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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. subjected to a red heat, than the fame

quantity of the acid that was employed
AVING undertaken to examine in the process. And if this calx be af,
Chemistry, I wish to excite as much atten lens in atmospheric air, it is so far from
tion as possible to the fubject; and as making any addition to it, that this air
your publication goes into the hands of is diminished.
all lovers of literature in England, I beg It is acknowledged by my opponents,
leave to make use of it, in order to state, that after the solution, the acid in the vela
in a general way; what appear to me to sel will not saturate more alkali than it
be the strongest objections to this system, would have done before. Since, then, this
which has now reigned triumphant about additional quantity of oxygen which the
twelve years, very few perfons besides new theory supposes, cannot be found,
myself being advocates for the old doc- either in the form of an acid, or of dea
trine of phlogiftion. I have already phlogisticated air, what evidence is there
published two pamphlets on the subject, of its existence? And is not the proba-
and I intend to continue the controverty bility greatly in favour of the inflamma-
till I have collected all the evidence that ble air coming from the iron rather than
thall be fufficient to decide the question; from the water, and that by the loss of
and if in the issue I see reason for lo do- this principle it becomes a calx. If this
ing, I fhall publicly acknowledge my be the cale, metals are compound fub-
conversion to the doctrine that I now stances, and water, as far as we yet know,
controvert, and thall even take a pride in a simple one; whereas, according to the
fu doing. In the mean time, having new theory, metals are simple fubitances,
heard what has been advanced by some and water the compound.
very able advocates for the new system, 2. When steam is applied to red hot
in answer to my first pamphlet, I think I iron, inflammable air is procured, and the
am pretty well apprized of all that can iron receives an addition of about one half
be laid with respect to those experiments of its former weight, and is the fame
that are yet before us. But in time thing with what the forge-men in England
something more decisive may be produced. call finery cinder, and with the scales of
In reply to all that I have yet heard on iron in a blacksmith's shop. This sub-
the subject, I would observe,

Itance the antiphlogistians Tay is an oxyde 1. When a metal, viz. iron, is dissolv. of iron, supposing that the water is der ed in the vitriolic acid, the antiphlogistians composed by palling in contact with it, fay, that the inflammable air which is pro- when the hydrogen is separated in the form cured does not come from the iron, but of inflammable air, and the oxygen refrom the water, which is decomposed in mains united to it. But I ask, what is the process. But, according to their the evidence of this substance containing theory, water consists of two principles, any oxygen, when it can neither be rehydrogen gas and oxygen, and therefore, if duced to an acid, nor exhibited in the the hydrogen be set at liberty, in the form form of oxygenous gas, or dephlogistiof inflammable air, there ought to re cated air ? I think that the addition to main an additional quantity of oxygen the iron is mere water, and when it is in the vessel ; and I ask, where is it to be heated in inflammable air, the iron is refound! They say in the calx of the iron. vived, and the water set at liberty. But I answer, that this calx exhibits no Another evidence of a solid substance, appearance whatever of its containing like this, containing oxygen, is its oxyany oxygen, and the acid attached to it genating, or as I call it, dephiogistica. yields let's dephlogisticated air on being ting, the marine acid. But though this MONTHLY MAG. No. XXIX.


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160 Interesting Chemical Letter from Dr. Priestley.
fubftance is completely diffolved in this drawn from the supposed composition of
acid, no sign of oxygenation appears. water, viz. from dephlogisticated and in-
Indeed, some very flight sign, barely flammable air burned in a certain propor-
perceivable, sometimes appears on the fo- tion to each other. I say, however, that
lution of scale of iron, to which (being when these two kinds of air are fired to-
formed in the open air) it is probable gether, they produce either the nitrous
that a small quantity of oxygen may ad- acid, or phlogisticated air, which is known
here. But if this small quantity be de- to be capable, by decomposition, of form-
veloped, I ask why is not more dif- ing nitrous acid. When the infiamma-
covered, when more was prefent? The ble air is more than sufficient to form
agent is the same, and it has much more nitrous acid, the phlogisticated air is
matter to act upon.

produced. This I deinonstrate, by firing
They say that this finery cinder is a the two kinds of air in a close tube of
partial oxyde of iron, and common-Fus of glass or copper.
iron a complete oxyde. But since iron To this my opponents have objected,
receives a much greater addition to its, that when I produce any acid, it must
weight by becoming finery cinder, than have come froin the decomposition of the
by being converted into rust, and all the phlogisticated cir, which I had not been
addition is allowed to be pure oxygen, careful to exclude in the process. But I
the former ought to contain more of this am confident that, in my last method of
principle than the latter. Besides, finery making the experiment, there was not the
cinder is incapable of becoming ruft. least fenlible quantity of phlogisticated air
The contrary, indeed, is asserted; but let present, and that, in all the cases, the
the observation of the fact decide between acid produced was a hundred times more

than the phlogisticated air could have
I farther observe, that when any solid formed. Whenever their fame burned
substance, containing oxygen or dephlo- strongly, so as to ensure more dephlo-
gisticated air, is heated in inflammable gisticated air than they wished, the water
air, a quantity of fixed air is formed, by they produced was not free from acidity,
the union of the oxygen from the fub- and whenever it was, they found a lur-
Itance and the inflammable air in the vef- plus of phlogisticated air, which agrees
fel. This is the cate when minium is re- with my experiments.
vived in these circumstances, but not to That dephlogisticated and inflammable
when finery cinder is uted, nothing but air, uniting in certain circumstances, can
water being found in the vessel. Also, form phlogisticated air, I have thewn in
when iron, or any substance containing several processes. Inflammable air, ex-
phlogiston, is heated in dephlogisticated poled to ruft of iron confined by mercury,
air, fixed air is produced. This the an- becomes in time wholly phlogisticated
tiphlogistians say comes from the plumba- air, and the rust is converted into a black
go in the iron. But the plumbago in the por::der, which no doubt is the same thing

iron employed is not one hundredth part with plumbago. This substance, there-
of the weight of the fixed air produced, fore, is iron supersaturated with phio-
if the plumbago could be separated, and giston.
decomposed, in the process, which it can On the whole,I am as far asever froin see-

ing any evidence of either the compofition
That fixed air may be produced by the or decomposition of water; hut on the con-
union of dephlogisticated and inflamma- trary, much and very fatisfactory evidence
ble air, I farther prove by heating toge- against it. I writé, however, with no
ther red precipitate, which yields only de. other view than to promote a full and fair
phlogisticated air, and filings of 'iron, discussion of the subject, which is cer-
which give only inflammable air; when tainly of considerable importance in
there is a copious production of the purest chemistry. I am, Sir, your's, &c.
fixed air. This, however, I am informed Northumberland, J. PRIESTLEY.
my opponents deny. With me the expe-

Dec. 20, 1797. riment his never failed. Let others judge between us. If this be the fact, here is To the Editor of the Monibly Magazine. a copious production of what the anti SIR, pilogistians call the carbonic acid without HEN I wrote my note of Jan. 11 jource of it.

your nun.ber for that month) I had noc But the argument which my opponents indeed feen Mr. Scott's third and fourth urge with the greatest confidence, is letters ; neither had ycur correfpondert


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Dr. Beddoes on the Nitrous Acid.-Welsh Indians. 161 Mr. Blair. For the ships, by which complained that Mr. Evans would not they were brought, had not arrivedl. comply with some Spanish etiquette previa By' those ships Mr. Scott fent me a ously to his setting out on his journey: in. copy, requesting I woull reprint the deed, I had often heard from men of obfer. letters, in any publication which I might vation, that he had not a sufficient know. be preparing on the subject of nitrous ledge of mankind to balance his enterprise: acid. But I have since received from ing enthusiasm. These remarks I make Mr. Scott, instructions to suppress what without knowing the contents of his letter, be says about the effeet of bathing, as he is a copy of which I shall certainly send you not satisfied with his trials. This re the first opportunity, with some turther tractation, together with remarks on

comments upon

the subject." fome material points, will appear in the Extract of a second letter, dated the 3oth collection now in the prels; for it is too

of Dec. 1797 late (in consequence of what has been

“ In my last I promised you a.copy

of published here to fuppress the remarks John Evans's letter; but the whole on the nitros batin, as the author wished, being rather a crude composition, and

I am afraid the collection of cates will rather long, I send you the fubftance of be a few weeks longer in appearing than his report, which has been published in I gave

reason to expect. A considerable several of the American papers; and in number of communications are printed. making it known in Europe, you will But fome, which were promised two oblige feveral of our friends, months ago, are not yet come to hand-:" The ideas, which I suggested in my and I couli wish to present the public last letter, on the subject of this mission, with a respectable body of facts. I find I fill retain. I was always doubtful of by my correspondence in Ainerica, that the existenee of Welch Indians ; but, ia they have been einploying nitrous acid my opinion, we are left in the dark as there -- with various, but, for the most much as ever, in respect to their existence part, with good success.-I hope we or non-existence. Those who have af. thall, ere long, know how far this and ferted that there are such a people may the other substances newly brought into kave equal credit, in the scale of probaquestion, are useful-that we may use bability, with those who only, by superthem fo far, and no farther.

ficial research, declare they cannot find I am, Sir, with good wishes for the them. Evans's account is very lame, fuccess of your exertions, yours, and to me appears doubtful. We may March 7, 1798. THOMAS BEDDOES. know more about it hereafter; and

should I hear any thing farther, I shall not

fail to communicate it. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

“ After enumerating his difficulties

and lufferings on the Milfissippi, which THE THE following is an extract of a let: have been already published, EVANS

ter from my correspondent at Phi- gives a short account of his journey up ladelphia, respecting a late attempt to the Missouri. penetrate to the Welsh Indians, da.ed the

" In August, 1795, says he, I started gth of December, 1797.

from St. Louis, in company with JAMES “ I was in hopes to have had it in my MACKAY, commandant on the Milpower to communicate fomething con fouri; and wintered, the same year, with cerning JOHN EVANS. Dr. JONS, of the Mahas nation, on the faid river. Lower Dublin, has received a letter from Whilft here, I spent twenty-five days him a few days ago. I have sext two with the Indians,

their · hunting messages for a copy of it, but it is not ground, and then returned to Post Mahas, yet come to hand. I understand that where I tarried two months. EVANS has returned to Kentucky, with " In February, 1796, I recommenced out finding his brethren. I was appre- my journey westward, and, at the distance hentive of his miscarriage; for Judge of 300 miles from the Mahas, was disco: TURNER, on his arrival in this city vered by some hottile Indians, called the lat spring, informed me that MACKAY, Seaux. Being obliged to retreat, I again the acting partner in the Missouri Com- returned to the Malas ; but in June folpany, had returned to St. Louis, finding lowing, undertook the same route, and, in the weitern Indians in a hostile position. August, arrived at the Mandans and Big. Nothing was then mentioned of EVANS, Belly nation, 300 leagues from the Ma. farther than that the judge said the com- has, and 600 leagues from the confluence mandant of St. Louis, in a letter to him, of the Missouri with the Misfiffippi.



Y a

" The


Welsh Indians ~Prize in the Lottery. « The Missouri, for 260 leagues from persuade all my friends, particularly St. Louis, traverses and forms beautiful those who think they would have good meanders through fine meadows, as level luck, to avoid buying tickets, or shares as a table: the vale or bottom is from of tickets; and although this be absolutetwelve to eighteen miles in breadth. The ly flying in the face of that government river lometimes glides along the hills on which has, in its wisdom, projected and each side, but its general course is to the commanded this scheme of finance, yet south of the plain: for 400 leagues it is I have hitherto contrived to steer pretty full of little islands, and receivęs very clear of punishment, beçaufe, although congderable streams above R. Platte, there are many clauses in the act which 190 leagues from St. Louis. From the constitutes and appoints a lottery, Pancas to the Mandans, which is about there is not one which compels us to 190 leagues, it has forced its way, and purchase tickets. In my opposition, runs furiously through mountains and therefore, I proceed securely, and, what hills full of mine,

is more, I act fairly; for I never repeat “Having explored and taken a chart my annual admonitions unless at the of the Missouri, for 1800 miles, I re- close of the drawing. There are two turned with its rapid current, in 68 days, reasons why I'act thus ; first, that I may to St. Louis, July 15, 1797, after being not seem fáctious or invidious, and, fe absent nearly two years. I was well condly, because at the end of a lottery, jeceived by the Spanish officers, who I find many persons inclined to take my preffingly solicited me to undertake ano- advice, who, at the beginning of it, ther adventure,across the continent, to the would not listen to me. Pacific.

But why, you will say,am I so hostile “ In respect to the Welsh Indians, I to lotteries? I will answer in few words have only to inform you, that I could -Because I'once was fortunate, and not meet with such a people; and froin from that time had to date the miseries the intercourfé I have had with Indians, from which I am recovering only by very from lat. 35 to 49, I think you may with flow degrees; for I suppose I need not safety inform our friends, that they have tell you, that a war is a very unhealthy no existence.

time for persons recovering from losses in “ The applications made to me, by trade. It is a bad time to pick up, as we this government, prevent my coming at fay--It is like sending a consumptive present to Philadelphia; should I accept pair of lungs into a sharp air, or curing of the offer, it will be some time before the ague in the fens of Lincolnshire.

But to my story, which has been the Signed, JOHN THOMAS EVANS.” burthen of my song for fo many years.

The above is the result of the expedi You muit know, Şir, that I began qion undertaken by Evans, which was life in the humble capacity of a very announced to take place about five years respectable tallow chandler, in White ago; and accompanied by some docu- chapel, and carried on for fome time ą ments, upon which the hope of succeed- very frug trade. Belides families and ing therein in a great meature depended. chance customers, I furnished two hofThe above accounts do not explain clearly pitals with candles, and frequently liad why Evans returned from the point men- the honour to throw light on the many tioned by him, which, from all the in- subjects of political speculation, which formation received, is short of the ftua- were agitated in a neighbouring publiction assigned for the people he was in houte. Things went on then, Sir, ex. search of. Yours, &c. MEIRION. actly as they thould do. My profits, if

pot great, were certain ; and, upon the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

word of a tallow-chandler, I declare SIR,

they were honest, for I made it a rule to

I see you,"

gerly ítrive than I do, to obey the fuled at Christmas to give my customer. apostolic inuinction,' " Live peaceably maids a few rush-lights, in order to fht w with all mer," yet there is one respect in them how to play whisk like their masters. which I rank with the disaffected part of As to politics, I went not a jot farther this nation, and have feldom failed for than the Daily Advertiser enjoined me; several years of my life, to oppose one of and, like a good subject, I had a heart? the positive laws of my country. I allude felt satisfaction in the victories of my now. to the State Lottery, and my mode country, especially when they were to of opposition is this. I endeavour to great as to require the aid of my trade to


fome years,

Evils from a. Prize in the Lottery. give them an additional brilliancy.-My and frugality; and as it was by her ada wife afsifted me in my business, as a wité vice I bought the ticket, she took the ought; and if any buliness called me whole merit of our success out of the from home, there was the behind the hands of Dame Fortune, and infifted that counter, and as attentive as myself. I we should lay out our money like people kept one maid servant, and a boy to car- of fashion. People of fafhion! Thele ry parcels. My two children had got were her very words; and, he added, fuch schooling as was thought proper for likewise, that she must now fee a litele of their expectations. I intended my fon the world, and metamorphose me and my tə succeed me in business; and, as for children after her own way. my daughter, she would have made an Would you believe it, Sir? I cannot excellent house-wife, which is all, in my say that I was wholly againft all this, humble opinion, that tradesmen's daugh- because I could not help feeling how ters ought to be. I paid all parish rates much more comfortable it is to have five with pleasure, and served parish offices fo thoufand pounds, than to be daily toiling honestly, that I do not think I eat more to make up as many hundreds ; but I than two children in all my time, which declare, that if it had not been for this is faying a great deal. As to amule- money, I never should have thought of ments, we never desired the expensive becoming a man of fafhion, for I had no

Now and then, in very fine wea, other notion of fuch' at that time, than ther, I would treat my family to Sadler's that they were perfons who required lons Wells, or Barnaby Spa, but as to trips credit. But to proceed-The first step by fea, we never went farther than Gravel- my wife took, was to dispose of our stock end, and carrying our own provisions in trade, and this was easily dore, at the with us, and coming back by the next lots of about three hundred pounds, for ride, you must allow all this was very we were very precipitate, and the buyers moderate,

knowing that we could not for shame's In this happy state things went on för sake keep our stock on hand, resolved to

All was fun-shine and ease us of it in the genteelest way poffi: broad day-light; aye, and good broad ble; and I may truly fay, for the firt humour at night with us. But happi- tine of my life, that my candles were ness will kave an end. There are many burnt at both ends. This being over, ups and downs in life. The devil is. my wife discovered that there was fomenever tired of the many pranks he plays thing very pernicious in the air of Whiteus poor honest folks. It happened one chapel, and determined to leave the day, Sir, that my wife received a hand. place. My leale had fifteen years to run, bill about the lottery, wrapt round an and I soon got a tenant who agreed to ounce of green tea which we had brought pay me less than I was obliged to pay the to treat the curate of our parish with. sandlord; but this was nothing to a mu What there was in this wicked bill, I do who, by the sale of his effiets, lad added

now remember, but the woman a pretty handsome fumr to the above five would not reft until she had bought a thousand. ticket, or a share of one I had not been After much confultation (for we fount used to contradict her, and perhaps the the whims of people of fashion come very devil might enter into me at the same naturally) we hired a house in one of the time, for I believe he generally prefers a streets near Palace-vard, because it was whole family, when he can get them. only rool. a year rent, and was to centrical The ticket was bought, and I had been (as my wife called it) to the playhouies, happy if it had proved a blank; but in and the palace! By this you will learn, a few days it was pronounced an hun that the knew as much of the centre of dred pound prize. 'A fecond ticket fol the playhouses as the did about the cirlowed of course, and a third ; and be cuinference of our fortune. Bit here, fore the lottery had done drawing, I was however, we sat down, and a discovery master of five thoufand pounds sterling having been made, naturally enough i money. This was a sum of which there must say, that the firniture of our old is no mention in the records of our fa- house was not proper even for the lermily tor several generations. I feemed, vants' rooms of our new one, we employe indeed, born a great man without the ed an honest broker, who furnished us help os anceitors.

completely, from top to bottom, with But alas! this was the beginning of every article in the newest taste. We had {crrows and evils. My wife now de- carpets which it was almost heresy to glased war againit -a!l buliness, industry, walk npon; chairs' on wirich I dare not


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