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Account of John of Ravenna,

tot less and famished, at the house of his men well skilled in the Greek language, former patron, who happened then not particularly a monk,Barlaam, and one Leo, to be at home; but he was received and or Leontius, with whom I was intimately kindly entertained by his servants, till acquainted, and of whom the first had their master returned.

been some time my scholas. In consePetrarch, by his entreaties and pater- quence of this proposal, he begged me to nal admonitions, retained the young man give him a recommendatory letter to you, at his house for about a year, and pre as you have considerable influence in that rented him from engaging in any more part of the country. This request romantic adventures; but, at the end of granted, in hopes that the young man, by that period, his desire for rambling again his genius and talents, will afford you returned ; and as Petrarch found that all satisfaction equal to the service which attempts to check him would be fruitless, you may render to him.” In his letter he gave him letters of recommendation to to Brunus, Petrarch expreffes himself a two of his friends, Hugo de St. Severino follows: “ He is a young man who and Franciscus Brunus, at Rome. To withes to see the world as I formerly did, the former of these, Petrarch says, “ This but I never reflect on it without horror. youth of rare talents, but still a youth, He is desirous of seeing Rome; and this after proposing to himself various plans, desire I cannot condemn, as I myselk has at length embraced the nobleft; and have so often visited that city, and could as he once travelled, he is now desirous of still revilit it with pleasure. I suspect, doing so again, in order to gratify his however, that he will venture thirt of knowledge. He has, in parti- more extensive ocean, and imagines to cular, a strong inclination for the Greek find a fortune where he will, perhaps, language; and entertains a wish which meet with a shipwreck. At any rate, he Cato first conceived in his old age. This is desirous, he says, of putting his fora with I have endeavoured for some years tune to a trial. I with it may

be favourto subdue; sometimes by entreaties, at able ; fhould it be adverse, he is ftill other times by admonition; fometimes at liberty to return to my peaceful, by representing how much he is still de- though small, haven; for I hang out a ficient in the Roman language; and fome- light, during the day as well as the night, times by laying before him the difficulties to guide those who quit me through which must attend him in his journey, youthful folly; and to enable them to especially as he once before left me, and find their way back. The ardour by by want was obliged to return. As long which he is impelled must not be ascribed as that unfortunate excursion was fresh in so much to him as to his age, and is in his memory he remained quiet, and gave itself commendable. If I am not much me hopes that his restless spirit could be deceived, the young man loves me and overcome and restrained. But now, since virtue in general. He is unsteady, but the remembrance of his misfortunes is modest; and deserves that all good meg almost obliterated, he again sighs after should contribute to his prosperity as far the world ; and can be retained neither by as they can. force nor persuasion. Excited by a de From the letters of Petrarch, there is fire which betrays more ardour than pru- reason to believe, that John de Ravenna dence, he is resolved to leave his country, lived with him only about three years friends, and relations, his aged father, in all; and that he had not attained to and me whom he loved as a father, and the full age of manhcod when he left hiir. whose company he preferred to a residence It appears also, for this circumftance is at home, and to hasten to you whom he very obscure, that afier he quitted him, knows only by name. This precipita- he wandered about a considerable time tion even has an appearance of prudence, before he was to fortunate as to meet The young man first wished to visit Con- with a protector and patron, at whole tantinople; but when I told him that house, as he wrote to Petrarch, he at last Greece, at present, is as poor as it was found a permanent asylum. How long formerly rich in learning, he gave credit he remained with his patron, whom fome to my assertion, and at any rate altered believe to have been Cardinal Philip, and his plan, which he could not carry into what happened to him till the death of execution. He is now desirous of traverf- Petrarch" in 1374, and for some years ing Calabria, and the whole coast of after, is unknown. The literary inonuItaly, distinguished formerly by the name ments of the fourteenth and fifteenth cena of Magna Græcia, because I once told turies say nothing farther of him till his him that there were in that quarter several appearance at Padua ; where, according

102

Account of John of Ravenna. to the testimony of Sicco *, one of the He was not more conversant with the most celebrated of his scholars, he not ancients than Petrarch ; and, as far as only taught the Roman Eloquence, but I know, left no works behind him. By also the fcience of Moral Philosophy, with his excellent genius, however, and, as such success and applause, and improved Leonardus Aretinus says, by the particuhis scholars so much by his life and ex- lar dispensation of God, he was the preample, that, according to universal opi- ceptor of this Leonardus, of Petrus Paua nion, he far excelled all the profeffors of lus Vergerius, of Annebonus de Padua, those sciences who had ever before ap- of Robert Rossi, of James Angeli of peared. That he was here of confidera- Florence, -of Poggius and Guarino of ble service in reviving the study of the Verona, of Victorinus, Sicco, and other Latin language, and of the works of the men of less note, whom he incited to ancient Romans, was acknowledged by the study of better knowledge, and to all his scholars, and is confirmed by the imitate Cicero, if he could not form following testimony of Blondust: them or instruct them completely."

“ About the same period, Ravenna " About the same time Manuel Chryproduced that learned grammarian and foloras, a man as virtuous as learned, rhetorician Johannes, of whom Leonar- came from Conftantinople to Italy, and dus Aretinus used to say, that he first in- instructed in the Greek language, partly troduced into Italy, after a long period at Venice and partly at Florence and of barbarism, the study of the Latin lan- Rome, all the before mentioned scholars guage and eloquence, now,fo flourishing; of John de Ravenna. After he had conà circumstance which deferves to be en- tinued this instruction for some years, larged on in the present work. Those those unacquainted with the Greek lanwell acquainted with Roman literature guage and the ancient Greek writers, know, that after the periods of Ambrose, were considered, in Italy, as more ignos Jerom, and Augustin, there were none, rant than those unacquainted with the or very few, who wrote with any ele- Latin. A great many young men and gance, unless we add to these good writ- youths were inflamed with an enthusiastic ers, St. Gregory, the venerable Bede, and desire for the works of the ancient Greeks St. Bernard. Francis Petrarcha was the and Romans. At the time of the council first who, with much genius and still of Constance, in the beginning of the greater care, recalled from the dust the fifteenth century, many of my countrytrue art of poetry and of eloquence. He men endeavoured, by searching the neigh. did not attain to the flowers of Cicero- bouring cities and convents, to discover nian eloquence, with which many are some of the Roman manuscripts which adorned in the present century, but this had been, loft. Poggius first discovered was owing rather to a want of books a complete copy of Quintilian, which was than of talents. Though he boasted of foon followed by the letters of Cicero to having found at Vercelli Cicero's letters Atticus. As our youth applied to the to Lentulus, he was unacquainted with study of these works with the utmost dithe books of that great Roman De Ora- ligenee, that celebrated grammarian and tore, Quintilian's Institutes, the Orator, rhetorician, Cafparinus de Bergamo, the Brutus and other writings of Cicero. opened a school at Venice, superior to John de Ravenna was known to Petrarch the former, and in which young persons both in his youth and in his old age. were encouraged to study the ancient lan.

guages and writers. About the same time * A dolefcens tum ego poetas, et inftituta flourished Petrus Paulus Vergerus, LeoTullii audiebam. Legebat tunc hac in civitate nardus Aretinus, Robert Rolli, James Padua, literarum nutrice, Jobannes Ravennas Angeli, Poggius and Nicolaus de Mevir et sanctimonia morum, et ftudio isto ex- dici, whom Aretin had long instructed. cellens, atque fi poteft fine invidia dici, ce Guarinus also had begun to instruct teris, qui magistri artis hujus in terra Italia many at Venice, and Vičkorinus at Man. ufquam degerent et ductissimi haberentur, tua, when Philip III. Duke of Milan, quantum recordari videor, omnium judicio recalled Casp nus as his subject, from eloquentia modo, quam ex ordine legeret, ied Venice, to Padua and Milan. The en. mores etiam, ac quædam bere honefteque

creating study of ancient literature was vive di ratio cum doctrina, tum exemplis much promoted by Gerard Landriano, discebatur...Sicco Polentonus, Ap. Mehus 1. c. Bishop of Lodi, discovering under fome p. 139.

ruïns an old copy of Cicero, written in † Blondi Flavii Forliviensis Italia illuftra- characters scarcely Irgible, which, among Bas. 1559. fol. p. 346,

other rhetorical writings of that great

Roman,

Account of John of Ravenna.

103 Roman, contained the whole books De testimony is necessary to establish his claim Oratore, with his Brutus and Orator. to celebrity. This saved Casparinus the trouble of After John de Ravenna had taught at supplying the books of Cicero De Ora. Padua, he removed for the like purpose tore, as he had attempted to supply the to Florence, where, as appears, he inworks of Quintilian. As no one was structed young people, for some time, found in all Milan, who could read this without being expressly invited by the old manuscript, of Cicero, an ingenious government, and without being publicly. young man of Verona, named Casmus, paid for his labours. In the beginning was fo fortunate as first to transcribe the of his residence at Florence, he teems to books De Oratore, and to fill all Italy have been recommended by Colucius to with copies of a work which was univer- the learned Charles de Malatesta. “ There sally fought for with the utmost avidity. lives here at present,” says Colucius, in I myself, in my youth, when 'I went to one of his letters, “ a teacher of great Milan, on the business of my native city, merit, John de Ravenna---he is,” contranscribed, with as much ardour aš tinues he, “ of mature age; irreproachfpeed, the Brutus of Cicero, and sent co- able in his manners, and so disposed in pies of my transcription to Guarinus at general, that if you receive him, as I hope Verona, and to Leonard Justiniani at Ve- and wish, among the number of your in, nice, by which means, this work was timate friends, you will find him an soon dispersed all over Italy. By these agreeable and incomparable assistant to new works eloquence acquired new fire; you in your labours and studies. What and hence it happens, that in our age, can be more desirable to you than to people speak and write better than in the possess a man who will lucubrate and latime of Petrarch. The study of the bour for you; and who, in a short time, Greek language, besides the abundance can communicate to you what

you

could of new and useful knowledge which it not obtain by your own exertions with«, disclosed, was attended with this great out great difficulty. I do not know advantagę, that many attempted to tranf- whether you will find his like in all late Greek works into Latin, and there. Italy; and I therefore wish, that, if you by improved their style much more than confide in my judgment, you will rethey could have done without that prac- ceive John de Ravenna in the room of tice. After this period, schools for your late learned friend, James de Aleteaching the ancient languages increased gretti.” It is not known, whether John in Italy, and flourished more and more. de Ravenna went to refide with Malatesta Most cities had schools of this kind; and or not. It is, however, certain that the it gives one pleasure to observe, that the former, in 1397, (the same year in which scholars excelled their masters, not only Manuel Chrysoloras came to Florence) when they left them, but even while they was invited thither by the magistrates of vere under their tuition. Of the scholars that city, with the promise of an annual of John de Ravenna, two of the oldest, falary, to instruct young people in the Guarinus and Victorinus, the former at Roman language aud eloquence; that Mantua, and the latter at Venice, Vero- John de Ravenna, at the period when he na, Florence, and Ferrara, instructed an entered into this honourable engagement, immense number of pupils, and among was forty-five years of age; and that the these, the Princes of Ferrara and Man- scholars of John de Ravenna were, at the tua. George of Trebisonde, when he same time, scholars of Chrysoloras. Salectured at Rome, had, for his auditors, luratus Colucius, in all probability, was beldes Italians, many French, Spaniards, the cause of this invitation; as he was and Germans, among whom sometimes' acquainted with the services of John de there were men of rank and eminence. Ravenna, and knew how to appreciate Franciscus Philelphus, who had been them. “We know," says he, in one taught at Constantinople by Chrysoloras of his letters to John de Ravenna, “and bimself, instructed a great many young all who respect you know also, that men and youths in the Greek and Latin none of the moderns, or even ancients, languages at Venice, Florence, Siena, approached so near to Cicero as you; and Bologna, and, last of all, at Milan." that to the most wonderful beauty and In the above quotation, the share which powers of speech, you join the deepest John de Ravenna had in revising and dif- knowledge." John de Ravenna, like Chryfufing a knowledge not only of the Ro- foloras, and most of the teachers of the man, but also of the Grecian literature, Greek and Roman languages in the beis so clearly represented, that no farther ginning of the fifteenth century,.was,

SIR,

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104

Condutt of the Bank Directors. no doubt, engaged, at first, only for a jeeted by a committee of Bank Direttors, few years; when these were elapled the though it was the unanimous opinion of engagement was renewed, perhaps for himself and Mejrs. BYRNE, Fittler, the last time in 1412, and he was bound, LOWRY, SHARP, and BARTOLOZZI, besides teaching the Roman eloquence, that the specimen presented by Mr. Tilto read publicly, and explain in the ca LOCK was not copyable by any known art thedral, on festivals, the poems of of engraving. Dante*. John de Ravenna did not long It appears too, from Mr.LANDSEER'S survive the above renewal of his engage- communication, that, notwithstanding the ment; for an anonymous writer, who, infamous stile in which the notes of the in 1420, finished “ A Guide to Letter- bank are executed, the engraver to the auriting, according to the Principles of John bank reckons himself an artist superior to de Ravennat,” speaks of his preceptor any of the above gentlemen; for he atas of a man not then in existence.

tempted to copy Mr. Tullock's speciT. P. I.

men, though such artists had declared it

beyond their power to do it. Whether is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the modeity of the Directors in setting

up their opinion in direct opposition to THE article I sent to

that of the artists, or that of their En

your Magazine See, has excited some attention. It is a

beyond their power, most to be admired, matter that very much concerns the pub

on the present occasion ? lic, and, I hope, the answers that have criminality, to receive no check? Are

Is such consuminate folly, not to say already appeared, will tend to call forth these men to have the power of determinfurther information on the fubject.

A Private Banker has, in your lait, ing finally on a matter of such importdoubted the possibility of the Bank Di ance, and to the decision of which they re&tors' refusing a plan to prevent forgery, members of the community still to be sub

are so completely incompetent? Are the recommended in the manner I formerly je&ted to lofles and frauds, and the ignoAated; while at the fame time he allows, rant and vicious to be tempted to the that, if it should turn out that they had, commission of a crime which the Bank, he knows no language that can do justice had the power of preventing? to their demerits. I am not surprized that he should hestate in crediting luch a

The Bank Directors have a facred trust

committed to their care; and they ought fact; for the arguments advanced by him to shew the improbability of their to recollect that, independent of the triatting a part fo unaccountable---so cul, bunal in this country that has a power

bunal of public opinion, there is a tripradle---are fuch as would have deterred any set of men of common understanding

to call them to account for the neglect of from adopting the conduct that has been

a duty so important as that of preventing manifefted, on this accafion, by the Bank forgery. It they continue to leave the Directors. But, whatever may have been public at the mercy of every bungling his doubts on this point when he last engraver's apprentice, when they have the wrote to you, they must have been com

power of securing them against forgers, pletely removed by the letter that ap- rited men, who have power and influence

it is to be hoped that some public-spipeared in your last from Mr. LAND- sufficient, will step forward, and get this

That artist answers the question I had put to him, by stating, in positive

business properly investigated. terms, that a plan had been offered to the difficulty, would diminish the number of

That a plan which, by increasing the Bank by a Mr. TILLOCK, which was re

forgeries, has actually been offered to the

bank, the public has already been inMehus quotes from a Florentine docu- formed, by Mr. LANDSEER, an artist of ment of the year 1412, the following paffage. the first eminence, and engraver to his Quum vir doctissimus D. Johannes de Malpaghinis de Ravenna hactenus in civitate Flo Majesty.. In a matter of so much morentiæ pluribus annis legerit, et diligentiffime ment, it is to be hoped every one who has docuerit rhetoricam, et auctores majores, et

the means will give what further inforaliquando,librum Dantis, et multos inftruxerit, mation he may have in his power, through

the medium of your Magazine. The .+ Seguendo la dottrina dell'eloquente ed other artists, and the author of the plan, onorevole maestro Gioanni Battista nel suo owe it as a duty to inform the publie tempo principe della rettorica facultade, &c. what has been done in this affair, and, I

persuade

SEER

*

&c.

I Nuthee

foregoing numbers of yourava:

Welsh Poetry of Cyveilioc.

IOS persuade myself, will need no further ar- Dygyzwyn, genad, gyvyl mordwy gwyrz, guments to induce them to come forward. Gozyar ei gylgwy; The public, or those whose immediate Dy wan, er traian tramwy; duty it is to watch over their interests, Dywed y döwn Ardudwy. will then know how to proceed in a mat. Dygyçwyn genad, gain dervyn y wlâd ter that demands such a serious invefti A wledygwys Mervyn ; gation. Could I hope that this business Dôs i west ar Nêft Nevyn; would receive that attention which it Dywed an dyvcd Leyn. merits from all concerned, I might then Dygyzwyn, genad, o gylş dragon llary promise myself that I should never in fu Lliosawg ei galon ; ture be

Dôs, varyawg arvawg, Arvon ;
A SuffeRER BY FORGERY,

A dywed an dyvod Vôn.
Teulu Owain hael hawl diolaith Lloegyr.

Lliosawg am anraith,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

A enir wedy hir-daith :
SIR,

A anwn ni yn Rhôs noíwaith ?

Dôs, wâs, y genyv, ac nag annery nêb, luable Magazine

trans

Oni byz vy ngorzerg; lations of the poetry of Hywel ab Owain; Dywan ar vuan vein-ers ; cotemporary with him was Owain Cyr- Dywed an dyvod Lanerç. cilioc, another chieftain of Wales, diftinguished for being a poet, and a

Dygyçwyn, genad, garlyr ardal teulu

Teilwng mêz o vual, patron of the bards. But we can boast A dywan Dyno Bydwal; only of having preserved two of his com

A dywed an dyvod lậl.. positions ; one of which, called the Hirlas, has been given to the public, though

Cygwyn i'w thervyn, pathawr eu hoewez not sufficiently faithful, by the late Rev; Dywan dyw calan Ionawr ;

Hir-velyn eu gwaewawr ; Evan Evans, in his Disertatio de Bardis;" Dywed an dyvod Vaelawr. the other is given here, and is on the Dôs, wâs, na oluz, na olaith dy lwrw, custom of the Welsh princes' making

Dy luziaw nid hawz-waith; their periodical circuits at the three great Dywan o Vaelawr vawr-daith; festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Whit. Dywed an dyvod Gynllaith. funtide. These circuits constituted one Dôs, wâs, â çynghor, na çyngain an torv, considerable means of support to them, Val teuluöz byçain; as the different officers of their establish- Dywan dwg rybuz hyzwain ; ments were also entitled to be received, Dywed an dyvod Vegain. according to their ranks, amongst the Teulu Owain rwyv rhwystrasam wladoz : vaffals, as may be seen by the various

Poed gwlâd nêv ein adlam! regulations in the Laws of Hywel, upon Cyrę cyvrwyz, cyvlwyz, cyvlam, the subject.

Cylę Cymru cymmerasam. Englynion a gant teulu Owain Gyveiliog i Gyl

fau Cymrie. TEULU Owain lary, lluoz anhun trais

Verses.Sung by the Family of Owain Cyveilies to

ibe Circuits of Wales Yn eu traws arovun, Fyrz cyrz cyvezau dịun,

The family of Owain the mild, whom the Pa forz yz awn i Vortun?

reless hosts of violence frowardly threaten,

on the paths of songs and social feasts, which Dôs, was, yn ebrwyz, heb rozi geirda

way thall we repair to Mortun? l'r gwrda y sy yndi;

Go, youth, quickly, without greeting the Dywan wân, trywan trwyzi;

good man ihere, take thy course; penetrate, Dywed an dyvod i Geri.

through it; say that we shall come to Ceri. Dós, was, o Geri, ac arcoyn wrthid,

Go, youth, from Ceri, we request of thee, Rhag an llîd-an lloçi

for fear of our wrath, and the end we have in Diwez y doetham i ti;

store to bring upon thee; say that we come Dywed y döwn Arwyftli.

to Arwy fli.

Messenger, be setting off, before an illusDegyçwyn, genad, gan vawrrydig dorv,

trious band, to the confines of Ceredic; take I dervyn Ceredig;

thy course wildly on an arrow's wing"; fay Dywan ar wyllt ar wallt pîg;

that we shall visit Penwedic. Dywed down Benwedig.

Go from Penwedic, messenger of honourDos o Benwedig, boen ovyz genad,

able toil, fince no disgrace belongs to thee; Gan-yth wna cywilyz ;

range, and, with encreased eloquence, say that Dywan ar gynan gynyz ;

we shall visit Meirion. Dywed y döw.. Veirionyz..

Messenger, be Tetting off, approaching the MONTHLY MAG. No. XXVIII.

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TRANSLATION.

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