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On the Author of the Poems afcribed to Ezekiel. 189 Roams round the fences that the prize con-, cles of Ezekiel are genuine throughout, tain,

that the collective fragments ascribed to And madly rages at the flock in vain: him, were all really written by this poet. Thus, as ch' embattled tow’rs the chief de- A dissonance of character in these comscries,

pofitions, invites rather to embrace an. Rage fires his soul; and Aafkes from his eyes. opposite suspicion.


Whoever reads the first twenty-four The impotent råge of the assailant, chapters of Ezekiel, will be itruck with and the security of these lodged within the identity of manner which pervades the walls, could scarcely, in all the them. The poet is evidently a man of range of nature, have met with an ap er vigorous and busy imagination, but of comparison

low and ignoble taft:; prone to ideas A striking circumstance of character physically and morally (c. iv. and c. in the wolf has fuggested to Virgil a xxiii.) obfc.ne. He appears to know Jefimile applied to the cowardly Aruns, rufalem and its vicinity, and the banks who, after inflicting a mortal wound on of the Chebar, (Chaboras) from CarcheCamilla with his javelin, affrighted at mish (Kerkisieh) to Tel-abib (Thallahis own deed, fhrinks back in flight. ba): -.with the rest of the world he beAc velut ille, prius quam tela inimica se- trays little acquaintance. His favourite quantur,

forinula is to begin with a parallel, or Continuo in montes sese avius abdidit altos, allegory, which he leaves awhile wholly Occiso pastore lupus magnove juveneo, enigmatical, and then explains by the Conscius audacis facti, caudamque remul- narration of a corresponding event. (c.v. iens

c. viji. &c.) He is a diffose writer : not Subjecit pavitanteni utero, filvefque pecivit. content to indicate, he compleats all his

Æn. xi. 8o9. images ; describes from head to foot, with A8 when a prowling wolf, whose rage has needlers detail and industrious circumfiain

ftantiality; and, instead of selecting the Some stately heifer, or the guardian swain, Flies to the mountain with impetuous fpeed, tire procession of his thoughts. Of his

finest groupes, parades before us the enClaps clore his quivering tail between his writing, the general * tenour is didactic, thighs,

and invites the perufal of fellow-captives. Ere yet the people country round him rise. From the xxvch to the xxxiid chapter

Pitt. inclusive, a distinct and loftier vein of poeIt is but justice to observe, that the try prevails. Nothing low, or spun-out; strong expreflion of the lait line but

here requires apology. All is dignified, in the translation, is copied from Dry fimple; concise, sublime. A profusion of deas,

geegraphical knowledge is fedulously difMilton could be no more than an imis played ; such as might be expected from tator in chuing the Wolf for an object

a professed historiographer of the camof compariton; but the appiication in paigns of Nebuchadrezar, and from the the following limile is new, and the re

companion of his marches. These poems

all relate one or other enterprize of the feinblance very perfect. It refers to Satan, leaping with a bound over the king of Babylon; and seem rather adwall of Paradise..

drelled to metropolitan readers than to As when a prowling wolf captive Jews. They were evidently writWhom hunger drives to seek dew haunt for the moment of the blockade of Tyre,

tan on the four of the occasion; since, at Prey, Watchi:g where shepherds pen their flocks the poet does not hesitate to threaten its

capture, (c. xxvii.) but, in a subsequent In huriled cotes amid the field secure,

poem, we find (c. xxix. v. 18.) that the Lcaps v'er the vence with eale into the fold. liege had been unsuccessful, and that the

Par. L. xiv. 183. king was marched forward to Egypt. For

this miscalculation, for this want of fore

sight, the poet apologizes, and addressing For the M


himself to the king of Tyre, fays nearly: CONCERNING THE AUTHOR OF SOME

" It is true, I called your resistance POEMS ASCRIBED TO EZEKIEL.

proud, but I perceive you estimated

rightly your strength; you were wifer PROFESSOR Eichhorn (Einleitung

I ins' alte Testament, vol. 3, p. 174.) * The xixth chapter indeed, might pass for bas fupported the opinion, that the ora- fragnient of Jeremiah.




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Author of Ezekiel... Mr. Housman's Tour. than 1.” And, on this occasion, the poet ters of Ezekiel, have also the appearance names himself (c. xxviii. v. 3.) Daniel. of official war-songs. The two latter eviIt is worthy of remark, that these poems dently relate to an expedition against the minutely agree in character with the later Scythians. Some hesitation will be felt oracles* afcribed to Isaiah, and with the in ascribing the series of five chapters 'xlvith to list chapters of Jeremiah. uninterruptedly to Daniel; as the xxxviith Thexxxvth,xxxviiith,and xxxixth chap- chapter is much in the file of Ezekiel.

Now it is not at all improbable, that ** Isaiah Aourished under Uzziah one year, the celebrated Daniel was a sort of poet. under Jotham 16 years, under Ahaz 16 years, laureat to Nebu * Khadrezar; that he and under

. Hezekiah about 14 years; to which attended his expeditions, and composed if we add 25 years, before which age he would scarcely have assumed the prophetic of songs of triumph or regret over the shiftfice, we may fuppose him to have lived about ing icenery of his enterprizes. Daniel, 72 years. of the many, oracles ascribed to

and the other hostages selected on the first him, he first nine chapters allude to persons reduction of Jerusalem, appear to have of his own æra, and to events within his ob- imbibed, in the Chaldean schools, a servation; they have the common character steady alliance to the court of Babylon; of the poetry of his country about that time; for he is described, by his legendary they are such as might be expected from the biographer (Danicl ii. 48.), as in high son of the grazier at Tekoa, and may safely favour with his sovereign. be considered as written by him.

Inasmuch as these observations have " With the tenth chapter of the work weight, they tend to authorize the segrebearing his name, begins poetry of a much higher order, the production of a mind more

gation of a very fine set of oracles froin refined by culture: the ideas take a more

those of Ilaiah, Jerezniah, and Ezekiel, comprehensive range: in geography, in his

and the ascription of them to Daniel. tory, the poet is more learned: with Babylon and its vicinity, he seems familiar ; with

TOUR OF ENGLAND, Cyrus, and every minute particular of the demorable fiege, he is correctly acquainted;

(CONTINUED). in the arts of composition he is an adept; his Journal of a Tour through almost everycounty Style paces with the measured step of grace;

in England, and part of Wales, by Mr.JOHN his wide genius is equal to the boldest foar,

HOUSMAN, of Corby, near Carlisle; who and seems to forefeel the immortality to

was engaged to make the Tour by a gentlewhich it was born. Now it is certain, that the

man of distinction, for the purpose of colxyth and xvith chapters of these oracles, are

lecting authentic information relative to not the work of Isaiah. They allude to the

the state of the poor. The Journal consfall of Moab, and were written (xvi. 14.)

prises an account of the general appearance within three years of its destruction. But

of the country, of the soil, surface, buildMoab was overthrown (Josephus, Ant. x.9.)

ings, &c. with observations agricultural, about five years after the taking of Jerusalem

commercial, &c.
by Nebuchadrezzır, or his servants, and a
long century after the death of Isaiah.

its fine breed of cattle and sheep,
" It remains, then, to consider these and These animals have lately been mproved
all the subsequent chapters, as an anthology,
by various uncertain hands; or from the iden- fpirited farmers in the north of that

to a great degree of perfection by some tity of charactez (and that of no common nor imitable kind) which-pervades them, to af county; among whom the late Mr. cribe them to some one later author. If this Bakewell, of Dishley, was the leader. resource be preferred, us in reason it ought, That gentleman selected the best ewes it might be contended, that the work af, from Lincolnshire, and cows from Lancribed to Daniel, cannot be his (Collins cashire ; he continued to breed from the

Siheme of Literal Propbecy, p. 149, &c.) but faine fock, fill picking the finest boned,
is a posterior writing, probably as late as An- belt Shaped, and liich of the animals as
tiochus Epiphanes: that the existence of this
legend, ro less than the testimony of Eze * Nebu is possibly the Persian nayb, a mere
kiel, is a proof of the high traditional repu- title occurring also in the names Nabonaflar,
tation of Daniel, włoich must have had fome Nubopolaflar, Nebuzaradan, sc. Khadrezar
cause; that the composition of these poems seems to be the mode of writing, in Babylon
is a probable cause ; and that the trains of lçtters, the old Aramic word for Kibofrown,
idea prevailing in them, are fuch as his Khosroes, or Cyrus, which the modern Sy.
time, his place, bis circumstances, would pe rians'

s'yet express by Kezra ( D' Anville's L'Ex-
culiarly tend to suggeft: and, consequently, pbrute & le Tigre, p. 121.) The orthogra-
that the name of Daniel mould once again be phy of Jercmish and Ezekiel is, therefore,
prefixed.” Monthly Rca içme, vol. XXII. preferable to that of Kings ani Chronicle
9. 491.

whicl read Nebuchadnczzat.


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Mr. Housman's Tour.... Northamptonshire.

Igr were most inclined to fatten, for future when such a sudden change in the agribreeders, till he was acknowledged, by cultural system happens, as that which able judges, and by common experience, has recently occurred in this county; but to poffels the best and most profitable that inconvenience will decrease by desheep and cattle in the kingdom. The grees, till it wholly disappears. ---Leiprices he fold them for were most asto- cestershire seems, in general, to have a mishing. It is faid that one ram brought strong foil ; the surface uneven, and in him 1200 guineas in one season ; a cow some parts rather hilly; the air pure, but of his breed. has been fold for 260 gui- not fo much water as might be wished; neas, and a bull was let for 152 guineas, nor are the roads so pleasant as in fome for four months only. These improved less fertile counties. But notwithstandbreeds are now very deservedly beginning ing these inconveniences, I have not hito spread into molt parts of the kingdom. therto, teen any county which, upon

the The sheep are usually sold to the butchers whole, appears to afford so many defiraat two years old, for 21: 155. each. In ble objects in a country residence. Leicestershire they experience fome incon August 29, . Brixworth to Northampvenience for want of turnips ; a few ton, fix miles.--A pleasant level country, farmers send their sheep into the neigh- and rather woody. The people reaping bouring connties to winter on that root, wheat ; a great deal of that grain prowhich generally costs about 55. 6d. or 6s. duced here, and very good: turnips are each for twenty weeks. The expence of also much cultivated. I passed an falving? is also generally found unnecef- elegant feat of Lord STAFFORD, on the sary, which is a peculiar advantage. left. Most part of this district appears This finé county was, not many years to have been inclofed not many years ago. ago, mostly in common or open fields, and Buildings mostly of stone. Northampton produced a great deal of corn ; since its is a pretty large town; its streets are inclosure it has been found most profitable wide and clean; houses well built ; in grass: that circumstance; as observed flagged walks on each side the street; thé before, occasions much murmuring among market-place a large square, and furthe inconsiderate people ;. who ought to rounded with very genteel houses: this recollect, that every parish or district can town, in short, is the most pleasant counnot supply itself with all necessaries, and try market town I have seen, Oxford that the general interest of the nation at perhaps excepted. Northampton ftands large is advanced, by applying the foil cf on a fine fertile plain, and the country every district to the production of such around it is beautiful. This town was kind of human food as it is best adapted remarkable for the manufacture of shoes; to; because a greater plenty may be ex- but although moe-making is at present pected. If Leicestershire produces more one of the principal employs of the inha. beef and mutfon than it would do grain, bitants, it is carried on wow much less perhaps Oxfordshire or Berkshire raises thần formerly. Something is also done more corn than it would do beef or mut- in wool-combing and jersey-spinning, as ton, on the same quantity of land : why, also in working of lace. This town therefore, should not the grazier farm the contains four parish churches, and a good former, and the plowman the latter ? ! infirmary. Farms in the neighbourhood need not remind the advocates for the old 100l. to 200l, a year. fyftem, that the more animal food is pro September 2d, I left Northampton, and duced in one district, the less is necessary went to Rode, in Northamptonshire, eight to be raised in another; which; of course, miles. The soil is a strong loam; lurgives more fcope to the plow, where it is face uneven ; pretty hedge rows; plenty used to the greatest advantage. --The po- of trees, and the road tolerably good. In pulation of Leicestershire seems to be re this day's journey I again meet with flint duced under the present farming system ; mixed with the soil, and some curious pea farm of 100 acres can now be occupied trefactions among the gravel with which both at much less expence, and with much the roads“are made these petrefied subless labour. This allo furnishes the poor stances” are called by the inhabitants crow man with matter of complaint; but his stones and thunderbolts. The former arguments, in that respect, are equally have been thells {omewhat resembling groundless; for if labour bę decreased cockles, and the latter are generally here, it must be proportionably increased found two, three, or four inches long, in corn districts. It must, however, be about the thickness ofone's little finger, allowed, that a temporary incorvenience and pointed at one end; they are nearly to the labouring poor will take place, round, and have something like a hollow MONTH. MAG. No. XXIX.



192 Northamptonshire.-Exertions of France in making Arms. place in the iniddle, which time has filled socks, ten together, five on each side, up; but whether they have originally but without laying two fheaves horizon; been animal or vegetable substances, I tally along the tops, as is done in the cannot form a conjecture. Many of the north, in order to keep the ears from behuules are built with a whiteish freestone, ing injured by the wet. The manner of and thatched. The people are reaping plowing and carting here, is nearly fimifine crops of wheat all along; the la- lar to the mode followed in all the counbourers seem lazy, and have bad methods ties I have paffed since I left Suffolk. of reaping; a servant girl in Cumber

[To be continued.) land would do much more work in the harvest field, than any of these labourers which I have observed. Rode is a sinall

For the Monthly Magazine. farming village, the buildings of which THE following Extract, from Mr. are mean, and thatched. Farins, from PRIEUR'S Account of the extraor201. to 100l. a year, and the land be- dinary collection of Saltpetre, which longing to the village mostly in comnion took place in the second and third year field ; the produce, wheat, barley, peale, of the French Republic, gives a wonderand beans. Rent about 10s. 6d. per acre. ful proof of the energetic impulse which The land, in most of the neighbouring pervaded that nation, when in a manner parishes, is also in cominon field; the unprepared to resist the formidable force constant rotation of crops are, first, fal- in league against it. low; fecond, wheat, or barley; third, “ One still recollects with astonishment pease, beans, or oats, Where common and admiration, the enthusiastic, spirit of fields have been inclosed, the rents are every Frenchman, at a time, when their generally doubled, which is the best proof country was in the greatest danger; and of the great advantage of inclosing. In the prodigious efforts which resulted common fields, no hay or grass, for pal- from it, towards furnishing an enormous ture, can be had, and consequently few quantity of arms of every kind, and of cows are kept, and them miserably fed on gunpowder, which the nation was much the headlands, &c. during the day, and in want ofấthe almost instantaneous are under the necessity of being confined erection of numberlefs buildings, in all in the night; a very great inconvenience. parts of the Republic, for making and In this and the neighbouring villages, repairing all sorts of polished arms, many of the women are lace-workers. In muskets, and cannons of every bore, both farmers' houses, the work of the females for the land and sea service; as well as is confined to cookery, fowing, &c. and the incredible quantity of ammunition, so far from being useful in the harvest utenfils, machines, and other necessaries, field, even in the most busy times of the for the consumption and use of more than season, that few of them know how to 900,000 men, stationed at one time cir milk a cow. What a figure would these the frontiers, independent of the national girls make in the fervice of a Cumberland guards in the interior *: in a word, so farmer! Labuurers' wives and children great a toil, as may be easily conceived, employ themselves, during the harvest, in put in action an incredible number of -gleaning, and often collect a great deal workinen. of corn, and sometimes as much beans as “ It was found neceffary to employ will feed a pig. It would certainly, how- therein, those men whose labour was of ever, be more advantageous, both to the an analogous kind ; that is to say, men farmer and the labourer, were the wives of different vocations in the rough work of the latter to reap along with their of wood and metals; or even such as husbands as long as they could get em were acquainted with the more refined ploy, and afterwarde collect the glean, and finished parts. It was necessary also, ings of the fields. The property of in a manner, to make apprentices of thoso the different owners in all the common workmen who had been taken from their fields in these counties, lies in long, narrow, and often crooked lands, which are

* To give a full idea of the enormity of separated by stakes, stones, or more com

this fabrication, it will be within bounds to monly by stripes of grass land. Respect delivered from the founderies, 597, brass, and

declare, chat, in one month, there were ing the manner of managing the wheat in the field after reaping, I noticed all yooo brass, and 12 or 13,000 iron cannon,

452 jron cannon, of different bores; and along, that they bind it up in small were mounted fit for service, in the space of theaves, and place them in what they call one year.

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Extraordinary Collection of Saltpetre in France.

193 usual occupations, and to put them under skilful persons *; who were to explain to intelligent and skilful malters; these also them the art of preparing faltpetre-of were to be instructed by artists still more refining it, and of making gunpowder ; experienced, who would throw a light and to some of them, the mode of casting upon the practical part, rectify, fimpli- cannon. These pupils were then sent fy, and intirely change it, in certain back into the different establishments, accases, by taking advantage of the ac cording to their capacities, to affift in quired and accurate knowledge of the the works. Government kept up an acfirst men of the kind : in short, it was tive correspondence with all its agents; necessary, that all should be constantly it supplied them occasionally with every instructed, moved to action, encouraged, neceffary, and every where made easy and sustained, by a powerful govern- the executive part. It was known, that ment, which gave every proof of being every district could easily furnish a tlioudevoted to the service of its country, and fand weight of faltpetre every decade, was endowed with sound judgment and and orders were given for that quantity; energetic will. But, if I may be al- places were pointed out where to send it lowed the expression, it was necessary to to; the means of conveying it were fixed give impulse to a whole nation, when upon; and frequent accounts were renthe business was brought forward, of ex- dered of every operation. In short, so tracting every where the faltpetre earth much care produced the desired effects; contained in the French foil. This art more than sixteen millions of pounds of was, in fact, an object more confined; rough saltpetre were collected in one it was almost generally unknown. Pri- year t; and the working of it up,

alvate interest was alarmed at seeing it set though recalled in the following year, to on foot; and still more numerous preju- the laws formerly enacted, still yielded dices produced a variety of obstacles. nearly five millions and a half of this faMen could not be persuaded that persons line substance. fo untaught, and at that time perfect " But thus filling the magazines was strangers to the business, could all at not sufficient, it was necessary to refine it once engage in it with success; they for making powder; the former mode was could not believe that France was so rich too tedious, too embarrassing, in a word, in that precious commodity, which was was impracticable, considering the urnever known to have been extracted in gent necefsity for powder. A new and fufficient quantity for ordinary uses; and more advantageous process was proposed of which a full supply had only been ob- by M. CARNY, which when properly tained, by means of what was brought executed, reqnired less time, confumes from India.

less fuel, disposes the falt petre to dry, “ In the mean time, at the invitation more readily, demands lefs extent of of the National Convention, proclaimed ground and buildings, and consequently by a decree of the 14th of Frimaire, occasions less lots of fa!tpetre. an. 2, the citizens gave themselves up to the making of faltpetre. The number of

* There were sent to Paris, in consequence buildings erected in the Republic, on

of this order, about 1,100 men, to whom this grand occasion, amounted rapidly to

Citizens GUYTON, FOURCROY, DUFOUR6000, Necessary initructions were every NY, BERTHOLET, CARNY, PLUVINET, where distributed by order of government. MONGS, HASSENFRATZ, and PERRIER, France was divided into large districts, gave instructive lectures, on the fabrication each of which was continually surveyed, of saltpetre and cannon.

This course comby an inspector skilled in arts and sci- menced on the itt Ventose, an. 2. and the . ences. Under each inspector, in every summary of each lecture was formed into a department, was placed a former Direc- little work, and printed by order of the Comtor of the National Administration of mittee of Public Safety. This Committee

allo Saltpetre Works; who appointed in

gave charge to Citizen Monge, to draw each district, a citizen fufficiently intel- making cannon ; in consequence of which,

up a complete description of the process for ligent to preside over the formation of the he published a most valuable work upon delices, and to regulate the works; and that subject, in large 4to, with a number thus was activity established in every of plates. place at once.

† The fumming up of the decadary acOn the other hand, a summons was counts, addresled officially to government, issued, for every district to send two ro announce a prodnction of 16,754,039lbs of bust and intelligent cannoniers to Paris, faltpetre, from the 14th Frimaire, an. 2. to to receive their instructions from the most the same date, a. 3.

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