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SIR,

22
Prevention of Forgery of Bank Notes.

(Jan. rion those of paper, sponge, smouth maho- plan, to the excellency of which all the princigany, a piece of glue a little warmed, pal ariffs in London bave borne trimony?" linen cloth, leather (of which, that, ultd I wiil readily grant, that if a plan, fo for fhoe-so es is the best) &c.

powerfully recommended, has been reAfter going through these and many jected by the Bank Directors, they are not other fimilar experiments, I made a square only deterving of censure, but, howerer dea frainc, on which I glued a theet of jully the forger may deserve hanging, paper, I then placed it before the fire, and will be acceffaries tó murder, if they applied the India rubber as in my orner ever prosecute to death any future forexperiments, but the propensity, to cieć gerv, while their norts continue to be tricy was so weak. that it was only vifible fabricated on the old plan. But to me, by its attracting a light feather, suspended and, I dare say to all your readers, it must by a thread. Hence my opinion that the appear absolutely impossible, in the nature fturid is collected from the substance on of things, that the fact can be true. Are which the paper is laid, and not from that not the Bank Directors men of the first by which it is rubbed.

character in the commercial world, both If the piper be rubbed with becs’ wax with relation to property, abilities, probity, previous to its being ufeil, it will be found

and integrity ? Could such men be lo io have a much fronger propeolity to the criminaily negligent and regardiefs of the production of electric mattcr, than when high tröst repored in them, and of the quite clean. I am, fir,

dury they owe, not only to their immeYour obedient fervant, diate conftituents, but to the public, as to

Thos. GRIFFITHS. refuse a plan calculated to lelfen the numManchester, Dec. 20, 1797.

ber of forgeries and public executions ?

Impotlible, ! But even, if we could for a To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. moment suppose them fo devoid of princi

ple, as to allow themselves to be in AuI

AM not inclined to controvert the argii. enced by a spirit of patronage and private

ments advanced in your last, by 4 Suf- motives in the employment of those who ferer by Forg ry, either as to the propriety are more immediately connected with of adopting every pollible means tv pre rhis department; could we believe that vent the forgery of bank notes, or as to men of their penetration would be fo the degree of guilt which attaches to the blind to their own interest, as to neglect public, or to any clefs of the community, the means of adding to the security of when they punisli, with severiiy, a crime their individual property. This would be which they have no done every thing in to fuppose them gcverned by principles their power to prevent.

different from those which actuate all His reasoning, on these points, goes so mankind, and more vaid of intellect than home to the conviction of every man, ass-drivers. that I am sure his suggestions will not be If, by “the principal artists in Lonoverlooked; but, towards the close of don,” the “ Loser by Forgery' mcans Barhis letter, he starts a question which ought tolozzi, Heath, Sharp, Fittler, and other noi, in my opinion, to have been brought equally cmincnt men, which I have a forward, until he had alcertained its right to think he does, by the deservedly rruih; and the more fo, as the füct to respectful manner in which he fpeaks of which is alludés is of such a nature, that them, I will allow that their judgment is even more than a common degree of cvi not to be questioned on a point of this dence would be neceffary to give it any nature. But it will be no easy matter to degree of credibility:

convince the public, that the Bank DiBefore I proceed farther, I beg leave to rectors would arrogate to the mifelves a quote your correspondent's own words : right to set up their opinion, on a queftion " If there be,” says he,“ any degree of connected with the arts, in opposition to culpability on the part of those in whose that of fuch men--of individuals

, whose department it lies, iņ not having adopted character, for probity and honour, stands fuch obvious improvements in the fabri as high as that of the Directors themcation of bank nores, as the present ad- selves; for a proper degree of modesty vanced state of the aris puts within their will ever be found to result from those reach, will it not be aggravated if it shall attainments which qualify a man for so he found, that they bave refused a plan distinguished a situation as that of a Bank de bich cvoului not only bave rendered forgery Director. *much more difficult than at present, but By principal artists, it would be unfair almost, if not altogether, impudible --- a to suppose that your correspondent merely

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Anecdote of Mr. Burke corrected.

23 means engravers of thop-bills and clock. gal; and I believe a quinea wager was dials; for, though among these there betted. The truth is, Mr. Burke, as may be, and no doubt are, many men of Lord North well knew, and has ofren abilities and character, it might be no told me, was but an indifferent classical difficult matter for a projector to find, scholar, not knowing a letter of Greek, among this class, friends who might be perhaps even unable to construe many or influenced to approve a plan on which they most of his own Latin quotations. are by no means competent to decide. It has been wondered at by many, that But, even in this case, the Directors would your Magazine, acknowledged, at laft, certainly have beltowed on the plan the even in our reluctant circles, as the best attention to which it might appear to be which has hitherto appeared in our lanentitled, by takiig the opinion of abler guage, thould never have given the pube artists to guide them in their determina-, lic, or even noticed, the character of Mr. tion.

Burke, as given by the man who, of all Thus, I think, I have demonstrated, others, knew him beft, the late Gerrard from every ricw that can be taken of the Hamilton, }t appeared first in France, subject, how extremely improbable it is, and afterwards, about July last, in some of that the Bank Directors have refused a our Magazines. . Certain it is, the friends plan recommended in the manner which of Mr. Burke did all in their power to has been stated; but, if it should turn out fuppress it, and I believe succeeded in to be true that they have actually rejected some degree. Hamilton's quarrel with such a plan, in spite of all the inducements Burke is now said to have been purely of for its adoption which ic holds out, I a political nature, and that there are, know no language which can do justice to besides the character in question, certain their demerits.

pieces froin the pen of the former, which The question may, however, be brought will one day be highly interesting to pubinto a narrow, compass : if such a plan lic curiosity. has been proposed, let its author come

DEMOCRATICUS. forward, and let the artists, by whom it Pall-Mall, Sunday Evening, Dec. 17. has been approved, declare themselves allo, This is a duty which they owe to For the Monthly Magazine. the public; and no motives, of a private [The following account of the present condi. nature, ought so to operate, as to prevent tion of the United States of North America, them from its performance.

in several important particulars, is transla-ed The public have a right to every

fecu from the Deinde Philosophique, one of the rity the ivank can give them; and if the

French Periojiial Journals.] plan, in which the sufferer by Forgery IN the United States of America, the alludes, be calculated to increase that fecu.

sciences may still be said to be but in rity, I can with safety promile him, that their cradle. Three colleges and its merits will be investigated by more university, of theology, of law, and physic; than one

five or fix Academical Societies, whics PRIVATE BANKER.

are but in a paralyzed state ; a nuinber of London, Dic. 22.

very active Private Societies, instituted

for the purposes of commerce, manufacFor :be Monthly Magazine. tures, &c.; and a proportionate number TO THE EDITOR,

of private schools for the education of WITHOUT intending the smallest youth, constitute, at present

, the only offence, sir, to your ingenious cor sources of intellectual and inoral instrucrespondent, Modulator, I will be bold to tion. Indeed the general character of the counsel him to observe correctness in his inhabitants of the American States, leads promulgation of anecdotes. No such them to (tudy rather the means of augconversation, as he pretends, could ever menting their fortunes, than to cultivate have polfibly passed between the late Mr. the sciences, and to contribute, pro parle Burke, my old acquaintance, and the viril, their quota cowards the progress and worthy doctor alluded to; because the: dissemination of knowledge. The public small grammatical dispute in question prints, of which there is a great variety, really happened in the House of Commons have the same tendency here, as in Eu. during the American war, and in my rope, to corrupt the public spirit, or to hearing. It was between Lord North and cloak the faults of an inefficient governMr. Burke, the former schooling the late ment, frequently convulsed by ephemeral ter very much, to his apparent mortifica-. fa&tions. A long residence and diligene cion, for pronouncing the i lort in vecti, observation are indispenfibly necessary to

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Account of the North American States. [Jan. develope the springs of action. I have profess to follow, as their role guide, the devoted considerable attention to this fub. impulse of conscience, without attaching ject, and Hatter myself that I have selected themselves to any individual fociety. á fund of materials which will not be Toleration in America is carried to an found wholly uninteresting in a commer extent greater than even in France. It cial and political point of view.

is but late'y that a Presbyterian church The laws in this country breathe a elected for their minifter a négro from fpirit of humanity; and the inhabitants, Guinea, a man of excmplary character, in general, their private interest out of the and of no contemptible abilities, who question, may be laid to be well-disposed. acquits himself with credit in his new An exception, however, must be made vocation. I have frequently seen him with respect to the rich, overgrown mer- officiate in his robes, and have heard him chants, who remember, with regrer, the preach with great fatisfaction; and I make æra of the British monarchy, and entertain no doubt but he will prove an useful acquie' a strong predileciion for titles and other sition to his society. marks of distinction. By far the majority The pop:la!ion of the United States are favourable to the French; and in the amounts to about five millions of inha. last election for a mayor, and other ma. bitants, exclusive of the western sertlegiftrates, in Philadelphia, the choice fell ments, which are well peopled, and conupon the avowed partizans of the French tain, at a moderate calculation, 120,000 Republic.

persons. But it must be taken into confi. With refpect to religion, every denomi. deration, that the fum total of inhabitants nation is tolerated. This renders the doubles every fourteen years, as has been inhabitants tractable and gentle, as no re. clearly fubftantiared and ascertained by ligious establiihment is exclusively protect- exact ufficial documents: this gives a more ed by government; but, perhaps, there is rapid increase than Franklin has stated. hardly a Chriftian country where less Agriculinre and commerce form, almost genuine piety is to be met with. Young without exception, the principal employpeople are regular in their attendance at ment of the inhabitants': and were it not church, because they are well aware that, that the rich merchants discourage, by without a due regard to appearances, they every poffible means, the progress and could obtain no advantageous Situation, improvement of American manufactures, form no eligible matrimonial connections, in order to monopolize the exclufive or establish themfelves with credit in life. commerce with England, by which they

Men of advanced years frequent church accumulate immenle fortunes in a very through habit, or to obrain the confidence short time, arts and manufactures would of their respective focieties, and secure an be in a highly flourishing state. The influence in the direction of their temporal single branch of thip-building employs,

A few pious souls there are, in this cuuntry, several thousands of hands, who have no other view in their devotion At this very moment, when France pays than to commune with the Supreme, com- after the rate of 300 livres per ton for vef. fort their fellow.creatures under afflic. fils built of whole deal, and very moderate tions, and inculcate the divine precepts of folidity, the American fhipwright conmorality, by actions and virtuous example, fructs his veffels of red cedar, or oak, rather than by idle ceremony.

which wood is of a far fuperior quality, In this country no tyches nor royalties and will last double the time, than the are paid. Whilú subjected to the British timber made use of in Europe ; yet, notgovernment, the United States of Ame- withstanding these advantayes, and alrica refused to adniit the Catholics to any though the American vessels are built upon public office ; but, since their emancipa- a better and more solid construction, they tion from the British yoke, this unjust law may be purchased at the rate of 270 livres is abolished; and men of every persuasion per con, completely finished, and ready for are indiscriminately admitted to a partici.' sea. If the French Republic fhould at pation in all the functions of government. any time stand in need of 20,000 ton, in Catholics, of the Greek and Romish new vessels, the United States can furnish church, Presbyterians, Quakers, Turks, them at the price above stated, which, in and Jews, are all equally eligible to public time of peace, would luftain a considere situations, and are at liberty to adore the able abatement. Supreine, according to the dictates of their The annual exports of the United States, conscience. There are, likewise, a num. according co authentic documents, exceed ber of Separatists and Seckers in ihe colo- twenty-fix millions of dollars, exclusive of dies, who belong to no particular feet, but what has zot been entered at the cuftoms. :

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United States.... Query on Brewing.

25 The speculation in land finds employment machines, which fimplify labour, diminish for a great number of advenrurers, fome the expence of the commodities, fave a few of whom acquire immense fortunes, at multitude of hands, and multiply the the expence of the major part, who ruin manufacturer's profits, are

permanent themselves.

sources of opulence and property.

Frank I know of no work, publiíhed in Ame- lin, Rirtenhuuse, and other ingenious rica, deferviog of particular' mention, in mechanics, have enriched the American a grand national point of view. Their States with an incredible variety of useful Journals are a chaotic assemblage of lies, machines, of which Europe has not where even commercial advertisements the smallest idea. I have in my poffeffion are altered and disfigured. Some Anglo- cxact plans of a great number of them. American authors have written efterned I have frequently been in company moral works; but these are fo voluminous, with VOLNEY. Our discourse generally so dear, and so little read, that they serve turned upon the subject of our travels. Í here, as in Europe, to support the pomp am at p:esent lodged in his apartments, of a library, which is visited from a motive from whence I write this letter. He had of curiosity, without reaping any utility undertaken a journey to Carolina and some from it.

of the settlements on the Ohio. I had The grand source of the riches of the visited this year the northern districts of Americans results from the fertility the United States, Long Isand, the states of their territory, the temperature of New York, Jersey, Connecticut, and of the climate, and the cheap price Maryland. I have entered into an agreeof land, which holds out an irrefitti.

ment with VOLNEY to visit this spring ble temptation to emigrants from other the southern provinces, with the western setcountries. The traffic in land is the tlements, having beeb appointed, in the last first object of attention with the monied general assembly of the Quakers at Phila.. men, who may purchase acres by the delphia, one of their deputies to visit the thousand, at the rate of three fols per acre. Indian nations, and to establish, if possible, This land they afterwards fell to some fome handicraft business among them, as poor emigrant for two francs, who is fre- labourers, smiths, carpenters, &c. in hopes quently obliged to relinquish his purchase, of introducing some degree of civilization for want of hands and money to cultivate among the western tribes, which we it, and sells it for twenty fols per acre, to a charitably are in the habit of distinguish new adventurer, before a single ploughing by the appellation of farages, though, has passed over it. Agriculture is, not in fact, they posiess more humanity than withitanding, in general estimation ; but it many civilized nations. My intention is is only in the interior of ihe United to visit the Mohawks, the Delawares, the States i hat it is pursued with proper acti- ' Shawanese, in one word, to gluan, among vity. The frontiers of this valt empire the Indian tribes and aborigines of North confift of a mere assemblage of deserts, in- America, all the moral and physical intela habited by a few ftraggling, unfortunate ligence which may fall in my way. fanatics, who sublitt upon milk, potatoes, and Indian corn.

To the Editor of ibe Monthly Magazine. The American manufactures, although SIR, discouraged by cominercial deípotilm, are in a state of gradual, though but now, I Finnis not making an improper use of

your valuable Miscellany, and occupying improvement. Inventions, and machines for a place that might be more usefully einmanufacturing purposes, are daily brought ployed, it wuid greatly oblige me, and, I -nearer to perfection, and it may, with doubt not, add to the confort of

Inany strict truth, be affirmed, that America, in families in the country, that brew their this respect, far surpalies Europe. The own beer, if any of your numerous cortruth of this assertion, I hope to establith respondents would answer the two follow. by a collection of designs, taken from ing Querics :--In breving ale, at whac actual pieces of mechanisin, which I have degree of heat, on Fahrenheit's scale, ought in agitation to publifh. At the distance of the water to be when it is let off into ine about three miles from Philadelphia, is a math-cub to the malt? Likewise, at what water-miil, belonging to a Mr. Johnson, degi ee the wort thoulübe, when the yeast is formed upon a very ingenious construc- added to excite fermentation? These two tion, which, with the atlittance of only points are well known to all public brewers, two men, performs as much work as could but I have not met with any treatise on brewe be executed on the common principle by ing in which they are atcertained. Com. the united cfforts of 300 persons. Thele brun is become lo scarce, I have not been MONTHLY MAG. XXVII.

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26

Plan of National Education...Mr. Dyer on Coins. [Jane able to procure it, or possibly might from should be devoted to such as might inure that have obtained the information I now them to fatigue; or, occupied with such folicit. I am, your's, &c.

amusements as might usefully direct their Ludlow, Dec. 20, 1797.

N. S. T. fucure labours.

But there are schemes of national im. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. provement to which society at present does SIR,

not seern competent.

Prodigal and luxuTHE eltablishment of national schools in rious, tenacious of rank and fond of dif

France may at least be considered as tinctions, we sacrifice dignity of character one benefit arising out of the progress of and the economy of virtue to useless and the revolution, and in proportion as the de- splendid exhibitions, which fink and defign matures and becomes general, must ftroy the elevation of moral sentiment and eminently promote the ends of a good go- the sense of public duty. Governments yernment, inasmuch as every citizen will likewise tremble at the throb of public be taught to feel his weight and confe- virtue, and feel thaken to their centres quence in a fiate where talents and virtue when mankind show the leaf difpofition to form the criteria of promoti' n. Such in- fhake off their mental itupor, or to assert ftitutions, on a similar plan, have long been the dignity of the human understanding. the d:fideratum of this country.

lf, however, to inform the mind and yet land, the education of yonth has been uni

direct it, so that it may be useful to the formly, except in some few instances, in- community and honourable to its country ; trusted to the most ignorant and incapa- and that, while it seeks the enjoyments ble, or to schoolman who heated with the of literary and philofophical instruction, prejudices of a college, view the progress it may contemplate without disgust the of the mind with diffruft, and treat its ap- fortune compel us to recur to; are ob

subordinate offices, neceffity and want of titude with neglect.

A few benevolent men, but whose funds jects worthy the confideration of the lewere too small to realize their designs, gillator and philanthropist, we should adopt lately had a plan in contemplation, which fome such inftitution as that proposed, and though, perlaps, impracticable under an thus prepare the way for the happiness of administration calous of the advancement mankind. Let, fir, the members of any of knowledge, was certainly calculated to state, who ought all to be the equal care effect mach good.

of a wise government, mingle with one The benefits of their establishment ex- another; let them be taught in the same tended to all degrees of people, who were schools, where their daily toil will be mu. to partake equally in their plan of inftruc- tual, their emulation kindred. The dif. tion. A school-house was to be erected; ferent species of instruction are open to all, the experiment was first to be tried in the and the dread, that in proportion as you country, to which-every man in the vici- enlighten a people, you unfit them for the nity or at a distance, was at liberty to send laborious concerns of life, will not be felt his children. The system of education where the affections are cherished as reci. was likewise different from that generally procal, and where obedience is less the ef. purfued, it being more the object of the fect of duty, than the inclination of reestablishment to render its pupils practi- gard. cally wise than philologically learned ;

Jan. 15, 1798.

2. W. R. and as those who formed the society were fenfibie, that “ less danger is to be appre- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. bended from ignorance than error,” a pure and unadulterate system of morality should MANY months back, appeared in your be tauglit, divested of fcholastic induction, Magazine, some good observations or and arising fimply out of principles of conciliation and mutual justice. It was like- them, I was led to pay the subject a more wise intended to initruct the boys in the serious attention, than I had been ac. common law of the land, and to give them customed to do, and wished to give the fuch a necessary insight into the conftitu- ftudy an useful direction ; being well aware tution of their country, as might ble that many, both writers and collectors have them to appreciate the value of its funda- trifled about medals, and exposed them. mendal principles, and qualify them for felves to deserved ridicule. I sent a short the discharge of their duty. All diftinc- letter on the subject to your Repository, ac. tions, but thole of superior merit, to be companied with a medal sacred to the cause carefully avoided; while their leisure of FREEDOM ; it being defigned to prehours, as recommended by Rousseau, serve the remembrance of the independent

SIR,

PROVINCIAL

COINS.

On perusing

conduce

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