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SIR,

B.

1798.]

Problem.... Tour in Ireland. previous attention will be sufficient, as the The diftance from the fore whence rejected books must have been perused by you embark to that on which you land is the members who vote against them, and about twenty leagues, and the paffage, a large proportion of these members must which is a very safe one, varies of course agree in cpinion before the rejection can in point of time, according to a favourable take place

vr unfavourable wind; sometimes being In hopes of seeing these hints in your made in fix and at others not ir 48 hours; next Magazine, I remain, fir,

but the general average paffage is from Your constant reader, twelve to twenty-four hours. Whenever LIBER. the packet arrives near the Irish cual,

which in consequence of the packet geTo ibe Editor of the Monibly Magazine.

nerally failing in the evening, is about.

sun-rise, Dublin Bay presents itself to I WILL thank any of your philofophi. the view, being one of the most delightful

cal correspondents for a solution of the and picturesque scenes in the world. Infollowing problem:

deed its splendid appearance has never Place i svo velfels of equal capacity, one been questioned by any traveller, nor has on the ground, and another elevated cven a parallel been drawn between it thirty feet in the air, during a shower of and any other view, except that of the rain; when it is over, the vefiel on the Bay of Naples ; and connoisseurs are still ground will be found to contain nearly a undetermined to which of the two the third' more in quantity of water than preference ought to be given. It presents the other. The fact has been ascertain a long range of diversified mountains, en ed by numerous experiments, but never riched by a multiplicity of beautiful de. Lariséatorily explained.

mefnes, which, when thus bespangled

with the beams of the morning sun, canFor ibp Montbly Magazine.

not be delineated with equal beauty by A TOUR FROM LONDON TO DUB: Thefe mountains begin from the water's

the pencil of the most scientific artist. LIX AND SOME OTHER PARTS OF IRELAND; VIZ. THE COUNTIES fuccellion for many miles, until, in the

edge, and gradually and proudly rise in KILDARE AND WICKLOW, IN THE SUMMER OF 1797. beuven.

language of Othello, Their tops touch

In the midst of this apparent MR. EDITOR,

distance, but nearer the bottom of the My present intention is to give through Scene, is discovered the city of Dublin

the ) zine ) an impartial view of some parts of indeed it is to be lamented, are fo few, at Ireland in its present state, which I hope the same time that this view of Dublin is will not prove unentertaining or altoge. the most unfavourable which can be taken. ther unworthy the attention of your nu The most eligible is that which presents merous readers; and as a description of itself from the Phoenix Park, a place thore parts of Ireland which I fall men- westward of Dublin, of which I fall tion is my lole object, I thall not dwell speak hereafter. As you approach near upor such parts of England and Wales as the capital, you behold that grand proI pats through on my route, but notice 'montory, the hill of Howth, proudly prothem so far only as they are subfervient jefting into the sea upon the right hand ; to the dehgn of this paper.

while upon the left, or to the southward, From London then, through Kew,Rich.' and a little nearer the capital, is the Ca. mund, Staines, Windsor, Henley-upun. foon; or light-houfe, very handsome Thames, Oxford, and Blenheiin, 1 pro- circular building, raised in the ocean, Give ceeded to Shrewsbury. Thence I'din miles from Dublin. Upon this extent, rected my course through those beautiful which runs five miles into the fea, there parts of North Wales, Llangollen, is now completed a great wall of duraLlanwit, Conway, Bangor, and Bangor ble stone-work, rising about ten feet Ferry, as far as to Holy-head, where I above high water mark, and thirty feet embarked on board one of his majesty's wide upon the surface. This great un. packets for Dublin. This veffet fets fail dertaking is of the most effential service every evening (Tuesday excepted) as soon to fhips trading to and from Dublin, as after the arrival of the Irish mail from it prevents a great bank of Aoating land London (which is generally about fix which lies to the fouthward, from joino'clock in the evening) as the tide will ing with another similar bank to the permit.

northward, called the North Bull, which MONTHLY MAG. XXVII.

D

OF
MADE

18
Tour in Ireland.

[Jan. has been, and fill in tempestuous weather steps. Over this colonnade is a pediment, continues to be, extremely injurious, and upon which is erected three ftatucs sometimes fatal to trading vessels, which larger than life, excellently sculptured in are not perfectly acquainted with the en Portland stone, representing WISDOM, trance into this harbour. This wall thus JUSTICE, and LIBERTY. It is, howkeeps the mouth of the harbour from bc- ever, a circumstance no less extraordinary ing choked up. Three milespearer than true, that although this expensive Dublin, at a place called the Pigeone eattern front was designed for the grand house, and situated upon this wall, the entrance of the Lord Lieutenant, when packet lands her passengers in a fine and he proceeds to parliament to open and newly erected dock, where now also a close the feflions, as well as to give the very spacious hotel is nearly compleated, royal aflent to fuch bills as the Irish parinto which the passengers can intantly liament encet, yet nor any Lord Lieute retire upon landing; a circumstance hi- nant has ever entered the Irish house of therto much wanted by all persons re- peers through the fuperb porrico since forting to that part of the filter kingdum. those faid three ftatues of WISDOM,

In committing my observations upon justice, and LIBERTY have been the city of Dublin to paper, I shall begin erected, but he proceeds in his usual state with the public buildings, and firit with through the old front, which bas never the Parliament-houte, the fouth front of barn decorated with any of those emblems. which has, for many years, been the ad.. To which we may add, that this handmiration of all who are well skilled in ar. fome, though uncorretponding, eastern chitecture. It is composed of a mafly co- frunt, is joined to the south front, by an lonnade of the Ionic order ; the bile of unmeaning heavy curtain-wall. A few every column being three feet fix inches ycare a!ter this portico was raised, the in diameier. These columns all spring House of Commons was resolved to have a from an elevated platforin, to which you front erected to the weltward of the ascend by a light of steps, which' do building, as if determined not to be out, not, as is too often the case, tamely rest donc by the lords ; and, accordingly, a upon the base of the column, but are re coinmittee of the guardians of the public gularly elevated upon the pedt fial truly parfe was appointed to fix' and deterbelonging to that order of archite&turi, inine upon a plan and elevation. A werand thus giving the whole order' in per- tern front indeed they did erect. But fection. Independent of the entrance in how ? Not like either the south or the the centre of this colonnade, the çastern east front; but one designed by themand western extremities of this front pre- selves, forming a porrico, conhlting of sent you with a bold proje&ivn of the four columns of the lonic order, and fante colonvade, continued for many feet,' much inferior to those in the fouth ; 20 and forming two other grand insulated which grand front, however, they have

connected it, by a range of unmeaning About twelve years ago, it was thought columns projecting about fix feet beyond expedient to take away a little of the another clumsy currain-wall. Thus is overflowing money from the Irish crea- this once grand, and now expensive pile, fury, and with it to erect a new front to of building, rendered, by the jarring opis that part of the building called the nions of lords and commons, one of the House of Lords. For this purpose a com. most heterogençous edifices ever erected. mittee of these hereditary counsellors of The inside of the Irish House of Lords the crown was appointed, and a plan and is something similar to that at Westmin. clevation was proposed, which was carri. fter. The walls are hung with tapiftry, ed into execution, and finihed in 3791. finely executed, representing King Wild This now forms the east front of that liam at the battle of the Boyne ; but the building: and had this eastern front been inside of the Irish House of Commons is a erected in any place unconnected with very beautiful structure of an octagonal other buildings, it certainly would de, forn, round which there is a large and ferve to be celebrated, as it is composed commodious gallery for spectators. Coof a very handsome portico, consisting of lumns which support a fine dome, fpring fix columns in a fancied order, nearly re- from this gallery, and between those cofembling, but not exactly, the Corinthian. lumns, in the front of the gallery, is an This portico has no pedestals springing handsome balustrade. This House of from the base of the column, which refts Commons, which is just finished, is, with apon a platform, elevared by three stone a little improvement, fimilar to one

which

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1798.]
Metronariston defended.

19
which was destrored by an accidental fire Mekerchus, is not a rhyming hexameter.
on the 27th of February, 1792, and It is not only rhyming, but doubly 'rhym.
which food upon the fame site.

ing: as perfectly fo, as Dublin Castle, the feat of the resident

Suader.do ftuliis oleum disperdere vultis ? Lord Lieutenant, is a very handsome and commodious palace. I's beauty, how- or any other leonine verse. But having ever, has been much injured by the pre- learned, it should seem, from the prosodi sent Marquis of Buckingham,' both ex- cal dissertation to which he infers, that ternally and internally; exerially, by the tivo last syllables of uxori form a stopping up a very chatte and light ar spondee; and continuing in his vicious cade in the principal front, when he was habit of reading as a trochee the two last there in 1783 as Earl Temple, which fyllabies of prori, which form a fpondee now, has an dious appearance, and is, at also, himself viciates the rhyme. And if the same time, rendered totally areless ;

he had not read with

great inattention, and internally, when he was Lord Lieu- he would have seen, that (directly contenant there in 1783, by converring a trary to his assertion !) the detaching or magnificent hall at the top of the great feparating, in pronunciation, any fýllaftrir-case, at that time called the Battle. ble from a word, is disapproved : and axe Guard- hall, into a presence cha'ni er. that even in the scanning, according to This apartment is totally unnecefla y, as the method there recommended, the prior to this there was a moft excellent very tyliable he mentions, the last in one ; and instead of the former grand en- uxori, would not be separated from the trance, you must now pass through a preceding syllable. lobby which was before merely the land As to the “ Formal Attack," which ing (as it is called in architecture) of the H. M. seems to threaten, it had nced to great stair-cale, which at prelent refem- be conducted with cofiderable skill and bles the confined lobby of a decent prison. power, if he hopes with any effe:ct to He has, indeed, caused some allegorical coun-eract the public approbation which pictures to be placed in the cieling of the the revived doctrine of Mekerchus has ball-room. This room, in honour of the obtained, and to dislodge it from the order of knighthood of St. Patrick, and in strong-hold it occupies, in the countewhich upon that day, viz the 17 of nance already given to it by one of the March, 1783, the knights of that order first, if not the first, of the schools of redined, has been called, since the first in- putation in the kingdom. stallation, St. Patrick's Hall. The muta,

Were it not beside the question, a good bility of public favour was, perhaps,

defence might be made for the rhymes, never more predominant than in the two though nothing can be said for the style, periods of that nobleman's administration of the trochaic couplet, by (as H. M. in Ireland. For in the year 1783, when properly expresses himself) a wortby fahe resided there as Earl Temple, he ren

bricator of birth-day odes ; for no one dered himself the idol of the Irish nation ; ought to be able to write in a better style but in the years 1788-9, when he was

who would accept an office fo degrading there as Marquis of Buckingham, he be: letters as a laureateship-worthily refused came to the same people progreslively ob. by that sterling poet who has to elegantly noxious; privately quitted the kingdom, taught, that from a small sea bathing place near Dub; Virtue's an ingyt of Peruvian gold, lin, called the Black Rock, and carried Sense the bih vre Potosi's mi es unfold; with him the censure of the Iiqh House But Timper's im.g: mult ei eir use create, of Commons, which record remains upon And give ihefe pre, i jus il.etals sterling weight. the Journals of that House to this very hour.

&c. W.S*, [To be contri ucd.] To the Editor of the Monibly" Magazine, tention to discontidue the controversy on the

[* When in our lat. we announced our ini

fuiject of Metronaristus, one short 'letter, YOUR correspondent, H: M. (page he e inserte ), had escaped our not.ct. For

193, of a late Magazine) asserts, the fake of the two p.eces of informathat

tion wich it contains, we now give it place. Vir, precor, uxori, frater, sucurre, forori,

Editors.] when read according to the doctrine of

I am,

SIR,

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Inflammation of Pyrophari.

[Jan. THEORY OF THE INFLAMMATION berg and Lemery supposed, that the preOF PYROPHORI.

sence of calcareous earth in the mixture To tbe Editor of the Montbly Magazine. was the cause of the inflammation. Le Jay SIR,

de Savigny imagined the mixture 10 cinI

SEE, with great pleasure, that you taina glacial oil of vitriol, which, attracving

are extremely fuccessful in your at. moisture from the atmosphere, gradually tempts to cook up the utile with the dulce. heated the mafs to inflammation by this The public relish the dish. Nay, I be. means, Mr.Bewly, in a letter to Dr. Priestlieve, there never was a Scotsman fonder ley, ascribes the same effect to the presence of hi haggice, por a Englishman of his of a principle in the Prophorus, by which beef-sleak, nor a Spaniard of his ollu there is nitrous acid attracted from the podrida, nor an Italian of his macaroni, almosphere. Others have conjectured, ihan are all those among my neighbours, that the combustion of pirosporus by (pon. who are thought connoisseurs in the food taneous inflammation, might be owing to of the mind, of the Monibly Magazine. its always containing in it a quantity of You cannot be ill-pleased to know, that phosphorus.

But none of all there your Miscellany has found its way as theories has been received in he world far north as did Cromwell's soldiers, and as completelv just and satisfactory. English cabbages, in the middle of the Now, fir, I think I can exhibit a new Jast century; and is read with eagerness and peculiar theory of the relarions of this on the classic grounds of Macbeth, and of curious chemical phenomenon, of which Ofiar.

the friking truth and fimplicity ihall nut It is not, however, a classic matter, but fail to command the immediate affent of a small chemical trifle, with which I now all intelligen: chemifts. with to trouble you. There is a particu In combustion in general, the principal lar compofitivn, known to cheniifts by thing that always takes place is the new the name of pyrophorus, because it poto combination of oxygen on the one hand, fesses the property of being liable to spon- with carbon, cr fome dift. rene narter, on taneous inflammation in the open air. the other hand. The oxygen for thås It was composed by Homberg, apothecary new combination is usually detached out and chemift to the famous regent duke of its union with light and caloric in viral of Orleans, by the distillation of aluin air. The light and caloric which it with the rendue of human excrement. Referts, are, in conf«quence of this defer. There are very many vegetabiçs and tion, commonly evolved int.: a momentaanimal matters which, if treated with rily free tiate, in which they prefent aluin, afford this pyropborus. It may be themselves to our fenfes, as heat and obtained from the greater number of fame. But carbon and other combustible rhose Talts which contain sulphuric acid matters cannor, in every temperature, nor in union with whatever case. "M. Prouft in every state of aggregation, detach has even proved, that any substance con oxy: en uyt of viral air, and by its abftractaining carbonaceous matter, in union tjon produce an evolution of heat and with an carth or oxyde, is fusceptible of fame. It is necessary, in order to this this spontaneous combustion in the air. eyenı, that the carbon or other combusti. It is now communly prepared by meling ble marter be, where it is prefented to three parts of alum with one part of the contact of the vital air, contiderably sugar, honey, or meal, exposing the comminuted; and that the vital air exmelted, cooled, and hardened mixture, a hibited to it be, at the same time, fuperfecond time, to hear, till it be kindied to calorated, in such a manner, as that the burn for a few inoments, with a blueith ordinary mutual attractions of its ingre. Aame; then cooling the matter thus dients may be greatly werkened by the burned, and preserving in a dry fizik, fuper-caloration. In this state alone of closely flopped, to be used as propborus, the respective substances, does the pheExposure to the atmosphere brings it in: nomenon of combustion usually take place. Itantly to 'burn with a fame fufficiently But there are oxygenous compour ds in vivid. The more humid the air, to which the oxygen is much more slightly much ihe more readily does this infiam. combined thin it is in vital air: and it is mation take place,

possible to exhibit carbon to oxygen in To account for a phenomenon fo re. some states which thall be more favour. markable, as the pontaneo

neous inflamma, able to combustinn than others. In cer, eion of this propborris, chemists have sain liates of most of the acids and the offered: Teveral different theoriesz

, which metallic oxydes, oxygen undeniably exists are alınost all alike unsatisfactory. Hom. in them, in a very loose combination..

Destroya

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1798.]
Electric Property of India Rubber.

21 Destroy, as much as possible, the aggrega- same time, is a little fingular ; but it may tion of these acids and oxydes; and let in a degree account for che apparent plathe aggregation of the carbon, which is giarisms in the writings of people whose to be brought into contact with them, be, pursuits" are similar. About the time that in a like manner, destroyed. · Mix these your correspondent oblersed the electric two comminuted substances together, and fluid accafioned by the fri&tion of India the mixture will be always a pyropurus, rubber upon paper, 1, also, accidentally if the feebleness of the combination of noticed similar effects, which I commus the oxygen in the oxyde and the acid, nicated in November last, to a fociety for together with the comminution and the experiments in natural philof phy, of commixture of the carbon and the oxy. which I am a member, in this place. genous compound, be particularly fa. Previous to this, I had written a letter, vourable to combustion, in the faine prc. with an intention of sending it to you ; cise degree with the comminution and but being delirous of making farther ckthe fuper-caloration of ordinary cales : périmenes, I deferred sending it. but the presence of air is necessary to the From the different experiments I have fpontaneous inflammation of this pyropbo- made, it appears to me, that your correrus; because only air can begin combus- spondent is mistaken, if, by saying "the tion, and make it not tacit, but per- property belonging to the elastic relin," ceptible, by means of light and fame. If he supposes that the c!e&tric fluid is pronot bezore ibe air be presented, yet at duced from the India rubber. I apprelealt almost as soon as it presented, the hend it will be found to proceed from the tempe.ature, necessary to the decompof- substance on which the paper is laid to be rion of vital air, is already excited. Mois- rubbed upon, for if it be laid upon a quire cure in the atmosphere is favourable to of paper, a deal table, a piece of leather, the inflammation of propborus, for the or parchment, which are very weak nonsame reason for which water poured in electrics, no effect, or very little, will be {mall quant ties upon a strong fire, rather produced, not more than if laid on a plare feeds than tends in extinguish the flame. of glass, which is an electric; on a linen The water or vapour is decomposed into cloth laid on a table, more will be observits constituent parts; and these aid the ed ; and, if laid on the following subcombustion.

stances, the electric power will be very "1. Pyropborus, therefore, burns fpon. perceptible, and, I believe, more and more taneoufly with accels of air, because it in the order of enumeration ufed, viz. a contains oxygen in fo loose a combina- smooth stone, a mahogany board, a board tion, and in such mixture with carbon, painted yellow, a board painted chocolate, that these advantages towards inflamma. ä bcard painted white, a plate of iron, &c. tion are fully equivalent to that super It is to be understood, that in every caloration which is produced in ordinary experiment the paper must be warmed a combustions by the application of free, little, and if the substance on which it is external heat.

laid to be rubbed be a good conductor, a “ 2. All mixtures are susceptible of spark of a considerable length may be fpontaneous inflammarion, in which oxy: drawn from it (hence an easy criterion to gen and combustible matters are mingled judge of the best non-electrics.) together, with the above advantages. The paper may be held by one corner,

Such is my humble theory of the fpon- and raited from the table, or whatever it taneous inflammation of fyropvori. may lie upon,' while under the strokes of I am, fir,

the rubber (of which a few will be suffiAn adinirer of your Miscellany, cient) when the spark may be drawn. And your very humble fervanit,

If the India rubber, or any other elec

J. M‘0. tric, be applied to the excited paper, it Inverness Academy, Dec. 12, 1797. will discharge itself immediately; but the

cracking noise made when discharged by a To the Editor of tbe Montbly Magazine. non-eleětric, will not be heard, SIR,

The property of exciting paper does In your Magazine for haft month, I was not belong exclusively to India rubber;

a little surprised at the communication alınost any substance, either electric or of your correspondent, " Thomas How. non-electric, will produce the electric ly," on the subject of the electric “ pro. Auid, if applied to paper as a rubber, perly belonging to India rubber.'. though not quite so much as India rubber:

That two people fhould accidentally amongst many other substances which I Stumble upon the fame discovery, at the have tried, with the same effect, I men

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