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106 Bouille's Memoirs....Mr. Housman's Tour continued.
green ocean stream, bordered with loud tu TOUR OF ENGLAND,
mult; take a course, the third of the journey

(CONTINUED.) is done, tay that we shall visit Ardudwy. Messenger, be setting off along the fair bor- Joumal of a Tour through almost every county

in England, and part of Wales, by Mrt ders of the country, which Mervyn swayed ;

John LinusMAN, of Corby, near Care go and be a guest with Nêlt of Nevyn; Ipeak

liile; who was engaged to make the Tour of our coming to Leyn.

by a gentlema!! of distinction, for the purMessenger, be setting off, drawing near a

pose of collecting authentic information mild leader of magnanimous heart; go, armed

relative to the state of the poor. This knight, and traverse Arvon; say that we visit

Journal comprises an account of the geneMôn.

ral appearance of the country, of the foil, The family of Owain the bounteous, to

furface, buildings, &c. with observations whom belongs the ravage of England, abun

agricultural, commercial, &c. dånt in spoils, will meet with a welcome af. ter a tedious journey : thall we avide one night at Rhôs?

Sutton Colefield in Warwickshire, Young man, go from me, and no one greet, 12 miles. The soil chiefly clay, and a unlefs it he my mistress ; tweep along on the heavy lourish earth. I observed fome fleet bay steed; fay that we visit Lanerg. good wheat, for which grain most of the Messenger, be setting off, over the strong

foil is very suitable. The surface level region of a tribe delerving mead out of the horn, and traverse Tyno Bydwal; and say where fome easy rising grounds are met

till within a few miles of Sutton Colefield, that we visit lậl.

Pass onward to its extremity, heeding pot with. The country populous ; I passed fethe gallantry of its men with the long yellow veral villages inhabited mostly by iron ma. spears; take thy course on the first day of nufacturers. A little way from Sutton I January; say we visit Maelor.

crossed a barren common, almost wholly coGo, youth, and linger not, let not thy pro- vered with heath, and of three iniles in ex, gress be half completc; to stop thee is no ealy tent---a number of bad oak and ash trees talk; from tedious Ma:lor take thy way; grow on the hedges. Near Sutton there is a make known we visit Cynlaith.

park of 5000 acres, a great part of which Young man, go with discretion, announce

is covered with wood. Farms in this dif. not our troop as of forry tribes; take thy tri&t are generally small, and the country, course, with the fleetness of a ftag thy tidings bear ; say we visit Megain.

particularly towards Sutton, is open. The family of Owain the chief with food Sutton Colefield is a small

, but extremely kingdoms, may the regions of heaven be' our neat, pleasant, and clean market town, retreat! Á range altogether pleasant, alto- and the surrounding country is equally gether prosperous, with united pace, the cir- pleasing; near the town I saw a field of cuit of Wales we have taken.

oats cut. Harvest not so forward as I exThe places mentioned in the foregoing pected to find it in these parts: this only verses are all well known at the present the second instance I have seen of its comtime; they are points which nearly de- mencement. scribe a circle round North Wales.

August 15. Sutton Colefield to LitchYour's, &c.

field in Staffordshire, 81 miles. Soil light Fan. 6, 1798.


and gravelly, and produces much barley,

clover, and turnips. Surface unlevel and To tbe Editor of the Monthly Magazine. irregular; the country open, except to.

wards Litchfield, where the earth is flat, SIR,

and the views more confined, but is a N the Memoirs lately published by pretty country. In this district, feveral

Litch« The


Frederick himself confilted field is a small, pleasantly situated city, the conjuring tribe; and Guftavus, of containing three parish churches, and Sweden, his nephew, was not without about 3,500 inhabitants. The cathedral this fuperftition; a few days before he is a remarkably fine structure; the high fet out for the Diet at Geflé, he went to spires at the west end are now under reconsult a forceress named Harvisson.". pair. A finall river runs through part The fact thus related of the King of of the town, and pretty walks are formed Sweden is sufficiently known; but I by the sides of it, through beautiful meafhall be much obliged to any of your dows. The fields in the vicinity of correspondents who may inform me what Litchfield are small, and very fertile, and authority the Marquis has for charging the hedges neat. This town is remark. the Prussian hero with this weakness. able for having given birth to two emiYour's,

EUDOR. nent men, viz. the late Dr. Johnson, and

I de ,


Mr. Housman's Tour....Leicestershire.... Northamptonshire. 107 Mr. Garrick, the comedian. Stafford. five churches, of which three have spires, Mire is noted for its potteries of coarfe are prominent features: the town has a tarthern ware; these, however, are efa modern aspect, stands on a fertile plain, tablished further north than I have been: is built with brick, and covered with tile, those parts of the country which I tra- which einges the whole with a red colour. velled through are pleasant, the soil ge. The population of Leicester is about nerally rather dry than otherwise, and 15,000 inhabitants; most of the streets the surface even; in some parts, the prof. are narrow and dirty; but the marketpects are all closed up with trees and high place is remna kably large, and well fuphedges. Farms are finall in general, but plied with butcher's meat and vegetables I heard of some as high as 1000l, a year, of all forts; the former is the fattelt and and their fize is annually increasing, which best I ever saw, which indeed is not woncircumstance is much complained of by derful to those who have seen the fine the small farmers. The common rent is paitures and superior sheep and cattle of about il. per acre.

this country. The principal manufacAugust 20. I left Litchfield and went ture of this town is that of worsted stock. to Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire, ings. 17 miles. Soil light, and very suitable August 24. Went from Leicester to for turnips, barley, &c. to the produc- Kibworth-Beauchamp, in Leicestershire, tion of which it is much applied: the sur- 9 miles. Roads in this, and last day's face pretty level ; fine hedges, and a great journey, neither very good nor very bad, number of trees thereon, particularly but must, I presume, be rather unpleaa oak and ash, and the country in general fant in winter. The foil a clay, or trong is very pleasant. Here I hall just remark deep loam, and peculiarly fertile in grass, to the north country farmer, that I do to the production of which it is chiefly not remember seeing what he calls a dead applied. This country was almost wholly bedge in any part of the south of Eng- in common fields 30 or 40 forty years land; every hedge is planted with soine- agn, but now nearly all inclosed, it was thing or other, which, with a very little then constantly cropped with corn, as is repairs, is a continual good fence, a cir- usual in that case'; but since inclosing,

cumstance which ought to be more at- the farmers have run into the contrary · tended to in the northern counties ; grow- extreme, and now very little corn , is

ing hedges contribute much towards soft- grown. The luxuriancy of the pasturage ening the sharpness of the air. In this is beyond any thing I ever law, and well district I again have the pleafure of fee- stocked with the finest animals. I took ing the beautiful and profitable Leicester- a pleasant walk to feveral villages on difthire breed of sheep, feeding on luxuriant ferent fides of this place, and passed pasturage in pretty fields, a light more through many fine grazing farms of large truly pleasing, in my opinion, than all extent, some of which are occupied by the splendour the metropolis can afford. gentlemen-farmers at a great distance: Alhby, is a finall market town, and this, as well as changing the corn for the is inhabited by farmers, common trader, grazing system, is much complained of men, and manufacturers of stockings and by the lower orders of people. Kibworthhats; the country around it is somewhat Beauchamp is a pretty farming village; uneven, rather open, much in pasture, the surrounding country is beautifully and, upon the whole, very agreeable. uneven, but the floping grounds have no Farms from 40l. to 300l. a year, but rapid ascents or descents. A few trees on mostly sol. to gol. Rent of land il. to hedges, and here and there a small planil. 1os. per acre.

tation; these, added to the large pastureAugust 20. Alhby-de-la-Zouch to fields inclining to different directions, and Leicester, 17 miles. The soil generally depaftured with sheep and cattle beautia strong clayey loam; land much in pal- fully spotted with red and white, gives ture, and grazed by sheep and cattle of the whole country the air of one great the improved breeds. I crossed a long park. Size of farms, 201. to 300l. a year, range of rocky hills, some parts of which average about 100l. Rent 20 to 26s. per are rather mountainous; the rocks are About the year 1780, 3,600 acres hard, and of a blueish cast. This scene were inclosed here, when the rector wa reminds me of Cumberland and Weft- allowed, and accepted, one seventh part o moreland. Approaching Leicester on this the inclosure in lieu of tithes. road, the town appears all at once from a August 28. Kibworth-Beauchamp to finall eminence, at one mile and a half Brixworth in Northamptonshire, 17 miles. distance, and has a pretty aspect. Thé The roads pretty good, and for 10 or 12


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miles goes through a fine grazing coun- marks on the language of that country. try; the surface rather uneven; trees nu I fall insert here the former part of my merous on hedge rows, but permit distant observations, and reserve for a future objects to be seen from easy rising grounds: Number of your Magazine, the latter the soil a sort of clay, and cattle as before part, described. Towards Brixworth the soil So

great is the number of Italian wri. is more light, and the plow has more ters upon all subjects, that a foreigner, employ; good crops of turnips appear, who wishes to acquire a knowledge of and the people busy getting in fine barley the tongue, is exposed to the hazard of and oats. In all the districts I have making a bad choice, and to eistertain, passed since the commencement of harvest, of course, the most strange prejudices I have observed, that barley and oats are against the books and their writers. cut with the scythe, afterwards turned The notice of such authors as have obwith rakes, then put into small cocks, tained the approbation of all ages and and when sufficiently dry, carted home, countries, would be superfluous; the and stacked in that loose state; by that names of Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto, Taffo, method much expence in reaping is laved, Guarini, Tafson, and Sannazaro, speak. and both corn and straw got better off the ing fufficiently for themselves, as beyond ground; and I can see no reason why all censure or praise. My intention is north country farmers Thould not' adopt only to give my ideas concerning such as it; but, such is the force of cuítom and are well known in the republic of letters, prejudice, that it will probably be a very but whose merit has not been as yet exlong time, before that judicious practice actly appreciated. In this review I finds its way to Westmoreland and Cum- fhall moreover limit myself to such write

berland. Brixworth is a farming village, ers as are of a general interest, hifto· and what is somewhat fingular, it wholly rians, philologists, poets, &c. and for encompasses a gentleman's feat, (whose sufficient reasons, I lhall take no notice name I have forgot) gardens, pleasure- of any of the present century, which is grounds, &c. which are extensive, and the true term from which the decay of that without the villagers' being able to the language has commenced: overlook any part of the gentleman's pre

Monlignor Della Casa, is, in my opimises. Here I lodged at the house of an nion, the most truly correct and elegant honest Yorkshireman, who seemed to pre- of all the Italian writers. His works fer this county to his own. In differ- may be considered as a model of what is ent parts of my tour, I frequently heard called the didactic style. He was archof north country curates and exciseren, bishop of Benevento in the kingdom of and in London, the compting-houles are Naples, and one of the greatest men in much supplied with country lads from the golden age of learning. He pubCumberland and Westmoreland, who ex- lished, among other things, two inestichange the plow and fail for the pen, mable tracts on the “ Civilities of Life,' and prove as expert with the one as the productions which must endure till the other. Whether it be owing to the keen final dissolution of society. One of them and pure air of these counties, which is entitled, Galateo," and eontains sharpens the genius of their inhahitants, precepts on the manners of common foci. or to the eale and fmall expence with ety; the other, intitled, “ A Treatise on which education is acquired there, or to Common Duties,teaches how to behave what other cause we ought to attribute in the relations connected with superior the superior arithmetical and literary or inferior acquaintances. knowledge, &c. observable in the mid A rival to the “Galoteo” is the “Corteling and lower classes in the north, I thall giano, or Accomplished Gentleman,of not attempt to determine ; however, the Count Balthassar Castiglione, a Mantuan. fact, in my opinion, is indisputable. That nobleman was bred in the splen[To be continued.]

did court of the dukes of Urbino, and was well qualified, in every sense of the

word, to write on the duties of courtiers, For the Monthly Magazine, His style is sprightly, elegant, natural, MR. EDITOR,

and easy. By the Italians, the “ T

O compleat the series of my fenti- tegianois called a golden book, and' cer. propose to lay before your readers, a Cardinal Bembo, a Venetian, was in funmary view of the best writers of the the court of Leo X. what in another ilpreceding centuries, and forne general re- lustrious age the Mæcenases were in'that


Italian Literature.

109 of Augustus. He is one of those who Muzio, and Beni, all of whom have have deserved the best of Italian litera- greatly contributed to the perfection ture. His style is admirable for the of the language. Their writings furexquilite choice of words. He is censur- nifh alike both precèpt and example. able, however, for having conformed too Varchi, a learned man of the first emimuch, by a fort of violence, to the nence, was born in Florence, in the year genius of the Latin tongue ; herein fur- 1502. His principal work is the history nishing a bad precedent to the greater of his country during the last revolapart of his cotemporaries.

tions of the republican government, However great be the progress of phi- Next to this is the Ercolano,” which losophy, and the exact sciences in other treats wholly of language. No one parts of Europe, and in spite of the pre- ever expressed in Italian a philofophical lent decay of Italy in history and poetry, thought better than this elegant philothe superiority of the Italians in history loger. Castelvetro was born in Modena, cannot be called in question. What is still in the year 1505, and is celebrated for more remarkable is, that the best and his “ Art of Poetry." Muzio, a Paduan, greatest of those historians are perfectly was born in 1460; he left a number of pure and elegant writers. Among these, works, one of which is entitled “ StrugGuicciardini and Machiavel take the lead. gles in behalf of tbe Italian Language.If the sciences could be appreciated by the Beni was born in 1552, and was profefjudgment of men, like works of irnagina- for of the belles lettres in Padua.

Ho tion, more disputes would have been Itart- wrote a book called L'Anticrusca," ed in Italy concerning the respective me. containing judicious critiques on the anrits of these two great political writers, cient Tuscan writers. than concerning the poetical superiority of

The Italians have not excelled in poTasso and Arioito. Both Guicciardini and litical declamation, nor in bar eloquence. Machiavel are sovereigns in the subjects of In pulpit eloquence, however, Father history and politics; and the dignity of Segneri, a Jesuit, is not inferior to Mastheir Ityle is equal to their sentiments : fillon or Tillotson. He possesses a strong it has been objectcd, however, to Guic- and insinuating elocution, and has carciardini, that he is often too diffuse; and ried the Italian language to its' highest to Machiavel,' that he has tometimes pitch of energy. He was born in NetItumbled in points of grammar. tuno, near Rome, in 1694.

In the next rank to Guicciardini is Foreigners who cultivate Italian should, Bentivoglio. This excellent historian before they enter on the study of the clafwas a cardinal, and had formerly been fical poets, make themselves familiar papal nuncio at Paris. He wrote the with two of them, whose writings history of the memorable war of the Ne- breathe the true genius of poetry, withtherlands, under Philip II. of Spain. out the help of rhyme, figures, or comHis style is natural, easy, pure, and mon topics. I mean Alamanni and concise. Davila, Nani, and especially Marchetti. Alamanni wrote an excellent Paruta, are not at all inferior to Benti- poem “ On Husbandry,” which has been voglio. The various histories of Davan- compared to Virgil's “ Georgics,Alfati, and, above all, his translation of Ta- though he falls short of this comparison, citus, are, however, in my opinion, the best it is certain, that he has gained immortal calculated to give an advantageous idea honour in having been the first to employ of the Italian language to foreigners. the graces of poetry on didactic subjects, It has been often objected to this tongue, and to rescue poetry itself from the thralthat it is diffuse and imbecile : to avert dom of rhyme. Marchetti is, no doubt, this reproach, Davantati undertook to the best Italian translator extant. · In trantlate into it the most fententious wri- many passages he has surpassed the Latin ter of antiquity, and even to perform original of Lucretius : besides this merit, the talk with a fewer number of words. he will be ever dear to the Italians for His style is therefore strong and pregnant having given to blank verse all the mawith idea like the original: nor need any jesty of poetry. higher encomium be passed upon him London.

J. DAMIANI. than to say, that M. d'Alembert, allowed to be the most concise of all the

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. modern writers, has not been able to SIR, translate Tacitus with more precision. PON first

the greatef repute are Varchi, Castelvetro, Society," I was much gratified by ob


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On the Language of Natural History. serving a treatise on the Latin terms used and whatever the result of their commu. in Natural History, in which I expected nication should be, at least produce an to find a masterly display of the defects uniform language. This would be efof the language used in describing the fected by laying down certain fixed prin. diversified productions of nature ; but ciples or data, according to which all was extremely pained in finding myself the Latin terms should be translated; not only disappointed in my expectation, and if even this should not be a perfect but in being absolutely at a lois to com- translation, it would nevertheless" lessen prehend the end and aim of Mr. BRAND the confusion and difficulties with which (the author) in his erudite dissertation. the elementary principles of natural hifThe harshness and obscurity of the Latin tory are incumbered, by annihilating terms used in natural history have been the diversity of English terms now used long very justly and severely censured; by different writers to represent the fame nor have the translations of them in our Latin one. Another difficulty attendlanguage beep less disapproved. As the ing the study of natural history arises attempts hitherto made to improve and from the obfcurity of the terms used,

familiarize these terms do not appear to which are frequently the most obsolete ; have aided the promotion of the very and barbarous that could be collected.

important defideratum, a pure, classical, I fee no reason myself, why the science and chaste language of natural history, of natural history, in all or any of its I fhall endeavour, in the following cur departments, may not, like others, be sory remarks upon this interesting fub- as effectually studied and clearly underject, to shew the defects of our present stood language purely indigenous, as English terms, and the inconvenience in foreign or naturalized terms. That neceffarily arising from them; and thence the productions of nature may be as fully deduce the propriety of reforming them, illustrated as any other more popular together with the principles upon which subject, in the cominon way, and yet at such a reform should be constructed. In the same time in a scientific manner, is this view I shall wave any further notice. evident from a very elegant and instrucof Mr. BRAND's treatise, it being, to the tive publication, intituled, The Natubest of my judgment, though proteffedly ralist's Miscellany," in which, to the acwritten on the same subject, foreign to curacy of a complete naturalist, the my purpose.

learned author (Dr. Shaw) unites the Many of our most enlightened natu- perspicuity of a chaste and classical writer; ralists have laboured to establish a verna ---and that his work may be more excular language of natural history; par- tensively useful in foreign countries, corticularly in the science of botany; but responding Latin descriptions - are anmost of them have lost fight of the great nexed to the English ones, which may be end intended by a tranllation, viz. the held forth as specimens of Latinity not adapting the terms to the capacity of often equalled by modern writers of the unlearned and female students, either hy highest classical reputation, and certainly adhering too closely to the original Lin- unrivalled by any cotemporary naturalist. næan obfcure language, or by deviating To a person habituated to the perusal of too far from it, in introducing terms the Roman authors, nothing can be more not representing the ideas they should grating than the unharmonious language convey. Subječted to the former error are of Linnæus, and those writers who have ProfefforMARTYN's and the Litchfield So- followed his justly admired fystem; and ciety's anglicized terins; while under the I must candidly acknowledge, that I delatter error Dr.WITHERING’s very crude rive greater satisfaction from the lanlanguage particularly falls *. If an af- guage of Bauhin or Ray, than from the semblage of experienced naturalists were molt favourite productions of the illusto convene, for tlie purpose of establish trious Swede ; and often regret, that ing a standard language, the interchange while he fo fuccessfully, labcured in estaof their different ideas upon the subject, blishing the lucidus ordo in the science of would certainly accelerate such a design, natural history, he hhould bave intro

duced a language to highly repugnant to * It will be easily conceived, that this that purity and energy which pervade cenfure more particularly strikes at Dr.

the productions of the best classical writWITHERING's terms, in the 2d edition of his ers. Surely the dignity or the excellence “ Botanical Arrangement,” he having in his of a science cannot consist in being cloth. last edition of that valuable work, much im- ed in a phraseology foreign to every lanproved upon his language, though till very guage, and consequently to the exclusion imperfect.

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