to us a sove- The patients then, arranged in consireign instruinent for securing the derable number, and in successive health and lengthening the existence ranks, round the bucket, derived the of mankind.”
magnetic virtue at once from all these The apparatus necessary for the conveyances:--from the branches of administration of the magnetism, and iron, which transmitted to them that the method in which it was employed, of the bucket ;--from the cord which were the following. In the centre of was passed round their bodies, and . a large apartment was a circular box the union of their fingers, which commade of oak, and about a foot or a foot municated to them that of their neighand an half deep, which was called the bours ; and from the sound of the bucket. The lid of this box was piano forte or a musical voice, which pierced with a number of holes, in communicated through the air. The which were inserted branches of iron, patients were besides magnetised dielbowed and moveable. The patients rectly, by means of a finger or a bar of were arranged in ranks about this iron, guided before the face, above or bucket, and each had his branch of bebind the head, and over the surface iron, which, by means of the elbow, of the parts affected, the distinction of might be applied immediately to the the poles still observed. They were - part affected. A cord passed round also acted upon by a look, and by their bodies, connected the one with having their attention excited. But the other. Sometimes a second means especially they were magnetised by of communication was introduced, by the application of the hands, and by the insertion of the thumb of each pa- the pressure of the fingers upon the tient between the fore finger and hypochonders and the regions of the thumb of the patient next him. The lower belly;-- an application frequently thumb thus inserted was pressed by continued for a long time, sometimes the person holding it. The impression for several hours. received by the left hand of the patient In this situation the patients offered was communicated through his right, .a spectacle extremely varied, in pro, and thus, passed through the whole portion to their different habits of circle. A piano forte was placed in body. Some of them were calm, tranone corner of the apartment, and dif- quil, and unconscious to any sensaferent airs were played, with various tion; others coughed, spat, were af
ciegrees of rapidity. Vocal music was fected with a slight degree of pain, a - sometimes added to the instrumental. partial or an universal burning and The persons who superintended the perspiration ; a third class were agiprocess had each of them an iron tated and tormented with convulsions. rod in his hand, from ten to twelve These convulsions were rendered exinches in length. This rod was a traordinary by their frequency, their conductor of the magnetism, and had violence, and their duration. As soon the power of concentring it at its as one person was convulsed, others • point, and of rendering its emana- presently were affected by that symptions more cousiderable. Sound was tom. Accesses of this kind sometimes also a conductor of magnetism ; and lasted upwards of three hours; they in order to communicate the fiuid to : were accompanied with expectorations the piano forte, nothing more was ne- of a thick and viscous water, brought cessary than to approach to it the iron away by the violence of the efforts. - rod. The person who played upon Sometimes these expectorations were the instrument furnished also a por- accompanied with small quantities of tion of the fluid; and the magnetism blood, and there was among others a was transmitted by the sounds to the lad who frequently brought up blood surrounding patients. The cord which in considerable abundance. These was passed round the bodies of the convulsions were characterised by prepatients was destined, as well as the cipitate and involuntary motions of all anion of their fingers, to augmont the, the limbs, or of the whole body; by effects by coinmunication. The interior a contraction of the throats by sudden part of the bucket was so constrneted, affections of the hypochonders and the as to concentre the magnetism ; and epigastrium, byt & distraction and was a grand reservoir, from which the wildness in the eyes; hy shrieks, tears, Buid was diffused through the branches biocuppings, and immoderate laughter. They were either preceded or followed ultimately to share the fate of every by a state of languor and reverie, by popular delusion. Fortunately howa species of dejection, and even drow- ever for science, Mesmer's operations siness. The least unforeseen noise were deemed worthy of the attention occasioned, starting; and it was ob- of government; and on the 19th of served, that the changing the key and March 1784, a committee, consisting the time in the airs played upon the partly of physicians, and partly of piano forte, had an effect upon the members of the royal academy of patients ; so that a quicker motion sciences, was appointed by the king agitated them more, and renewed the to examine thoroughly the principles vivacity of their convulsions. Nothing of the new magnetical system. At could be more astonishing than the the head of this committee we the sight of these spasms. One that had celebrated Dr Franklin, and the innot seen them could have no idea of dividuals united with him in the in them; and in beholding the whole quiry were, Majault, Le Roy, Sallin, scene, the profound repose of one class Bailly, D'Arcet, De Bory, Guillotin, of patients was not less striking than and Lavoisier. .1. These philosophen the violence with which another class immediately entered on the discharge was agitated.
of the duty which had been intrusted The first part of the work to which to them, with all the judgment and I have alluded, by Thouret, had for assiduity which it was natural to ex its object to shew, that the theory of pect from men so eminently qualified Mesmer, instead of being a novelty in for the task. Mesmer refused to have science, was an ancient system, which any communication with this commit. had been abandoned by the learned a tee; but M. Deslon, the most cocentury before. He demonstrated, in siderable of his pupils, consented to the most satisfactory manner, by pre- disclose to them the whole principles cise references to the writings of Para- and practice of his master, and to celsus, Van Helmont, Godenius, Bar- sist them in all their investigations gravius, Libavius, Wirdig, Maxwel, Accordingly, the commissioners, after Sir Kenelm Digby, Santanelli, Tent-ci having made themselves acquainted zel, Kircher, and Borel, that all the with the theory of animal magnetist, propositions published and avowed by as it was professed by Mesmer, witnessMesmer were positively laid down by ed each of them repeatedly, its effects one or other of these authors. In the i in public, when administered by Des second part, Thouret proves, by obser- lon; they submitted,' in private, to be vations and reasoning, remarkable for a magnetised themselves; and they miga their acuteness and good sense, that netised others in a variety of circumall the effects ascribed by Mesmer to stances. The final results of their inail the operation of a new species of mag- : quiry were communicated to the king, ** netisın, were to be attributed solely to on the 11th of August, in a Report the influence of the imagination on the which was drawn up by Dr Franklin, body; that they admitted of the same and which will be: read with adinita explanation as the cures of the two tion, as long as the history of the hun famous empirics, Greatrakes and Gass man mind affords interest to the moral ner; and that to pretend to the dis- philosopher or the physiologist. The covery of a curative, means, which animal magnetic fluid was pronounsel should extend to every species of dis to have no existence; and compression, ease, or, in other words, to a universal imagination, and imitation, were shewa medicine, was an illusion unworthy of to be the true causes of the effects ste an enlightened age. 38.8917 tributed to it
. The curious and ing This work of Thouret's received, I teresting inquiries of M. Thouret, from a Committee of the Royal Society - say the commissioners, acthare* 001of Medicine appointed to examine it, vinced the publik, that the thedrys the that praise to which it was so justlý operations, and the effects of the abist
from the talent and the eru- mal magnetism proposed in the best dition, it displayed; and it cannot bez sage, were nearly the same with those doubted, that its influence would
alone revived in the present. The tnagheron have been a sufficient to have wrested cism, then, is no more than an old false24 the progress of the doctrine it exposed, hoodsia The theory indeed, is now pre even it rasimale magnetism thad enotu Lusented: (45»was necessary i mere ender been, stydanwatso tvetyion osca, endenti niedusliglutenad laun) rifle i gresket legette.
of pomp; but it is not, on this ac- ating influence which they have over count, the less erroneous."
the understanding. To be convinced This interesting Report was trans- of the reality of this fact, it is only lated into English, with an Historical necessary to attend to the operations
Introduction, in 1785; and it is from of the mind to be called forth in learnthis translation, which is respectably ing any language. In acquiring a executed, that the preceding detail has knowledge of Latin, for instance, a been almost verbatim extracted. It person ought (if I may be allowed to is very important however to mention, borrow the words of Beattie) to be able that in addition to this Memoir, which to “ show, that he not only knows the was obviously meant for the public general meaning, the import of the eye, the commissioners deemed it their particular words, but also can refer duty to communicate a private Report each to its class ; enumerate all its to the king; in which, with a laudable terminations, specifying every change solicitude for the morals of the sex, of sense, however minute, that may they disclosed certain circumstances, be produced by a change of inflection accompanying the administration of or arrangement; explain its several the magnetisin, in the highest degree dependencies; distinguish the literal unfavourable to the purity of the fe- meaning from the figurative; one spemale feeling and character, and which, cies of figure from another; and even by designing individuals, might be the philosophical use of words from rendered subservient to purposes of the the idiomatical, and the vulgar from most criminal profligacy. This secret the elegant; recollecting occasionally Memoir has since been made public. other words and phrases that are sy
An exposure 8o complete, accom- nonymous or contrary, or of different plished by men whose integrity and though similar signification; and ac-, talents were acknowledged over the counting for what he says, either from whole of Europe, speedily produced the reason of the thing, or by, quoting the effects that were to have been ex- a rule of art or a classical authority; pected from it. In a few months, - mode of proceeding which must, Mesmer and his animal magnetism no doubt operate differently, according were forgotten.
as it is more or less scrupulously obSinee the overthrow of this system, served; but by which, even when the most remarkable popular delusion partially adopted, and as far as possiwhich has prevailed, is the belief in ble applied to other languages, it will the influence of the metallic tractors not surely be denied, the attention of Perkins. With how much talent must be fixed, the judgment strength this deception was exposed by Dr ened, and the memory improved. Haygarth and his scientific friends, is All this, it may be answered, is very generally known. To this most able true--and all this may be safely and intelligent physician, physiology granted; but it may be asked, in conis indebted for a series of experiments, formity with a very popular objection, displaying in a manner still more strik- at how high a price are these beneing perhaps than had hitherto, been fits to be purchased? Why at the exdone, the influence of powerful emo- pense of thought ?--at the expense tions on the corporeal frame. G. of that which alone merits a moment's Edinburgh, Ist Sept.
consideration; for, it may be main
tained, the natural tendency of such when
an employment of the human faculties ON TAE UTILITY OF STUDYING AN,
is to abstract the attention from things CIENT AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES.
to words ; from real important know
ledge to things insignificant in themMR EDITOR,
selves, and valuable only as a means It is my objects on the present oc for the attainment of an end. casion, to advers to some of the ad- This, however, is evidently founded vantages of which, if impartially coul- upon error.. Every thing is liable to sidered, the study of ancient and for be abused. But because some men eign languages will be found to be have been deluded by contracted views, productive. sin march
and foolishly imagined that their mene The first advatage-which I shall tal aliment was augmented in propornotice, es, resulting from an acquainis tion as their verbal stores were increase ance with such studies, is the invigort ed, it does not surely follow that all are equally misled by fancy; or that, the enjoyment of the benefits of cultiin studying different languages, a man vated society altogether, or be om. may not, at the same time, and with at pelled to listen to that which we do least equal fervour, attend to the thought not understand, and which can only as well as to the expression of an au- mortify our feelings by impressing * thor. In faet, no sensible person ever with a sense of our own inferiority. thought of separating the two objects. But independently of advantages thus
But besides their utility in invigor- extensive and adventitious, ancient and ating the understanding, ancient and foreign languages will be found to be foreign languages ought likewise to be well entitled to attention, from the studied, inasinuch as they facilitate pleasure and instruction which they the attainment of our own tongue. In themselves are capable of affording
, glancing at this part of the subject, I It is to these languages that we a do not mean to insist upon the advan- to look for some of the best writer tages of etymological researches, in that the world has ever produced. I opposition to usage and the practice of poetry, in oratory, and in some branchthe best models of English style. es of philosophy, they have never been With respect to their mutual influence surpassed. Shall we then deliberate upon composition, the former must relinquish the possession of such is undoubtedly be ranked infinitely be tellectual treasures, merely because low the latter. But I believe it will cannot undergo the toil of rendering be admitted by the most inveterate them accessible? enemy of such inquiries, that by trae- Translations will not answer the ing words to their originals, and by purpose. “Let any man," says the viewing them in all different varieties writer whom I formerly quoted, " Frede of acceptation in which they have been a translation of Cicero and Livy, and successively received, a much greater then study the original in his om insight into the principles of our ver- tongue, and he shall find himself not nacular speech will be obtained, than only more delighted with the manner could have been expected from any but also more fully instructed in the other source.
matter." 5 I never could bear to read Another advantage to be derived a translation of Cicero,” says Burke
, from acquisitions of this nature arises in a letter to Sir William Jones from the intimate connexion subsiste “ Demosthenes," continues the sete ing between the literature of other writer,“ suffers, I think, somewhat countries and the literature of this. less; but he suffers greatly---50 much They are, indeed, so interwoven with that no English reader could well onaeach other, that there is scarcely one ceive from whence he had acquired celebrated work in the English lan- the reputation of the first of orators guage whose pages do not teem with " I once intended,” says Dagald Step allusions to ancient and foreign writ- art, in reference to some extracts from ers. Their very phraseology is often Bacon, which he had inserted in the introduced ; sometimes for its beauty original Latin—" I once intended -sometimes for arguments connected have translated them; but found with it. If unconversant with the self quite unable to preserve originals from whom quotations are weighty and authoritative tone of the thus frequently introduced, we must, original." therefore, be content to remain ignor- In the enumeration just exhibited ant of many passages in our own writ- it will be observed I have not included ers, and, consequently, a great portion the advantages to be derived from the of our pleasure and our profit must be study of the dead languages, by po lost.
sons who wish to be of the learned Conversation, too,—at least that professions, and from that of the dirkind of it which ought most highly to ing ones, by those whose inclination
, be prized--the conversation of the or whose way of life, renders it nect knowing and informed;-turns so fressary to travel into foreign parts, quently upon books, and upon topics this branch of the subject, indeed, to which books relate, that without a were useless to enlarge ; for to pierement Colerable knowledge of other languages of this description, such philological besides our own, or unless endowed studies must be considered not *.* with very extraordinary powers in- mere matter of choice, brit as alavalye deed, we must either be debarred from ly necessary. ::
ples and of cities upon the sand by BEMARKS, ON THE STUDY OF SOME the sea-shore. *
BRANCHES OF NATURAL HISTORY. I believe it will be acknowledged, on
There is not any branch of Nat- reflection, as well by the uninitiated as ural History which has been more spar- the learned, that a comparatively imingly illustrated, in a popular man- perfect knowledge of those minuter ner, than the science of Entomology ;
parts of animals which distinguish and though it may safely be averred, that characterise the species, if united with few of its departments present a more a zeal for acquiring an intimate acextensive field of observation, or are quaintance with their instinctive hamore capable of exciting astonishment bits, their uses in the creation, their and admiration in the minds of its relations to each other as members of votaries. In truth, Entomology, as a one great family, and their beautiful seience, so far from having kept adaptation to the soils and to the cli
pace with the advancements in other mates in which they exist, is of greatbranches of natural knowledge, may er value than an exclusive knowledge, be said rather to have retrograded dur- however perfect it may be, of those ing the labours of the existing gener- corporeal differences or afinities, by
ation. That the description of exter which the various species, families, or
Tal character, and the determination classes of animals, may be either sepa3.4 of species, has been carried to a great rated or combined.
degree of excellence cannot be deni- If, therefore, it be true, that of two
ed; but that a corresponding neglect evils we should choose the less, I would of the habits, the instincts, and the not hesitate to say, that it would be wonderful economy of insects, has far more advisable that naturalists taken place, must also unfortunately should follow the loose and desultory be admitted.
method of Buffon, and others of his itu. That systematic arrangement is ne- school, than by an entire subjection
eessary in natural history, as in all and devotion to all the minutiæ of sysother branches of human knowledge, tematic detail, to neglect whatever is lis a fact too obvious to stand in need great and beautiful in the science, and of illustration, and is perhaps suffici- thereby forfeit all claim to the praises ently proved by the circumstance of of mankind, as agents in the extension
Buffon one of the most accomplished of the most admirable species of human men, and the most brilliant writer knowledge. The conduct of such men
whom natural history has enlisted bel is in fact incapable of vindication, in Heath her batiners--having failed to in as far as the perversion of talent, and
duce the prevalence of a contrary the neglect of profiting by those faciy opinion, notwithstanding every effort lities which the nature of their studies of his powerful genius: The want afford them, are incapable of being
vinof fixed and deterininate principles in dicated to distoninot artpianto the arrangement of Buffon, was in Such a mode of prosecuting scientific deed her the very head and front of his research, if it deserve such an appellaoffending" and it is well for science tion, evidently lessens, not only the that his example has not been follow- degree of interest which natural hised. 10 uut a s101111
tory is calculated to excite, but by conThe human mind, however, as has fining this pleasure, limited though it been often txemarked, is at all times be to the understanding of those only, aputo indulge in extremes, and with TWO WORLD w thirty years from the death of that cu I have much pleasure in mentioning philosopher, who affected to disdain tion to the general rule. I allude to the
one work, which certainly forms an excep the trámmels of system, we have seen “ Introduction to Entomology," by Kirby icloud of men arise, some of them and Spence, in which many singular facts, mot undistinguished in the annals of judiciously arranged, are collected from the science, who have devoted themselves writings of ancient and modern sauthors,
Industriously, and almost exclusively, which illustrate well sgme, singular particu'in raising up and tumbling down one lars in the history of Insects. I wouda system of classification after another, also recommend, as worthy of perusal, an without relation to any consequent ural History, by Fothergin, published objede of deeper interest, or greater few years ago,
in which cồntaing some pleasImportamee, like children tracking out my and enlightened toviews of rather subthe plans and the boundaries of tem feel beredah od vodtis tapai 9w besh