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1754 19.55


522 458 458








330 243 322





Table of Bankruptcies from 1748 to 1797.

179 milies to beggary and ruin*. Or it may Number of bankruptcies from the year happen, that those who profess themselves 1748 to the end of the year 1797. the admirers of order and good govern Year. Number, Year. Number, ment,” may find themselves in such a

1748 130

1773 507 dilemma, that either the placeman or the 1749


337 Stock-holder must be sacrificed ; and as 1790

17 5

350 self-preservation is the first law of nature, 1751 172


435 and places and finecures are freehold pro

153 1777

535 perty! it is easy to decide which

the 1753

242 1778 656 Icale will turn. Nay, there is even a

1779 class of aristocratic innovators, among



1756 whom perhaps may be found “ men of


1781 1757

274 large landed property, professional law.


1783 yers, clergy maintained by a religion

1759 254 1784 521 that inculcates honesty, and some British



502 fenators," who, under the mask of re


$10 form, aim only at the revival of the old


509 feudal system in a new Ihape ; and to



707 whose views, accordingly, the confisca 1764

1789 562 tion in question would considerably ad · 1765 239 1790 585 minifter. Let us hope, however, that a


1791 583 caadid investigation of the claims of the 1767 360


636 stock-holder, may place them on a foun


1793 1302 dation not to be taken by the rashness of

1769 344 1794


1770 the firft description of men, the cupidity



1771 433 1796 of the second, or the intrigues of the

17:2 third. Certain it is, that from whatever

1797 869 quarter (except one) such an attempt Total amount, from 1748 to 1797, 21,645 were to proceed, an obstinate civil war must be the consequence; while a fair · The year 1793, in which the present and equal representation of the people, war commenced, stands confpicuous; the might at once relieve the industry of the number of bankruptcies for that year nation from the enormous burthen, and amounting to one thousand three hundred satisfy the demands of the public credi- and two! To such an alarming extenç

had bankruptcy arrived in that


that March 2, 1798.

it threatened to involve consequences of

the most ferious national importance; and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

the interposition of the legislature was

thought necessary. To stop the tide of SIR,

bankruptcy, to restore private credit, and

thereby recover the energy of the national gazine has an extensive circulation in the commercial, as well as the literary of exchequer bills, at an interest of 2 (d.

commerce, parliament voted 5,000,000l. world, I am induced to submit the following article, with a list of the number per diem, or 16s. per ann. for the antitof commillions of bankruptcy (taken putation.

ance of houses of known solvency and refrom the London Gazettes) from the year 1748 to the end of the year 1797, to

It is scarcely more than four years

ago, (meaning the year 1793) says a ceyour coulideration.

lebrated writer, in a late treatise on * As far as I can learn, there are about

finance, “that such a rot of bankruptcy 60,000 ftock-holders of these, however, spread itteiforer London, that the whole it may be said, there are many who have commercial fabric tottered; trade and sther property, and who, of course, would credit were at a stand; and such were the not be entirely ruined by the act of injustice state of things, that to prevent, or sufunder contemplation. But what is to become pend a general bankruptcy, the governof the widows, the orphans, the wards of ment lent the merchants six* millions in chancery, the aged, the imbecile, that valt wain of helpless individuals, who have no

* This is an error: the actual fum granted Gher means of subsistence than their little by parliament was five millions; out of annuities in the locks? If there were no

which the micrchants of London received eller argument than common sympathy nearly one million; at Manchester, about against it, yet the heart of every benevolené 250,000l. 2t "Liverpool, 130,cool, and at 421 would recoil at the projekt.

Bribul, 40;00cl.



180 Queries on forged Bank-Notes..... Emendation in Aristotle. government paper; and now the merchants that a plan has been refused, by the Bank lend the government twenty-two millions Directors, which had been approved by in their paper!” Such, however, were himself, and Messrs. HEATH, SHARP, the effects of this temporary relief, that FITTLER, LOWRY, and BARTOLOzzi, the number of bankruptcies, which, in the as well calculated to lessen, if not premonth of May (the period of the greatest vent forgeries. number) amounted to 228, fell in June I have, among many others, been a to 165; and they still continued to de- sufferer by forgeries; in such cases the crease in July and August; in September Bank makes the person to whom they they diminithed, and were nearly, on a trace the note, pay the amount, without par with the numbers in September 1792; offering the fmallelt proof of its being'a they again, however, greatly increased forged one. in November, and have continued to in Xave the Bank a right to declare, that crease, more or less, ever since, as will a note which they trace back to me is be feen by the list. I am, indeed, afraid a forged one, and yet to offer no proof that this increase will be progressive, as that it is so? long as the present just and necesary war If it be a forged one, have they a. fhall continue.

right, and whạt right, TO KEEP IT, Although war, and other unforeseen without paying the amount ? accidents, indispensably swell the cata If a person has lost money in this way, logue of bankruptcy, and involve hun- has he a right to bring any action of dadreds of our honelt citizens in ruin; yetmages against the Bank, as having been it is to be lamented, that there are men the caule of his loss, by issuing notes who add no inconliderable nunber to the which any common engraver might copy, list more from motives of policy than from when they might have issued such as could necessity, and who flourish ainong the not be copied by any of the known arts of whereases; to the ablolute ruin of other engraving.

A SHOPKEEPER.. honest and industrious tradesmen. The Strand, February 13, 1798. French made a judicious distinction between bonkruptcy and failure ; the first To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR, bent ; and the latter as conftrained and I lin pyou far-known Magazine, an they considered as voluntary and fraudu

Hope you will permit me to insert, unavoidable, by means of unforeseen accidents.

emendation of a passage in Aristotle ; a Between these two characters there passage which all the critics and comouglit, certainly, to be some distinction; mentators seem to have overlooked. It the honeft man, who breaks in confe- is in the xviiith chapter of the second quence of misfortunes, cannot, with juf- book of his “ Art. Rhetor.” where he is tice, be placed, as he now is, on a level discoursing concerning the manners of the with the fraudulent bankrupt. In some rich: I do not think the common acceptacountries there is a law which condemns tion of the sentence right : it runs thus : a bankrupt, according to the French de- ο γαρ πλάτος, οιον τιμη τις επι της αξιας finition of the word, to wear green and

των αλλων. . The Stagyrite had said in other coloured caps, (at Lucca they wear the preceding fentence" Rich men are one of an orange colour) as a badge of disposed to be proud and infolent, as they' disgrace; perhaps, Mr. Editor, if such · suppose they have all things that are a law, under proper regulations, existed good, anaitos tayotce ;' in this next in this coumtry, it would, in some degree, then comes yap, which appears to have check the present rapid progress of bank no connection with the former period. ruptcy. I remain your's, &c.

Instead of


then, I would substitute 980: which iwo, in their abbreviated

state, are not very unlike one another ; To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and inftead of αλλων, I would put αυτων, SIR,

which is surely no great violation of text. I Have seen several articles in your past. The sentence now will run thus : “ rich

numbers, respecting forgeries on the men are disposed to be proud and insolent, Bank, one of which, in particular, sug- as they suppose they have all things gests the following queries, which I wish that are good; wealth then (in their some of your law correspondents to an- opinion) is, as it were, a certain glory, iwer, through the medium of your Ma or boast, arising from the e'timation of these gazine.

fame tbings that are good.' Mr. LANDSEER, the engraver, states,

W. C. H.



A ,

Description of New-York..

I&I For the Monthly Magazine. no sounds, fave those of the southern, A DESCRIPTIVE Account of New- breeze wafting us swiftly along, and of York'and its ENVIRONS, with OB- the gliding vessel foaming through the SERVATIONS on the INHABITANTS,

lucid waves, disturbed my reverie ! ab&c.

forbed in these pleasurable sensations, I

imperceptibly reached the place of anMR. EDITOR,

chorage in the east river, at dawn of day: T a period when the rising gran- here, along the numerous docks and America attracts universal admiration, them), the larger vessels usually load and a transient sketch of the flourishing city unload. On first perambulating the city, of New-York, may prove not unwelcome the most striking novelty which awakened to some of your readers : permit, there- iny attention, was the multitude of nefore, a voyager who lately made that groes and mulattoes, of both sexes ; maritime port his residence to present you whose appearance, however, bespoke with the following impartial lines. comfort and humane treatment. The

Having early imbibed a partiality in well-known accents of the English tongue favour of the new fæderal republic, I univerfally spoken here, strongly reresolved to cross the vast Atlantic, and minded me of good old England, while bid a temporary adieu to the worfe than a thoufand nameless incidents and reflecfavage warfare and tumultuous commo tions crowded on my memory, intertions that desolated unhappy Europe ! mingling regret with the satisfaction I I therefore took my paffage in an Amne- felt on being safe-landed on 'a kindredrican trader bound for New York, and shore! The extent and beauty, and popuafter a tedious and stormy passage of eight lation of New-York, accorded perfectly weeks, to my extreme fatistaction, I with the expectations I had formed: the found myself securely moored alongside latter is said to exceed 45,000, which I the quays of that celebrated city. To think not over-rated : the streets are in dwell upon the dangers of the voyage, general wide and regular, with wellthe defpondency arising from sea-sickness, paved foot-paths. The merchants and or the badness and scantiness of our fare, principal tradesmen chiefly inhabit Pearl is not my intention; I shall only caution and Water streets, which run, though others, who incline to make the same trip, rather irregularly, throughout the city; prudently to provide themselves with a but the handsomelt honies and public private stock of provisions, and not to edifices are near the Battery, and in truft alone to the cabin fare! Dr. Frank- Broadway, and the contiguous streets. lin wisely recommends the like precau- Broadway is undoubtedly the handsomelt tior : but I had not then read his whole- street in America, and for beauty of fitufome advice. Winter had commenced its ation, unrivalled perhaps in Europe! psual rigors, on our arrival off the Jersey The buildings, in the ancient parts of the Thore, and the keen north-westers fuf- town, are mostly Dutch-built, and gableficiently indicated the change of climate. end towards the street, but look neat ; Off Barney-gatt, a heavy gale drove us foine of their dates are of the last centuout to fea, after broaching our last calk ry, infcribed in confpicuous figures on of water! but fortunately it abated the their fronts: the modern houses are in third day, and a fair breeze springing up, the English style, and several of them wafted us merrily into our destined port. would not difcredit London itself, The night of our arrival was beautifully Cleanliness in the fuburbs, and docks, iş serene, though piercing coid; the moon- but ill-preserved; and, to this unsufferabeams thone resplendent, exhibiting in ble neglect, during the intense summerthe foftest colours, the highly romantic heat, the prevalence of dangerous fevers and variegated scenery around the mag- is probably owing:--at low-water, the nificent harbour of New-York-- per- stench occafioned by the efluvia ariíing spective in itself ever interesting and de- from the docks on the east river, is horrilightful to behold, and then rendered ble; and in their vicinity the fever always infinitely more fo, to one fo long accuf- conme.ces-an evident proof of the real tomed to the dull, cheerless, and unvary. caule; which abuse ought, and might ing scene of sky and water!-a coup d'æil calily be remedied, at a trifling expence To fublime, and at fo ftill, contemplative and labour, when compared with the an hour of the night, could not fail to health and safety of the public. Some of harmonize with my feelings, and predif- the churches are hand some structures, pore me favourably towards Columbia : with elegant spires. The new colle.


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New-York and its Vicinity. house in Water-street, appropriated to quays and upper part of the city, like, the purpose of an exchange, is a lofty, wife from the openings of the new streets handsome brick edifice. The governor's leading from Broadway. York Ifand is house, on the Battery, facing Broadway, connected with the main land at King'scan lay claim to no pretcullions for ele- bridge, about 12 miles from the city; gance of architecture, though large and the loil is generally barren, though in maffive. In the hospitals, neatness, good fomes places tolerably cultivated, and order, and humanity, prevail; greatly embellished with gentleinen's seats. On to the credit of the opulent New-Yorkers, Long Island I rarely found the soil fertile, who laudably vie in these and other pa- being for the most part rocky, fandy, kriotic institutions, with the Philadelphi- and Iterile," though Flat-bush, and fome ans and Bostonians. The', fociety of few spots are exceptions: the inhabitants Friends or. Quakers, who are here very feem an industrions, stout, hardy race, numerous, particularly merit coinmenda- chiefly of Dutch defcent: the Dutch tion, as being liberal benefactors and language is yet taught in their grammar. promoters of every benevolent-undertak- fchools, though English is the commen ing. Nothing delighted me more in this idiom. Farming is most productive on very pleasant, city, than its admirable the western part of the island, from its maritime htuation, and the picturesque vicinity to the metropolis, whose marvariety of its views. from several parts kets it regularly supplies with butter and of the city and environs : the finest may milk, poultry, fruit, vegetables, and be enjoyed from the Battery, the Belve- corn. This illand extends considerably dere, the North-river Baths, and from above, a hundred miles in length; the Brooklyn or Long Illand. The prospect breadth is trifling in proportion. Jamaica, from the Battery is really enchanting ! Broeklyn, and Flat-bush, are pretty Where the fortifications once stood, now villages. crazed, the area is adorned with the go New Town, or Newton, is a small vernor's house, and some elegant-modern place, remarkable for the excellent apbuildings, and tlx remainder laid down in ples, produced in its district: New-Town grass-plats and walks, shaded with trees. pippins being well known even in Europe. Both rivers are navigable for- vefsels Salisbury-Plais, in the centre of the of the largest bụrthen, as line of bat- idland, is noted for groute-fhooting, and tle ships frequently demonstrated during other games -and for the races held occathe last war. Hell-Gate is a dange- fionally there ; I-never-attended them, rous kind of a whirlpool in the eastern but understood they were forry enough! channel, fame few miles from the city; Rockaway, a bathing-place much freand requires an expert- pilot. The quented in the season, is near 30 miles Belvedere is an airy, elegant structure, from New York, on the southern shore near the city on the banks of the said of the island; here they often fish for and channel, (improperly termed the Eaft- çatch sharks, yet I never heard of acciriver, being merely an arm of the fea, dents to bąthers, from these varacious feparating the main land from Long tigers of the deep! A tolerable inn afFland) and fitted up as a house for pablic forded us some shelter froin the torment, entertainment and the convivial meetings ing mosquitos, that in niyriads infest the of the British club, at whole expence it sandy Shores and marthes of the island, was built. I had some opportunities of and are a vexatious drawback on the rural witnessing the zealous attachment of its pleasures resulting from a retidence on respectable members to the mother-coun- its pleasant farnis: these abominable try! Here the club occasionally give af- gnats pervadle all the coasts, of the semblies: this delightful spot is aptly United States, and are exceslively trounamed the Belvedere, the perspective from blesome, particularly, to strangers, as bence being exquisitely fine, especially at I wofully experienced: far inland, where the vernal season; when the innumerable the soil is elevated and dry, and theorchards on Long Illand are in full blos- country cleared of . wood, they are fom, and the well cultivated hills along almoft unknown. They seldom make its finely-indented shores then appearing their appearance in New-York city till in their molt luxuriant beauty. The July or August, and disappear early in harbour, and its verdant islands, and the October; but in the Jerfies they nearly eastern-channel, are seen to particular ad- devour the traveller, from April to Novantage from the assembly-room of the vember: I have seen their women and Belvedere. The best views of the ro- . children, especially those of a fair commantic Hudson, are from the western plexion, covered with their bites, and



New-Yerk... Inhabitants.... Amusements, & Ca 183 infamed to that degree, as if they had lihood, be rare, would the women use had the mealles, In the city of New. more exercise, and a more generous diet. York, the climate is undoubtedly very. To conclude with respect to climate, the healthy, notwithstanding the extrémes of American authors themselves acknowheat and cold to which it is subject, in ledge, that their winters may be comcommon with the rest of the United States; pared to the Norwegian, the spring to the air is pure and reviving, except du- that of England, summer to Egypt, and ring the fultry dog-days; but the tervid autunun to Italy: The ferry or Paulusheat of the summer and autumnal sealons is Hook, at the Hudio's mouth, is congreatly mitigated by the refreshing whole- fiderably above a mile wide; tome genlome lea-breeze, and the currents of air tenien's leats on that lide, interfperted from either river. At all seasons the sky is among the rocks and woods, have a generally ferene ; on an average, I believe very pretty effect, viewed in perspeca that nine months out of the year may be tive from the city and in winter, the reckoned clear fair weather ! coniequent- luge males of floating ice and congealed ly, to robust conftitutions, able to en- now, flowing down the Hudson, have dure luch extremes of heat and cold, the a singular and grand appearance. This American climate may be more desirable noble Itream is navigable for ships of than our own gloomy, variable, and rainy conliderable tonnage, as far as the new atmosphere. The natives, however, do city of Hudion, 130 miles from its not appear to wear so well as the English, mouth, and for linaller veffels up to Al. and other northern people of Europe; to bany. The Aourishing trade and imme they looked, in general, fuil ter proving cultivation along its banks, am. years older than they actually were, and, ply evince the growmg prosperiiy and feldom have that bloom lo common with itrength of the state. As the north-river

Their premature lots of teeth is ad. coinmands the trade and navigation of an most proverbial, which detect I attribute extentive back-country in this and Verrather to their exceflive use of animal mont States, it does the eastern-channel food, spirituous liquors, and molafles that of Connect: ut, Long-Idland, and than to any malignant or injurious qua- Rhode-Ilanı, ci Providence-rlantation; lity of the climate. I have never leen thus the city of New-York is alike adhandlomer men than several of the New. mirabiy situated for home and foreign York gentlemen and Long-Iland tar- commerce, tor calth and pleasure, t'te mers; tall of itature, portly and well. gant and commodious packets continu. made, they evidently have not degene- ally fail between Newport in Rhoderated from their ancestors --but the land, and this city. Tue fashionable ladies are puny, pale, or fallow, and lounge in New York, during the hot foon look old; probably owing to their summer months, is on the battery, where Jiftless, inactive life, and immoderate in the reviving tea-breeze, and delicious dulgence of tea, and thin chocolate, and ice-creains, combine their exhilarating jucn like enervating flops: they dread powers to invigorate the languid ipirits the approach of summer, and well they of the beaux and belles, after a fcorching may! for the thermometer ranges in the day; and a charming fight it is tron thade from May till October, usually thence, to contemplate the radiant sun between and 80 and 90 degrees, fome- fetting in the glowing west, or the pale cines higher, as I myielf have observed moon-beams quivering on the furiace of it in the months of July and Auguft: in the beauteous waters! To enhance the lhe middle of May, at Philadelphia, I variety of the evening scene, fometimes found it in the shade at 86: at New- thips are perceived crowding fail, almal York it was some degrees lower-it not clule to the battery, outward or homeunirequently falls or zilies from 20 to 30 ward bound, while the gaping and buzzdegrees, within 24 hours! lush violent ing inultitude cheer the adventurous maand ludden vicillitudes of temperature, riners, or inhale the fort breathing zemuit be exceedingly trying to delicate phyrs, forgetting, for a while, the toils conftitutions, and calily accounts for the and cares of the buly day! I am unacpremature old age, lo obfervable in the quainted with a more charming promeUnited States. Confumptious and tevers nadt, unless, indeed, the Steyne at Brighare the most prevalent difcates in New- ton, on a fine tumnier evening, may be York: the latter might be obviated, by compared to it-each has its respective keeping the city sweeter near the water, beauties. fide, and the former would, in all like. The New-Yorkers, in their habits of MONTHLY MAG. No. XXIX. life, partake of the Englith and Dutch



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