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Mr. Dyer on English Versification, judicious change and management of ing from the spur of the moment, ftans these depends the variety of English ver- pede in uno. Pope uses them occasionally Sification."
in his imitations and translations, but The pause may extend to other fylla. very sparingly in original poems: there bles; a regard to variety seems frequently is not a single triplet in his “ Rape of the to require it, and it may be laid down as Lock,” or “ The Dunciad:” Dr. Darwin a general rule in rhyme, that at the ter- also never uses triplets. mination of every line, there is a pause. It is scarcely necessary to add, that by It is scarcely necessary to add, that a triplets are meant three lines successively pause is a different thing from a stop. rhyrning,
In odes, where different In a former letter I spoke of Mr. Pope, rhymnes intervene, three rhyming lines as the best standard of rhyme : and this may with great propriety be admitted in is unquestionably true with respect to the fame itanza; and the movements are fuavity, richness, and strength. But very lively : as in a translation of a Spawhether it proceeded from his want of nith ode by a fine modern poet, Mr. tafte for music I will not say, he is cer- Southey *, tainly very often extremely monotonous ; Rodrigo, from the world apart his profesed imitators are still more so: Retir'd where Tagus flows, and this is true not only of Pope's juve
Clasp'd the fair Caba to his heart, nile works, but of those which exhibit the When lo! the Spirit of the stream arose, vigour of his manhood, and all the And pour’d the prophet song of Spain's imftrength of sentiment, particularly his
The above stanza clofes with an Alex“ Ejay on Man.” Example, All are but parts of one stupendous whole,
andrine, and affords an example of the Whose body nature is, I and God the foul place most proper for its introduction, That chang'd thro' all, and yet through all
viz. at the close of a stanza. There'are the same,
but few places in which it can be introGreat in the earth | as in the ætherial frame; duced with propriety in the regular heWarms in the sun, / refreshes in the breeze, roic rhyme. In the blank verfe of MilGlows in the stars, I and blossoms in the trees, ton, I think it is never used: there is Lives through all life, extends through all not a line that could with greater propri
extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent.
ety have been made an Alexandrine than The mechanism of this species of verse,
the last of the last book,
Thro? Eden took their folitary way; in reg rd to the pause, conlists in the va
where a softer sensation is to be excited, rying of its place; and generally speak- where the movement of the verse is flow, ing, it should not be made at the same and where the line is the finishing verfe fyllable above two lives, or at molt three, of the book. together. Connected with an obfervation already made is another, viz.
I cannot forbear just noticing, that a That the closing rhyme of the couplet
Alexandrine has a pause naturally proper
in the middle, so as to be divided into an should be attended with a pause in the couplet in the sense, so as not to run on
equal number of syllables, Ex.
“The bloom of young defire, I and purple to the following verse : Ex. in the cou
light of love:”
Gray. plet already quoted from Denham :
The true Alexandrine is a very meloSure there are poets who did never dream
dious line, when properly used; but Upon Parnassus, or did taste the fiream Of Hclicon.
what may be called the Super-Alexandrine, This seems wrong; Pope rarely takes
or line of fourteen fyllables has, I think, this liberty; Dryden, though a great uses it in his odes called Pindaric, in
always a bad effect. -Cowley very often matter of English versification, frequent- which he seems to think every possible ly; Darwin, who has studied this species liberty may be taken with measure. Dryof verse with great nicety, never:
This leads to another observation, that den, who in his heroics has a great proregards triplets. Rhyine, by those who then also admits the fpurious one; as in
fusion of true Alexandrines, now and oppose it, is called jingling; without the following line of portentous length: enquiring into the justice of their disap- Things done relates, not done she feigns, probation, or the origin of rhymes, it And mingles truth with Lyes. Æneid. may with truth be said, that triplets of-. fend a chaste ear, and generally betray rhyme, a caution should be left against the
As we are now speaking concerning negligence, and want of invention in the writer. Dryden, indeed, uses them
too quick return of the fame rhyme. Ex. perpetually; but though a great poct, he * Letters written during a short residence was frequently negligent and haly, writ- in Spain and Portugal, by Robert Southey.
Discoverers in Philosophy compared with Poets.
117 Blossoms and fruits and flowers together rise, The two first lines quoted from Pope, And the whole year in gay confusion lies. in this letter, have bad rhymes: as also
“ Addison's Letter to Lord Halifax." are the two following: Here pillars rough with sculpture pierce the Compute the gains of his ungovern'd zeal, skies,
Ill suits his cloth the praise of railing well. And here the proud triumphal arches rise.
Dryden. From the same. These are ten lines farther in the same To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, poem, and may be endured; but cannot SIR, be allowed a few lines nearer of which, I VSET to think that a great discoing poem.
Newton, was much more superior to the The last observation I shall make re meaner mob of philosophers, than is a lates to open vowels; that is, two vow Shakespeare or a Milton to a Blackmore els opening on each other ; which
or a Cibber, to the rooks and the jackdaws rally speaking, should be guarded against, of poetry. I am of that opinion no longer. except where the poet wishes to make I have been induced, I must confels, to found correspond to fense; or some great divest myself of much of that excessive inconvenience to the line would be the veneration with which I long regarded consequence : Milton, however, frequent- the principal names in philosophy. ly uses open vowels; and Pope some In truth, the authors of great discotimes, but not often. The following is veries in philosophy, have rarely or never an example of one :
attained far above the common level of Great in the earth, or in the ætherial frame. the philosophical knowledge of the ages The
in which they respectively lived. The vowels in this line make too
open great an hiatus, and 'offend the conversation of the peaceful intercourse of
ear, though, sometimes, it must be confessed, the citizens of Athens; the harangues the cafura would be more offensive to
and discussions in their public assemblies; the ear than the hiatus : ex.
the moral knowledge which they had Of Nature's works to me expung'd and raz’d. generally acquired in the cultivation of
the arts, and in the ordinary exercise of The open vowels will here to many coveries and the errors of former philofo
their civil and political rights; the difears be offensive, but much less so than Of Nature's workings to m'expung’d and the drama ; had to prepared the way at
phers; the writings and exhibitions of raz'd.
Athens, for the origin of the philosophy Much more might be said on this sub- of Socrates, as to make it impoflible that ject: and I am aware, that different cri- there should not some furch philosopher tics may somewhat differ on these nice- arise among the Athenians about that ties; I speak therefore with deference,
Aristotle was but a disciple of the but hope, if yonr correspondent L, is school of Socrates, whose diale&tics and ġoung in these matters, that he may de- scientific arrangements had their source in rive å few hints from what has already the doctrines of his master, and of the been said not unacceptable to him. I
contemporary sophists. The discoveries propose, in a future letter, to submit to of Bacon were made at a time when the his consideration a few thoughts relative world began to become weary of the low to other species of versification, more gic and metaphysics of the schools ; when particularly to blank verse; and to the freuent attempts w re made to newbooks recommended in a former letter, model and simplify the school-philofophy; as proper to be read, to point out a few when the improvement of human knowa In the mean time, I am, &c.
ledge was already very generally fought G. DYER.
by other means, than the mere laws of P.S. I forgot to observe, with respect synthesis and of fyllogifin; when experito open vowels, that the sounds which ment and induction had been already most nearly resemble each other, should tried with success by the alchemists, and be most guarded against, as A A, A E, by other explorers of the secrets of naE E, E I, I I, I Y; where the resem
Was there not in these circumblance is less, the hiatus will be less, and stances as much of happy fortune as of therefore will be more easily allowed. fuperior genius, in the accomplishment of The more attentive versifiers are to the those grand discoveries which we afcribe accuracy of their rhymes, the more pure to Bacon? The researches of Galileo, and harmonious will their verse be.
if they did not discover the gravity of the
118 Discovereres in Philosophy compared with Poets. atmosphere, yet advanced so near to this The great poet can never derive from his discovery, as to leave no very extraordi- predecessors more than a very little of nary merit to his pupil Torricelli, in the that on which alone his fame can be peractual accomplishment of it. Far be it manently built. Melody, and variety of frym me to offer to tear, with rafn hand, versification; a copious and happily exthe laurels from the immortal brow of preffive phraseology ; taste to avoid falle Newton! Yet, let me permitted to ob- ornaments of wit and fancy; skill to adferve, that when this great man discover- just all the parts of a work into one whole; ed the doctrine of the attraction of gra- all these, the poet may, indeed, derive vitation, aftronomy, geography, and na- from the study of the works of his previgation ; mechanics, and all the mecha- deceffors, but little else can this study nical arts, had been improved to such a
confer. We easily diftinguish what is pitch of advancement, the attention of merely the copy of a copy from that philosophers was so earnestly turned to which is directly imitated from nature. wards the discovery of the true system of We praise the great poet only in proporthe universe, and the operations of ma tion as his images and sentiments are orithematical calculation had been so much ginal as well as just and interesting. Of all facilitated and improved, that the theory the literary arts, poetry is the least beof gravitation, had it even escaped the nefited by the gradual progress of human genius of Newton, could not well have knowledge. Its grand engines are contifailed to azife to the meditations of some nually disarined by the overthrow of igone or another of the philosophers, who norance and superstition: and one poet were co emporary with him. Reflecting after another still pre-occupies from his upon these facts, we shall find it difficult fucceffors, one after another of the great to maintain, that even Newton soared to provinces of nature, so as to excite the such an exceffive height above the com- general sentiment; Pereant
, qui nostra, mon level of the knowledge of his age, as ante nos, dixére. If Virgil has imitated many of his admirers seem to have ima- Homer; if Milton has borrowed largely gined. In the more recent instance of the from all poetical antiquity, sacred and discovery of the true theory of chemistry, profane, we are careful to strip them of does the merit of that discovery rest with all their borrowed feathers, whenever we Lavoisier alone ? No; Van Helmoní, come to estimate their poetical merits. Boyle, Mayow, Hale, Priestley, Berg- What infinite pains has been taken to man, Scheele, Black, Cavendish,
Baumé, trace all the imitations and plagiarisins of Macquer, Bucquet, had, successively or the divine Shakespeare? We give poets collaterally, pursued chemical investiga- credit solely for what each has himself tions, and traced out the general truths of actually caught from nature. We fomethis fcience, till it was almost as impoffi- times, as has been beautifully shewn by ble that some one or another should not Dr. Hurd, suppose them imitators, when ftumble on Lavoisier's discoveries, as that they are, in truth, entitled to the praise a number of persons should, in a dark of originality. A poet cannot borrow, night, wander about among frequent open without being perceived to borrow. In pits, and yet none of them have the for- philosophy we are apt, at all times, to tune to fall in. Such has ever been the praise hiin who imposes the key-stone, as cafe in regard to the grand discoveries in if he had built the whole arch. philosophy. Knew we but ininutely the
It is for these reasons, chiefly, that I steps by which their authors were con
think the truly great poet to be a more ducted to them, we should not fail to illustrious character than the great discoabate much from the fervour of that ad verer in philosophy.
H. miration with which we are at present di posed to regard those authors. Nay, MODERN PERU AND MEXICO, more. I doubt not, but there has been a greater energy of genius exerted, and much more contributed towards the true Intended as a Continu ation of the History advancement of science, by persons whole
of the Monuments of Peri, inserted in names are undistinguished in its annals; our Magazine for December last. than by those on whom has been fondly [From “ El Mercurio Peruano."'] lavished boundless praife. It is in philo *HE first object which presents itself fcphy as in war: the foldiers fight the battle, but the meed of victory is for the fopher, in the history of the monuments generals alone.
of ancient Peru, is the delineation of the Ia poe ry, the case is widely different. Various dispositions and organization of
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PERU.
The Physical Geography of Peru. its vaft territory. In tracing with his virons of Rimac present no other orna. pen, amid the spoils and ravages of time ment than a multitude of frubs and and of war, the degree of cultivation green meadows, which, agitated by the this famous nation had attained, when, gentle breeze, rival the undulations and without the help either of the Egyptians, murmurs of the Pacific Ocean as it the Phoenicians, or the Greeks, it efta- washes its banks. blished wise laws, and made, in certain Having penetrated into the obscure points of view, great advances in the ages which have long ceased to exist, in arts and sciences, he finds it indispenfibly search of the fragments of the edifices of necessary to examine the foil on which the the Yncas, to complete the history of their ruins, that are to guide and direct him monuments, we now fix our attention on in his researches, are placed. The gran- those times when the human footstep had deur of the works erected by the hand of as yet left no print on the sands of this inan is not to be estimated solely by the favoured region, when its fertile plains fad remnants to which they are reduced : were still uncultivated. Nature alone it is essential that the proportions of the appears, wrapt up in a mysterious filand, which served them as a support, lence. Her powerful hand is about to fhould also enter into the calculation. give the last perfection to the globe, and The canal which waters the most fertile to support its equilibrium by forming valley, does not display the same magni- two diftinct worlds in one single contificence in itself, nor manifest an equal nent. It would appear that after she had effort and skill on the part of the artifi- exercised herfelf on the burning sands of cer, as that which, running between Africa, on the leafy and fragrant groves for: sidable precipices, rises to the fum- of Asia, and on the temperate and colder mit of the mountain, and pierces the deep climates of Europe, the aimed at allemcleft, which in magnitude equals its bling together in Peru all the productions arm, or falls into the valley from be- she had denied to the other three quar tween the brink and the declivity of lofty ters, to repose there majestically, furhills. On the other hand, as the qualities rounded by each of them. Such and so and circumstances of regions influence great are the riches this admirable kingthe genius and character of those by dom contains! In describing its phywhom they are peopled, without the sical geography, it will not be inexpephysical knowledge of Peru, it would be dient to adopt certain divisions. We impossible to trace out the eminent ad-fall, in the first place, treat of the vantages of its former or present inha- general design of the two worlds which bitants.
compose the two principal parts of Peru It is true that we gave a general idea ---of those two worlds which form the of Peru *, on the happy day when, in august temple of our mother and liberal publishing our first Mercury, we made a
benefactress. Their limits, their direcgracious offering to the tutelar angel of tions, their correspondencies; their rethese territories: but this is not what we spective advantages over the rest of the are about to copy. We then confined terraqueous globe; and their prepondeourselves chiefly to the plans which had rance and influx in the equilibrium of been suggested, in dividing, peopling, and this globe, are objects which, present; cultivating Peru, by the different views ing themselves on a large scale, will lead and intereits of its glorious conquerors. and accustom us, without fatigue, to We presented to our readers a pretatory the detailed examination of whatever introduction, a leisure composition, in each of them in particular contains. O! which, noticing rapidly and in substance that any one could possess the divine and whatever this country owes to man, we energetic pencil of nature, to give to his prepared them for the elucidation of cach portraits the colouring and delicacy with of the parts contained in that valuable which she has beautified the original ! sketch of our political geography. We
Peru, the limits of which are traced now follow a different course. At the oni by the great phenomena by which it moment while we are naming Peru, we divides the provinces of its universal embanish from our view its inhabitants and pire, forms without doubt the whole of its cities, and annihilate even the superb the fouthern part of the burning zone, towers of opulent Lima.
which runs north and south from the which our forefathers laboured and ferti- equator to the tropic of Capricorn, and lized disappear; and the delightful cn
weit and east from the borders of the Pa'
cificava to the forests and defarts of the * Sce sur Magazine for November lait. country of the Amazons, by which the
The Physical Geography of Peru. castern branches of the Cordillera of them are covered with a fnow as ancient the Andes is 'terminated. Thus its as the world ; and their volcanoes, which greatest extenfion, which is to be mea- vomit forth a perpetual fire in the region sured in degrees of latitude, embraces of frost and cold, present a terrific speca space of twenty-three degrees and an tacle to the philosopher who contemplates half, between Cape Palmar on the them. confines of Pasto, and Morro-Moreno on If the worth of countries were to be those of the kingdom of Chile. Chosen estimated by the greater or less extension to be the throne of light in the southern they afford to population and to agriculhemisphere, it spreads precisely over the ture, the Royal Cordillera would dimiwhole of the space which the sun declines nith the value and estimation of Peru, from the centre of the sphere, to animate fince its eminences and declivities, far it by its benign influence. Its breadth, from augmenting the proportion of culwhich we shall place between 297 and 310 tivable land which would be found at the degrees of longitude, the first meridian bases of this chain of mountains, dimibeing fixed at the Peak of Tene iffe, nifh them extremely 1: but, in return, varies according as the coasts are at a greater or smaller distance from the Cor- the northern sea, runs, as has been said, todillera or chain of mountains. From wards the Tropic, from whence it takes an the line to the eighth degree there is a inclined direction towards the south east, and Separation of about one hundred and terminates in the plains of the great Chaco. twenty leagues; but from hence, in- Thirdly, the western one, which proceeds sensibly as it were, gaining ground, its from North America, passes the ithnius of greatest distance to the eighteenth degree fouthern coast to Cape Horn. Between the
Panama, and redoubles the whole of the is reduced to seventy leagues only. By northern sea and the first Cordillera lies Brazil; chusing a middle term between these two between the first and second lie the great and extremes, and allowing twenty leagues lofty plains of the country of the Amazons; to the degree, the result gives to Peru and in the line in which these plains terminate, a plane superficies of 44.650 square the second Cordillera commences, as does also leagues *.
Peru, which is comprehended within this The whole of this vast superficies ferves one and the third. . The ancient Yncas gave as a basis to the great Cordillera of the to each of them the name of Ritisuyu, which Andes, which, leparating majestically fignifies a band of snow: and as the four carbeneath the equator, and dividing itself dinal points, which they called Tawantinsuyu, into two branches, the one eastern and which they viewed towards then, that of
were denoted by the subjugated nations the other western, parallel to each other, the Antis, which is to the east of Cuzco, and for the greater part to the fouthern gave the name as well to the mountains coasts, proceeds on to the tropic of Ca- which descend from the second Cordillera pricorn. In its way, the eastern branch into the plains, as to this same Cordillera takes a bend towards the south east, and which precedes them. We still preserve terminates in the plains. The western these titles, having corrupted the word Antis, one penetrates into the kingdom of into Andes, and afterwards applied the same Chile †. The highest points of each of term to the south Cordillera. We say that
both these Cordilleras lie beneath the equator, * The limits which we ascribe to Peru, fince, notwithstanding in the province of and which are deduced from the contempla- Popayan they are already divided and parallel, tion of the equinoxes, the folítices, and the their mountains are so low that at two devaricties of the soil and climates, agree with grees to the north they have not the fourth those established by the political demarca- part of the elevation of those of the south. tions executed by the Yncas, as we shail ex Hence it is that the climate is very differplain more fully when we shall proceed to ent from that of high Peru. treat of them.
| Taking it for granted that, in conse† To elucidate this subject as much as quence of the parched and dry state of the de. poñible, it is proper in this place to state that clivities of the southern mountains, and of the part of South America comprehended be- the insalubrity of the summits of the Cordiltween the equator and the tropic of Capri- lera, it would be imposible to people and corn is divided, north and south, by three cultivate them, we can venture to affert that, Cordilleras, or chains of mountains. First, even if it were practicable to execute both, the that of Brasil, which, commencing about curvatures, declivities, and bollows of the mourthe equinoctial line, rnns to the Sierras or tains would not add one handful of useful foil to mountains of Maldonado, in the river of that which their bases would afford, if they did LaPlata. Secondly, the eastern one of Peru, not exist. This proposition, paradoxical as it which, originating in the snow-clad moun- may appear, is an incontestible truth, fince tains of Santa Martha, on the confines of all the trees which are planted on the convex