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The Enquirer, No. XV, What is Education ?

169 be disgusted at all common tables. Be come visitor. That authority which exlides, he will from time to time partake tends its claims over every action, and of those delicacies which your table even every thought, which infifts upon an abounds with ; you yourfelt will give answer to every interrogation, however him of them occasionally; you would be indiscreet or oppresiive to the feelings, unkind if


did not; your servants, if will, in young or old, produce falsehood; good natured, will do the same. Do you or, if in some few instances, the deeply think you can keep the full stream of. imbibed fear of future and unknown puluxury running by his lips, and he not nishment should restrain from direct falletaste of it? Vain imagination! hood, it will produce a habit of diffimu

I would not be understood to inveigh lation, which is still worse. The child, the against wealth, or against the enjoyments lave, or the subject, who, on proper oc-. of it; they are real enjoyments, and casions may not say, “ I do not chuse to allied to many elegancies in manners and tell,” will certainly, by the circumstances in taste ; I only with to prevent un profita- in which you place him, be driven to ble pains and inconsistent expectations. have recourse to deceit, even should he

You are sensible of the benefit of early not be countenanced by your example. rising, and you may, if you please, I do not mean to assert, that sentiinents make it a point shat your daughter shall inculcated in education have no influence; retire with her governess, and your son they have much, though not the most: with his tutor, at the hour when you are but it is the sentiments we let drop occapreparing to see company. But their fionally, the conversation they overhear deep, in the firit place, will not be so when playing unnoticed in a corner of fweet and undisturbed amidst the rattle of the room, which has an effect


chilcarriages, and the glare of tapers glanc- dren, and not what is addressed directly ing through the rooms, as that of the to them in the tone of exhortation. If you village child in his quiet cottage, pro- would know precisely the effect these set tected by ĵlence and darkness; and, more discourses have upon your child, he over, you may depend upon it, that as the pleased to reflect upon that which a difwercive power of education is laid aside, course from the pulpit, which


have they will in a few months llide into reason to think merely professional, has the habitudes of the rest of the family, upon you. Children have almost an inwhole hours are determined by their com tuitive discernment berween the maxims. pany and situation in life. You have, you bring forward for their use, and however, done good as far as it goes ; it those by which you


your is something gained to defer pernicious duct. Be as cunning as you will, they habits, if we cannot prevent them. are always more cunning than you. Every

There is nothing which has fo little child knows whom his father and mother fare in education as direct precept. To love, and see with pleasure, and whom be convinced of this, we need only re- they dillike; for whom they think them-. fect, that there is no one point we labour felves obliged to set out their best plate more to establish with children than that and china ; whom they think it an hoof their speaking truth, and there is not

nour to vilit, and upon whom they confer any in which we fucceed worfe. And honour by admitting them to their comwhy? Because children readily see we

pany. " Respect nothing so much as have an interest in it. Their speaking virtue, (says É agenio to his fon) virtue tr:th is used by us as an engine of go- and talents are the only grounds of difvernment. « Tell me, my dear child, tinction." The child presently has ocwhen you have broken any thing, and I casion to enquire why his father pulls off will not be angry

with «? Thank his hat to some peoplu and not to others; you for nothing, says the child. If I he is told, that outward respect must be prevent you from finding it out, I am proportioned to different itations in life; jüre ycu will not be angry;" and nine this is a little difficult of comprehension ; times out of ten he can prevent it. He bowever, by dint of explanation, he gets knows that, in the common intercourses of over it tolerably well." But he sees his life, you tell a thousand fallehoods.But these father's house in the bustie and hurry of are necessary lies on important occasions. preparation; common business laid aside,

Your child is the best judge how much every body in movement, an unusual anxoccafion he has to tell a lie ; he may have iety to pleale and to thine. Nobody is as great occasion for it, as you have to con at leisure to receive his careffes, or attend ceala had piece of news from a fick friend,

to his questions; his lessons are interor to hide your vexation from an unwel. rupted, his hours deranged. At length a


own con


170 The Enquirer, No. XV. What is Education? guest arrives-It is my Lord—whom he modest and unassuming ; you are fo; perhas heard you speak of, twenty times, as haps, yourself, and you pay liberally a one of the most worthless characters upon preceptor for giving him lesions of humiearth. . Your child, Eugenio, has re- lity. "You do not perceive, that the very ceived a lesson of education. Resume, if circumstance of having a man of letters you will, your systems of morality on the and accomplishments retained about his morrow, you will in vain attempt to era- person, for his fole advantage, tends more dicate it." You expect company, Mam- forcibly to inspire him with an idea of ma, muft I be dressed to-day?" "No, it is felf-confequence, than all the lessons he only good Mrs. such a one. " Your child can give him to repress it. Why do not has received a lesson of education, one you look fad, you rasial? says the Underwhich she well understands, and will long taker to his man, in the play of the Furemember. You have sent your child to neral, I give you I know not how much a public schooi, but to secure his morals money for looking sad, and the more I give against the vice which you too justly ap- you, the gladder I think you are. So will prehend abounds there, you have given it be with the wealthy heir. The lectures him a private tutor, a man of strict mo- that are given him, on condescension and rals and religion. He may help him to affability, only prove to him upon how prepare his tasks, bụt do you imagine it much higher ground he stands than those will be in his power to form his mind? about him; and the very pairs that are His schoolfellows, the allowance you taken with his moral character will make give him, the manners of the age, and of liim proud, by thewing him how much the place, will do that, and not the lec- he is the object of attention. You cannot tures which he is obliged to hear. If help these things. Your servants, out of thefe are different from what you yourself respect to you, will bear with his petu. experienced, you must not be furprised lance; your company, out of refpect to to see him gradually recede from the prin- you, will forbear to check his impatiçiples, civil and religious, which you ence; and you yourself, if he is clever, hold, and to break off from your connec will repeat his observations. tions, and to adopt manners different from In the exploded doctrine of f;mpathies, your own. This is remarkably exem you are directed, if you have cut your plified amongst those of the Diflenters finger, to let that alone, and put your who have riferi to wealth and consequence. plaister upon the knife. This is very

bad I believe it would be difficult to find an doctrine, I must confess, in philosophy, instance of families, who, for three ge- but very good in morals. Is a man luxnerations, have kept their carriage and urious, self-indulgent? do not apply your continued Dissenters.

physic of the soul to him, but cure his forEducation, it is often observed, is an tune. Is he haughty ? cure his rank, his expensive thing. It is fo, but the paying title. Is he vulgar? cure his company, for lessons is the smallest part of the coft. Is he diffident, or mean-spirited ? cure If you would go to the price of having his poverty, give him consequence-but your son a worthy man, you must be to these prescriptions go far beyond the faa yourself; your friends, your servants, mily recipes of education. your company must be all of

stamp. What then is the refu't? In the first Suppose this to be the case, much is done; place, that we should contract our ideas but there will remain circumstances which of education, and expect no more from perhaps you cannot altei, that will still it than it is able to perform. It can giye have their effect. Do you wish him to instručion. There will always be an love simplicity? Would you be content effential difference between a human beto lay down your coach, to drop your ing cultivated and uncultivated. Edu. title? Where is the parent who would cation can provide proper instructors in do this to educate his fon? You carry the various arts and sciences, and portion him to the workshops of artisans, and out to the best advantage, those precious show him different machines and fabrics, hours of youth which never will return, to awaken his ingenuity. The necessity It can likewife give, in a great degreet, of getting his bread would awaken it perfona! habits; and even if these ihould much more effectually. The fingle cir- afterwards give way, under the influence cumítance of having a fortune to get, or of contrary circumstances, your child a fortune to spend, will probably operate will feel the good effects of them, for the more strongly upon his mind, not only later and the lefs will he go into what is than your precepts, but even than your wrong. Let us also be affured, that the example. You will your child to be business of education, properly so called,

The Enquirer, No. XV. What is Education ?

171 is not transferrable. You may engage amples, and circumstances which impel masters to instruct your child in this or them to useful action. the other accomplishment, but you must But the education of your house, imeducate him ,yourself. You not only portant as it is, is only a part of a more ought to do it, but you must do it, whe- comprehensive fyftem. Providence takes ther you intend it or no. As education your child, where you leave him. Proviis a thing necessary for all; for the poor dence continues - his education upon a and for the rich, for the illiterate as well larger scale, and by a process which in as for the learned ; providence has not cludes means far more efficacious. Has made it dependent upon systems uncertain, your son entered the world at eighteen, operose, and difficult of investigation. opinionated, haughty, rafh, inclined to It is not necessary with Rousseau or Ma- dißipation? Do not despair, he may yet be dame Genlis, to devote to the education cured of these faults, if it pleases heaven. of one child, the talents and the time of a There are remedies which you could not number of grown men; to furround him persuade yourself to use, if they were in with an artificial world; and to counteract, your power, and which are specific in by maxims, the natural tendencies of the cases of this kind. How often do we fee htuation he is placed in in fociety. the presumptuous, giddy youth, changed Every one has time to educate his child; into the wise counsellor, the confiderate, -the poor man educates him while fieady friend! How often the thoughtlets, working in his cottage-the man of gay girl, into the fober wife, the affeca business while employed in his counting- tionate mother! Faded beauty, humbled house.

felf-consequence, disappointed ambition, Do we see a father who is diligent in loss of fortune, this is the rough physic his profession, domestic in his habits, provided by providence, to meliorate the whose house is the resort of well-informed temper, to correct the offensive petulanintelligent people-a mother, whose time cies of youth, and bring out all the is usefully filled, whose attention to her energies of the finished character. Afduties secures esteem, and whole amiable Aictions foften the proud; difficulties manners attract affection? Do not be push foward the ingenious; successful . solicitous, respectable couple, about the industry gives consequence and credit, moral education of your oifspring! do and developes a thousand latent good not be uneasy becaule you cannot sur. qualities. There is no malady of the round them with the apparatus of books mind fo inveterate, which this education and systems; or fancy you must retire of events is not calculated to cure, if from the world to devote yourselves to life were long enough; and shall we not their improvement. In your world they hope, that he, in whose hand are all the are brought up much better than could remedial processes of nature, will renew be under any plan of factitious education the discipline in another state, and finish which you could provide for them; they the imperfect man? will imbibe affection from

your careffes ; States are educated as individuals, hy taste from your conversation ; urbanity circumstances; the prophet may cry from the commerce of your fociety; and aloud, and spare not; the philosopher mutual love from your example. Do may descant on morals; eloquence may not regret that you are not rich enough exhaust itself in invective against the w provide tutors and governors, to watch vices of the age : these vices will certainly his steps with fedulous and servile anx follow certain states of poverty or riches, iety, and furnith him with maxims it is ignorance or high civilization. But what in rally impossible he should act upon these gentle alteratives fail of doing, may when grown up. Do not you see how be accomplished by an unsuccessful war, leldom this over culture produces its ef a loss of trade, or any of thofe great feet, and how many shining and excellent calamities, by which it pleases Provi. characters start up every day, from the dence to speak to a nation in such lanboiom of obscurity, with scarcdiy any guage as will be heard. If, as a nation, care at all ?

we would be cured of pride, it must be Are children then to be reglected ? by mortification ; if of luxury, by a nafurely not; but having given them the tional bankruptcy, perhaps ; if of injufinstruction and accomplishments which tice, or the fpirit of domination, by a their situation in life requires, let us re lofs of national consequence. In com. ięct fuperfiuous solicitude, and trust that parison of these strong remedies, a fast, their characters will form themselves from or a sermon, are prescriptions of very the fpontaneous infuence of good ex little efficacy.


172 Authenticity of Mr. Toplady's. Pofthumous Works. To tbe Editor of the Montbly Magazine, me, he said, “ My dear friend, you are

at liberty to do whatever you pleale with 1 Am a constant reader of your Month- the reit," which declaration has virtually ly Magazine, and must own I am

done away the injunction laid upon me much pleated with the curnal of Mr. by his will. HOUSMAN; but I am sorry he should

And here I cannot but lament, the loss fo far mislead your readers, by stating in which the religious and literary world your Magazine for January, 1798, that have fuitained, from the scrupulous deliadjoining the road from Birmingham to cacy of Mr. T's mind. The answers Wolverhampton, he aw a number of fires he alligned to me for this part of his con burning in a field of oats; and that the duct, were, that “fome passages might works for forging iron in that neighbour- be twiited from their intended meaning, hood belong to Mr. WILKINSON: it is which, when dead, he should not be able true that Mr. W. has large works there, to defend." I perceived, among the MSS. but though he has expended perhaps which were committed to the flames, 60,000!. in his erections, there are many many, works of taste and genius, partiworks in the vicinity of Wolverhampton cularly a very voluminous hiiftory of which make more iron than he does. I Englan.l,'' nearly completed. There are, have attended Mr. HOUSMAN hitherto however, among the manuscripts which with pleasure, as I know most of the have been rescued, “ An Eray towards a places he speaks of. I am, Sir, &c.

conija Chronological Dictionary," and, Darre,

JAS. LOXDALE. “ An Hijtory of the Ancient State of BriNear Wolverhampton,

tain," in lixtten letters, addressed to the 24 March, 1798.

late Mrs. Catherine Macaulay, which

I doubt not will confirm his reputation To tbe Editor of the Monthly Magazine, as a writer. I understand Mr. Row de. SIR,

figns shortly to publifh them. UNDERSTANDING that confider I cannot conclude this letter without

able doubts have arisen respecting improving the opportunity of returning the authenticity of the manuscripts of my sincere thanks to Mr. Row for the very the late Rev. Mr. Toplady, (which liberal manner in which he has conducted caine into my hands, as his executor, and himself, and the ample justice he has renwhich I have fince communicated to Mr. dered, at an enormousexpence, to the pubRow, for publication, ) I feel mytelf lication of the books of my dear deceased called upon to step forward, and vindicate friend. I am confident, the public feel thern from the charge of imposition. Those themselves equally indebted to his exerpersons who suppoled them to be surrepti- tions in the cause of religion. I have tious, ruit have done fo from a knowledge only to add, that I have given up all the of that clause in Mr. T's will, which di- manuscripts I have found to Mr. Row, sects “ all the manuscripts of, and in his who will publish them in a seventh vo. own hand-writing, to be consumed by lume, as soon as a sufficient number of fire, within one week after his inter- subscribers shall be found: From my

It inust however be observed, that knowledge of the contents, I can assure 1. T. little thought, at the time of his the public, that for usefulness, sentiment, making his will, that he should perform, and language, they are not inferior to in part, this sad oince himielt, which he those published in Mr. Toplady's lifeactually did, aflisted by me.

We were

time. If any persons should itill entertain two days occupied in the business ; and doubts of their autherticity, they may, those few writings, which have eicaped by reference to Mr. Row, Great Marlthe flames, would doubtlets have shared borough-street, tee the MS. in the the fame fate as the ret, if it had not hand-writing of Mr. Toplady himself, or been for the intervention of the late Dr. upon application to me, I will give them Gifford, and the Rev. Mr. Ryland le- every fatistałtion in my power. I remain nior, of Northampton, who called to see your's, &c. WILLIAM HUSSEY. Mr. Toplady, during his i:Inets, and. Kenfrigion Gore, March, 1798. found him in the very act of dutroving his papers. They expressed their fincere To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. regret ilt this procedure, and endeavoured. is divert him from the further execution Whole works

of genius, with of his purpose. To this, Mr. Toplady, after it peated expetulations, ar length which German literature is now richly reluctantly convenied. Then, turning to stored. Yet we fail not to remark in




On the German Character....Stirn.

them, a wild extravagance of fancy, and on the other hand, the incredible jeaà morbid irritability of feeling, which lousy of his temper rendered him excefwe cannot easily suppose to be copied lively troublesome, as an inmate in the from nature. The feverish pride, the family. Ere he had been long here, he wild, maddening love, the imagination became acquainted with Mr. Matthew, extracting from every incident and ap- by whom he was invited, with offers of pearance, new means of forrow; make respectful treatment and a liberal falary, the Werter of Goethe, appear almost a to take up his

residence in his family, for being different in genus from those the purpose of instructing his wife and which romance and real life present to 11s daughter in music, and Mr. Matthew himin Britain. Schiller is equally ac self in the Greek and Roman classics. With counted to have, in his fine dramas, Mr. Matthew he had not long refided, overleaped the bounds of nature. Charles when he began to fancy, that mockery Moor, Fiesco, with the young hero and and infiilts were offered to him, which heroine of his “ Cabal and Love,ap- had no existence, fave in his own diftempear to us fo extravagant in all their fan- pered imagination. He became furioully cies and all their distresses, that we should querulous; and reciprocal ill-huinour not, probably, endure with patience, was naturally excited in the minds of their representation upon our stage. Mr. Matthew and family. Frequent ex

But, fome facts have fallen within my planations made Stirn, from time to time, knowledge, which incline me to believe, curse the gloominess of his own temper, that these characters must seem to the intreat pardon for his suspicions, and abGermans, for whom they were written, jure them in the deepest anguish of heart." to be sufficiently within the range of the Nevertheless were these lulpicions still probabilities of ordinary life. I have renewed on the very next moment, and had occasion to be acquainted with seve- ftill exasperated beyond their former rage. ral gentlemen from Germany, who have Matthew became at length no less ujust visited this country. I think that I have than Stirn ; in the madness of resentment, observed in them all, that generic character, he accuied the youth of attempting to leof which “ Werter,” and others ima- duce the affections of his wife, and of gined by Schiller, are but subordinate filching fome articles of his property i (pecies. They were men of virtue and then thrust him contemptuously out of learning, of elegant manners, of a certain doors. Stirn, utterly incapable of these generosity of nature, fitted to win affec- crimes, or indeed of any base and mein tion, and to command esteem. Bui, act, was driven, by this treatinent, to the their imaginations were uncommonly fer- laft frenzy of despair. He regarded himvid and romantic; their feelings were self as contaminated and debaled beyond pregnant with excessive sensibility; they the poisibility of restoration to honour, were, in their tempers, jealous of the by the very circunstance of any person's respect and attentions which they thought having dared 10 name such crimes in the their due, even to a degree that it was same breath with his name. Branded as impossible to satisfy; there seemed to a thief, and as a' feducer driven ignohang about them a wayward fickliness miniously out of doors; how should he of fpirit, unfitting them for the fober and continue longer in England ? how return uniform business of cominon life. In one to meet th eyes of his friends in Gerinany? of the early volumes of the old “ Annuel No; thus vile, he could not endure to live: Register," there is an affecting account of nor thould the author of his wees survive the trial, condemnation, and execution the wrongs which he had done him! of a youth, named Stirn, for the murder Having solicited a meeting with Mr. of a Mr. Matthew, which seems to con Matthew, in the presence of some comfirm, in a remarkable manner, this idea mon friends; the unfortunate youth of mine.

Stirn was a German youth, of seized an opportunity of shooting hiin extraordinary genius and accomplish through the head, and was, with diffiments, who had come into England to culty, prevented from confummating the seek a situation, in which his qualificz- fame violence upon himself.

He was tions might make his fortune. With then seized, conveyed to prison, brought: difficulty he obtained the employment of to trial, condemned to death. I do r.ot an usher in a boarding-school. His in- certainly remember, whether he did not, tegrity, the elegance and accuracy of his hy taking poifoli, withdraw himself knowledge, with his affiduity in teach- from the ignominy of a public executical. ing, made his afliiance exceedingly va I think, ipon recollection, that before luable to the reaser of the school, while, he resolved to affafinate Matthew, he


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